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Source: Sociological Science
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Breen, Richard
Choi, Seongsoo
Holm, Anders
Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias
Sociological Science published online (8 July 2015): DOI: 10.15195/v2.a17.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/articles-v2-17-351/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Returns; Heterogeneity; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects. This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias, and we illustrate our arguments and our method using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) data.
Bibliography Citation
Breen, Richard, Seongsoo Choi and Anders Holm. "Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias." Sociological Science published online (8 July 2015): DOI: 10.15195/v2.a17.
2. Breen, Richard
Chung, Inkwan
Income Inequality and Education
Sociological Science 2 (August 2015): 454-477.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/download/volume-2/august/SocSci_v2_454to477.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Income Distribution; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Breen, Richard and Inkwan Chung. "Income Inequality and Education." Sociological Science 2 (August 2015): 454-477.
3. Hannon, Lance
DeFina, Robert
Can Incarceration Really Strip People of Racial Privilege?
Sociological Science published online (18 March 2016): DOI: 10.15195/v3.a10.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/v3-10-190/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We replicate and reexamine Saperstein and Penner's prominent 2010 study which asks whether incarceration changes the probability that an individual will be seen as black or white (regardless of the individual's phenotype). Our reexamination shows that only a small part of their empirical analysis is suitable for addressing this question (the fixed-effects estimates), and that these results are extremely fragile. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that being interviewed in jail/prison does not increase the survey respondent's likelihood of being classified as black, and avoiding incarceration during the survey period does not increase a person's chances of being seen as white. We conclude that the empirical component of Saperstein and Penner's work needs to be reconsidered and new methods for testing their thesis should be investigated. The data are provided for other researchers to explore.
Bibliography Citation
Hannon, Lance and Robert DeFina. "Can Incarceration Really Strip People of Racial Privilege?" Sociological Science published online (18 March 2016): DOI: 10.15195/v3.a10.
4. Lee, Dohoon
Age Trajectories of Poverty During Childhood and High School Graduation
Sociological Science 1 (September 2014): 344-365.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/articles-vol1-21-344/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Children, Poverty; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Racial Differences; Regions; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines distinct trajectories of childhood exposure to poverty and provides estimates of their effect on high school graduation. The analysis incorporates three key insights from the life course and human capital formation literatures: (1) the temporal dimensions of exposure to poverty, that is, timing, duration, stability, and sequencing, are confounded with one another; (2) age-varying exposure to poverty not only affects, but also is affected by, other factors that vary with age; and (3) the effect of poverty trajectories is heterogeneous across racial and ethnic groups. Results from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that any extended exposures to poverty substantially lower children's odds of graduating from high school. Persistent, early, and middle-to-late childhood exposures to poverty reduce the odds of high school graduation by 77 percent, 55 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, compared to no childhood exposure to poverty. The findings thus suggest that the impact of poverty trajectories is insensitive to observed age-varying confounders. These impacts are more pronounced for white children than for black and Hispanic children.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Dohoon. "Age Trajectories of Poverty During Childhood and High School Graduation." Sociological Science 1 (September 2014): 344-365.
5. Maralani, Vida
McKee, Douglas
Obesity Is in the Eye of the Beholder: BMI and Socioeconomic Outcomes across Cohorts
Sociological Science published online (19 April 2017): DOI: 10.15195/v4.a13.
Also: https://www.sociologicalscience.com/articles-v4-13-288
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sociological Science
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Income; Gender Differences; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The biological and social costs of body mass cannot be conceptualized in the same way. Using semiparametric methods, we show that the association between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic outcomes such as wages, being married, and family income is distinctly shaped by gender, race, and cohort rather than being above a specific threshold of BMI. For white men, the correlation between BMI and outcomes is positive across the “normal” range of BMI and turns negative near the cusp of the overweight range, a pattern that persists across cohorts. For white women, thinner is nearly always better, a pattern that also persists across cohorts. For black men in the 1979 cohort, the association between BMI and wages is positive across the normal and overweight ranges for wages and family income and inverted U-shaped for marriage. For black women in the 1979 cohort, thinner is better for wages and marriage. By the 1997 cohort, however, the negative association between body mass and outcomes dissipates for black Americans but not for white Americans. In the social world, "too fat" is a subjective, contingent, and fluid judgment that differs depending on who is being judged, who does the judging, and the social domain.
Bibliography Citation
Maralani, Vida and Douglas McKee. "Obesity Is in the Eye of the Beholder: BMI and Socioeconomic Outcomes across Cohorts." Sociological Science published online (19 April 2017): DOI: 10.15195/v4.a13.