Search Results

Source: Urban Institute
Resulting in 26 citations.
1. Acs, Gregory P.
Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1, 1994.
Also: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=405097
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birth Rate; Fertility; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty

This study examines the relationship between Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and fertility by focusing on births to women through age 23 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It focuses on the impact of AFDC on births directly associated with AFDC, on out-of-wedlock births, and on all births. In addition, it examines the importance of AFDC on subsequent births to women who already have a child. The author uses these data to examine whether AFDC promotes out-of-wedlock birth or encourages welfare mothers to have more children either to increase their incomes or to remain on the welfare rolls.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1, 1994.
2. Acs, Gregory P.
Is the Ring the Thing? Child Well-being and the Transition from Cohabitation to Marriage
Working Paper, The Urban Institute, October 2005.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/411525.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Household Composition; Marriage; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Temperament

This paper assesses the extent to which children living in cohabiting families would benefit if their mothers were to marry. Children whose cohabiting mothers marry have higher math and reading scores than children whose mothers either continue to cohabit or who dissolve their cohabiting relationships; marriage is uncorrelated with behavioral outcomes of these children. Interestingly, much of the difference between the test scores of children whose cohabiting mothers marry and those who do not actually predates the marriage. This suggests that the benefits of marriage for children living with cohabiting couples are smaller than they initially appear.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "Is the Ring the Thing? Child Well-being and the Transition from Cohabitation to Marriage." Working Paper, The Urban Institute, October 2005.
3. Acs, Gregory P.
The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, May 1993.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/impact-of-afdc-on-young-womens-childbearing-decisions/oclc/033027490
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Childbearing; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Sexual Activity; State Welfare; Welfare; Women

Also: Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.

The young woman, dependent on public assistance, having child after child has reemerged as the favorite symbol for politicians decrying the U.S. welfare system. Since the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program provides support to poor families with children, with larger grants going to households with more children, concern over AFDCs pro-natalist effects have a strong theoretical foundation--AFDC lowers the cost of having children. Research in this area has focused on first births to unwed teenagers and has found scant evidence supporting the contention that AFDC promotes out-of-wedlock births. This paper seeks to re-evaluate the relationship between AFDC and childbearing by focusing not just on births to teenagers but also on births to women in their mid-twenties using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Using discrete time hazard models, I examine the impact of AFDC on births directly associated with welfare receipt, on out-of-wedlock births, and on all births. I also examine the importance of AFDC on subsequent births--births to women who already have a child. I find that AFDC generosity has very modest pro-natalist effects at best on first births and virtually no effect on subsequent births. Furthermore, exposure to AFDC does not encourage future childbearing although mothers who received AFDC in the past are more likely to receive AFDC upon having a second child.

Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, May 1993.
4. Acs, Gregory P.
Koball, Heather
TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers Under Age 18
Urban Institute Research Brief, No. A-62 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States", June 2003.
Also: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310796
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Mothers; Mothers, Adolescent; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare

The authors find that, in the short term, there is no evidence that minor teen mothers were harmed or helped much by residency and activity requirements in TANF or even by welfare reform policies in general. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 cohort, they find few significant differences in minor teen birth rates, living arrangements, and school enrollment between 1997 and 2000. While not significant, the trends are consistent with the goal of welfare reform to reduce teen childbearing. Although their receipt of cash assistance has dropped significantly, about 80 percent of minor teen moms receive some form of public assistance.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. and Heather Koball. "TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers Under Age 18." Urban Institute Research Brief, No. A-62 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States", June 2003.
5. Acs, Gregory P.
Martin, Steven
The Promise of Early Interventions for Improving Socioeconomic Outcomes of Black Men
Research and Policy Brief, Urban Institute, February 5, 2015.
Also: http://www.urban.org/research/publication/promise-early-interventions-improving-socioeconomic-outcomes-black-men
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Simulation; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

This brief uses the Social Genome Model to assess the potential impact of various childhood and adolescent interventions on long-term outcomes for black men. In particular, we see that increasing parental emotional support and cognitive stimulation during early childhood and raising reading ability levels in mid-childhood have the greatest impact on later life educational attainment and income. The overall effects of successful interventions are modest for the entire population of black men but are somewhat larger for individuals that would be directly affected by the interventions. Our findings suggest that making substantial progress in improving the outcomes of black men will likely require many different interventions that reinforce one another throughout the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. and Steven Martin. "The Promise of Early Interventions for Improving Socioeconomic Outcomes of Black Men." Research and Policy Brief, Urban Institute, February 5, 2015.
6. Ahituv, Avner
Lerman, Robert I.
Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?
Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/411148.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Patterns; Marital Instability; Marital Status; Wage Rates

This study examines the interplay between job stability, wage rates, and marital instability. We use a Dynamic Selection Control model in which young men make sequential choices about work and family. Our empirical estimates derived from the model account for self-selection, simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results capture how job stability affects earnings, how both affect marital status, and how marital status affects earnings and job stability. The study reveals robust evidence that job instability lowers wages and the likelihood of getting and remaining married. At the same time, marriage raises wages and job stability. To project the sequential effects linking job stability, marital status, and earnings, we simulate the impacts of shocks that raise preferences for marriage and that increase education. Feedback effects cause the simulated wage gains from marriage to cumulate over time, indicating that long-run marriage wage premiums exceed conventional short-run estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Ahituv, Avner and Robert I. Lerman. "Job Turnover, Wage Rates, and Marital Stability: How Are They Related?" Working Paper, Urban Institute, Washington DC, November 2004.
7. Blumenthal, Emily
Martin, Steve
Poethig, Erika C.
Social Genome Model Analysis of the Bridgespan Group's Billion-Dollar Bets to Improve Social Mobility
Research Report, Urban Institute, May 2016.
Also: http://www.urban.org/research/publication/social-genome-model-analysis-bridgespan-groups-billion-dollar-bets-improve-social-mobility
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Mobility, Social; Modeling, Simulation; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness

This paper describes the analytic work the authors undertook to support a broader research and engagement effort led by the Bridgespan Group around developing a set of big bets, or strategic investments that philanthropic actors could make to improve social mobility. The paper provides a technical explanation for the projected impact of the bets, which we calculated using the Social Genome Model.

This analysis focused on six key bets, or pathways for improving social mobility, which Bridgespan identified in consultation with experts at the Urban Institute. These six areas of focus were 1) improving early childhood development, (2) establishing viable pathways to careers, (3) reducing unintended pregnancies, (4) decreasing overcriminalization and overincarceration, (5) creating place-based strategies to improve access to opportunity across regions, and (6) building continuous learning and improvement capacity of social service providers. Using the Social Genome Model, the authors were able to size the potential impact of investments in these core areas.

Bibliography Citation
Blumenthal, Emily, Steve Martin and Erika C. Poethig. "Social Genome Model Analysis of the Bridgespan Group's Billion-Dollar Bets to Improve Social Mobility." Research Report, Urban Institute, May 2016.
8. Brien, Michael J.
Willis, Robert J.
Costs and Consequences for the Fathers
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 95-143
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children; Education; Fathers; Fertility; Income; Mothers, Adolescent

This chapter distinguishes two perspectives when assessing the consequences of teen parenting for fathers. The first is the fathers' perspective: What are the consequences for men who father children when they are themselves teenagers? The second is the mothers' perspective: What resources are potentially available from their partners and how do these resources vary with the age at which the women become mothers? Although men who have children as young teens begin their careers by having higher incomes and working more hours than those who delay, men who wait to have a child have higher levels of education, earn more, and work more hours by the time they reach their late 20s. The important question for policy is how much this difference has to do with differences in the characteristics of those who become young fathers and those who do not, and how much with the fact of the birth and whether the man takes responsibility for the child by marrying the mother. The authors pursue answers t o these questions with a series of statistical analyses designed to isolate the various influences at work.
Bibliography Citation
Brien, Michael J. and Robert J. Willis. "Costs and Consequences for the Fathers" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 95-143
9. Cruz, Vanessa
Educational Attainment of First and Second Generation Immigrant Youth New Findings from National Longitudinal Data
Research Brief No. 5, Urban Institute Class of 2008, March 2009.
Also: http://www.urban.org/uisa/upload/UISA-Brief-5.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Social Environment; Socioeconomic Background; Undergraduate Research

At the current pace, by the year 2040 one in three children will grow up in a household with at least one foreign-born parent (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2008). Due to growing disparities in educational achievement among first, second and third generation students, scholars have attempted to explain the success of those first and second generation immigrant students who excel. Perreira et al. (2006) found that first generation immigrant students are more likely to drop out of high school (at 13 percent) than their U.S.-born peers with foreign-born parents. This study focused on educational attainment of immigrant youth by generation using a sample of 4,384 twelve to fourteen year old participants from the National Longitudinal Survey of Immigrant youth 1997 (NLSY97), controlling for race, gender, family structure, parental citizenship, use of English in the home, and parenting style. This study specifically asks: how strongly associated is immigrant youth educational attainment with parental socioeconomic status, English spoken in the home, and parental classroom involvement. This study also asks whether educational attainment differs based on distance from the immigration experience. In particular, I challenge immigrant optimism-defeatist theories as potential explanations of the differences between first, second, and third generation immigrant youth's educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Cruz, Vanessa. "Educational Attainment of First and Second Generation Immigrant Youth New Findings from National Longitudinal Data." Research Brief No. 5, Urban Institute Class of 2008, March 2009.
10. Ehrle, Jennifer
Moore, Kristin Anderson
1997 NSAF Benchmarking Measures of Child and Family Well-Being
Report No. 6, Methodology Reports Series, Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1999.
Also: http://newfederalism.urban.org/nsaf/methodology_rpts/Methodology_6.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Health, Mental

Report No. 6 assesses several measures of child and family well-being used in the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF): parent mental health, child school engagement, behavioral and emotional problems in children, parent aggravation, reading to children, taking children on outings, and child participation in sports, clubs, and lessons. Each measure is considered in terms of its relevance to research on welfare reform, its psychometric properties (including quality of the data, internal reliability and construct validity), and how estimates using the measure compare with data from other large samples using the same or similar measures. [Note: this study uses the Behavior Problems Index as a benchmark for measures designed for the NSAF.]
Bibliography Citation
Ehrle, Jennifer and Kristin Anderson Moore. "1997 NSAF Benchmarking Measures of Child and Family Well-Being." Report No. 6, Methodology Reports Series, Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1999.
11. Holzer, Harry J.
Raphael, Steven
Stoll, Michael A.
Employment Barriers Facing Ex-Offenders
Discussion Paper of The Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable, May 19-20, 2003.
Also: http://www.urban.org/uploadedPDF/410855_holzer.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Studies, Geographic

Over 600,000 people are now being released from prisons each year. Many suffer from a variety of serious difficulties as they attempt to reenter society. Among the most challenging situations they face is that of reentry into the labor market. Employment rates and earnings of exoffenders are low by almost any standard—though in most cases they were fairly low even before these (mostly) men were incarcerated. Low employment rates seem closely related to the very high recidivism rates observed among those released from prison.

Why are the employment and earnings of ex-offenders so low? What barriers do they face in gaining employment and in achieving earnings that are sufficient to live on independently? To what extent are these barriers based on their own characteristics and attitudes, as opposed to those of employers? Are there policies that are likely to reduce these barriers, and thereby improve employment and earnings among ex-offenders?

We review these issues in this paper. We begin by reviewing some evidence on the employment and earnings of ex-offenders. We then consider the barriers that appear to limit their employment opportunities—first on the supply side (i.e., their own characteristics and attitudes), and then on the demand side (i.e., those of employers) of the labor market. We also consider some potentially positive factors that will influence the employment prospects of ex-offenders over the next few decades—particularly, the growing tightness of the labor market that most economists expect in the future due to the impending retirements of the “baby boomers” generation. Finally, we review a range of policies that might reduce some of the barriers faced by ex-offenders in the labor market.

Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J., Steven Raphael and Michael A. Stoll. "Employment Barriers Facing Ex-Offenders." Discussion Paper of The Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable, May 19-20, 2003.
12. Kuehn, Daniel
Pergamit, Michael R.
Vericker, Tracy
Vulnerability, Risk, and the Transition to Adulthood
Low-Income Working Families Paper 18. Washington DC: The Urban Institute, August 2011.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/412395.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Disconnected Youth; Family Income; Health, Mental; High School Dropouts; Immigrants; Neighborhood Effects; Parents, Single; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, Adulthood

Growing up poor strongly predicts poverty and poor adult outcomes. This study explores two primary reasons poverty may persist across generations: risk behavior in adolescence and dropping out of high school. Results suggest that risk behavior and dropping out help perpetuate poor economic outcomes for children from single-parent families but are less important for children who grow up in low-income families. The findings suggest that policies directed at reducing youth risk behavior and dropping out can improve economic outcomes when targeted to youth from single-parent households.
Bibliography Citation
Kuehn, Daniel, Michael R. Pergamit and Tracy Vericker. "Vulnerability, Risk, and the Transition to Adulthood." Low-Income Working Families Paper 18. Washington DC: The Urban Institute, August 2011.
13. Lerman, Robert I.
Married and Unmarried Parenthood and Economic Wellbeing: A Dynamic Analysis of a Recent Cohort
Report to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 2002.
Also: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410540_Parenthood.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cohabitation; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Family Structure; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Poverty; Propensity Scores

This paper examines the dynamics of marriage and family patterns and their relationship to living standards of a recent cohort of mothers. It is not obvious that married mothers should perform economically better than mother in cohabiting relationships or single mother living with at least one other adult. But marriage is likely to raise living standards if it is associated with family and income stability. Using a significantly raise both the level and stability of living standards experienced by mothers and their children.
Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Married and Unmarried Parenthood and Economic Wellbeing: A Dynamic Analysis of a Recent Cohort." Report to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 2002.
14. Loprest, Pamela J.
Acs, Gregory P.
Profile of Disability Among Families on AFDC
Policy Brief (August 1996). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Welfare

The authors assess the extent to which women and families currently receiving AFDC have a limited ability to work due to their own disabilities or those of their children. The resulting disability profile of AFDC recipients raises questions about whether the 20 percent exemption allowed for states is high enough to accommodate the number of recipients who are hard to place in jobs. The researchers employed a functional definition of disability to construct their profile. Under this definition, the interaction among impairments (such as blindness), chronic health conditions (such as arthritis), and social expectations about work is reviewed to determine its effect on the ability of an individual to perform expected work-related tasks - or, in the case of children, age-appropriate functions, such as attending school.

To create as complete a profile as possible, the researchers drew data from three sources: the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and 1992 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Their analysis reveals that between 27.4 and 29.5 percent of families receiving AFDC have either a mother or child with some level of functional limitation. Despite the differences in sample size and wording of survey questions among the three data sources used, this range is relatively narrow. In addition, since the data do not fully capture limitations due to mental or emotional disorders or substance abuse, these findings probably understate the true level of disability among the AFDC population.

National studies such as the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) use a variety of terms, including impairment, condition, limitations, and disability, all of which are defined slightly differently. Using data from the SIPP, the NHIS, and the NLSY, Loprest and Acs (1996) found that almost 16% of the families in their sample had a child with some type of functional limitation.

Bibliography Citation
Loprest, Pamela J. and Gregory P. Acs. "Profile of Disability Among Families on AFDC." Policy Brief (August 1996). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
15. Maynard, Rebecca A.
Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997.
Also: http://www.urban.org/pubs/khk/summary.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Fertility; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Teenagers

Four hundred thousand children under age 18 give birth every year in the United States--a rate twice as high as that in any other advanced country. This is the first book that makes systematic estimates of the economic and social impact of such childbearing?to the mothers, the fathers, their children, and society. Among its findings: the sons of these very young mothers are nearly three times as likely to serve a prison sentence as other women's sons. The expenses in welfare, health, and other public benefits amount to $4 billion a year. This informative and readable book by leading experts examines the issue from many perspectives and discusses strengths and weaknesses of specific policies and programs. Includes bibliographical references and index. The Study, the context, and the findings in brief Rebecca A. Maynard -- Trends over time in teenage pregnancy and childbearing: the critical changes Susan Williams McElroy and Kristin Anderson Moore -- The Impacts of teenage childbearing on the mothers and the consequences of those impacts for government V. Joseph Hotz, Susan Williams McElroy, and Seth G. Sanders -- Costs and consequences for the fathers Michael J. Brien and Robert J. Willis -- Effects on the children born to adolescent mothers Kristin Anderson Moore, Donna Ruane Morrison, and Angela Dungee Greene -- Teen children's health and health care use Barbara Wolfe and Maria Perozek -- Abuse and neglect of the children Robert M. Goerge and Bong Joo Lee -- Incarceration-related costs of early childbearing Jeffrey Grogger -- Children of early childbearers as young adults Robert H. Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, and ELaine Peterson -- The Costs of adolescent childbearing Rebecca A. Maynard.
Bibliography Citation
Maynard, Rebecca A. Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997..
16. McDaniel, Marla
Kuehn, Daniel
Transition to Adulthood: African American Youth and Youth from Low-Income Working Families
Urban Institute, Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood Series, August 27, 2009.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/411949.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior; Disconnected Youth; Earnings; Education; Education, Secondary; Employment, Youth; Family Income; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Risk-Taking; Transition, Adulthood

Bibliography Citation
McDaniel, Marla and Daniel Kuehn. "Transition to Adulthood: African American Youth and Youth from Low-Income Working Families." Urban Institute, Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood Series, August 27, 2009.
17. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Caldwell, Steven B.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Waite, Linda J.
The Consequences of Early Childbearing: An Analysis of Selected Parental Outcomes Using Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes)
Working Paper No. 0999-01, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1977.
Also: http://www.lib.muohio.edu/multifacet/record/mu3ugb1214129
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Children; Dropouts; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Schooling; Teenagers

Strong differences have been documented between early and late childbearers in education and family size which appear to have enduring consequences for household income and family wellbeing. Young women who bore their first child while l5 or younger completed about 1.9 fewer years of school by age 24 than did their peers who delayed motherhood until 18, and 2.8 fewer years than those waiting until at least age 24 to have their first child. Women having a first birth at age 15 or less had 1.3 more children by age 24 than women having a first birth at ages 21 to 23; women having a first birth at 16 or 17 had 1.0 more children; while women with a first birth at age 18 had 0.6 more children. The relative sizes of these consequences at ages 24 and 27 were estimated using a path analytic model. In a separate analysis of the same data set, the probability of such critical life events as dropping out of school or the labor force in any year was found to be greater if a first birth occurs in that year and if the woman was married or marries in that year. The evidence suggests that early childbearers will not catch up with later childbearers by returning to school; however, their labor force participation does eventually equal that of later childbearers. These results were obtained in a multivariate model in which factors such as region of residence, familial socio-economic background, race, and cohort were controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Steven B. Caldwell, Sandra L. Hofferth and Linda J. Waite. "The Consequences of Early Childbearing: An Analysis of Selected Parental Outcomes Using Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes)." Working Paper No. 0999-01, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1977.
18. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Caldwell, Steven B.
Waite, Linda J.
Teenage Motherhood: Social and Economic Consequences
Working Paper URI 243000, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Fertility; First Birth; Marriage; Occupational Status; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Schooling; Teenagers

This report focuses on the effects of early childbearing on the later social and economic status of the mother and her family; specifically, on education, family size, marriage and marital instability, participation in the labor force and earnings, welfare receipt, and poverty. Each of these outcomes has been studied separately. In addition, the interrelationships between these outcomes have been studied within causal models. These models explore the indirect as well as the direct effects of a woman's age at first childbirth.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Sandra L. Hofferth, Steven B. Caldwell and Linda J. Waite. "Teenage Motherhood: Social and Economic Consequences." Working Paper URI 243000, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1979.
19. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Greene, Angela Dungee
Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Welfare

To assess the effects of early childbearing on the children themselves, the authors of this chapter look at four types of outcomes: the quality of the home environment provided to the child; the child's cognitive development and educational attainment; physical and psychological well-being; and behavior problems and substance abuse. They consider these potential impacts for the children when young as well as when adolescents. And they examine whether firstborns fare differently from their siblings. Their major finding are in the areas of home environment and cognitive and educational development. When the mother's background characteristics are controlled, the quality of the home environment (including both emotional support and cognitive stimulation) is over 4 points lower (on a normal scale where the mean is set at 100) for the offspring of young teen mothers than for children whose mothers were 20 to 21 at their birth. The children of young teen mothers also score lower in mathematics and reading recognition (4 points) and in reading comprehension (3 points) in the period up to age 14. These differences carry over into adolescence in the form of greater likelihood of repeating a grade and being rated unfavorably by teachers in high school. Birth order is not important. These deficits are found for subsequent children as well as the firstborn children of young teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Angela Dungee Greene. "Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
20. O'Neill, June E.
Wolf, Douglas
Bassi, Laurie
Hannan, Michael
An Analysis of Time on Welfare
Report, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 1984
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Attitudes; Longitudinal Data Sets; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Welfare

This project identified the factors that lead to long-term welfare dependency and determined the effect of long- term dependency on a person's attitudes and life outlook. The study consisted of two major tasks. The first task was an empirical analysis of welfare dependency. This included using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey to estimate the duration of AFDC spells, analyze the correlates of welfare dependency, and analyze the effect of welfare duration on psychological traits. The second task evaluated the potential usefulness of a new survey. The second report discusses a possible survey design and implementation plan, and presents a research design for analyzing new data. [NTIS PB84-225713]
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E., Douglas Wolf, Laurie Bassi and Michael Hannan. "An Analysis of Time on Welfare." Report, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 1984.
21. Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
Against The Odds: Steady Employment Among Low-Skilled Women
Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., July 1, 1997.
Also: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=406999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Family Characteristics; Poverty; Racial Differences; Transition, Welfare to Work; Welfare

To provide insights into what states may need to do to help low-skilled women make the transition from welfare to work, the author examined the characteristics and employment patterns of low-skilled women who achieved steady employment by their late twenties. Data for this analysis are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. The paper discusses current research on this topic, employment outcomes for low-skilled women, paths to steady employment, family characteristics associated with steady employment, and the implications for welfare reform.
Bibliography Citation
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann. "Against The Odds: Steady Employment Among Low-Skilled Women." Report, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., July 1, 1997.
22. Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
How Much More Can They Work? Setting Realistic Expectations for Welfare Mothers
Report to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, July 1997.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/406998.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Assets; Children; Employment; Family Income; Income Level; Mothers; Mothers, Income; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare; Women; Work Experience

The social safety net for low-income families is currently undergoing a radical transformation. For the last 61 years, families with children with limited income and assets were entitled to ongoing cash assistance from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Now,in a rapidly growing number of states, families with limited income or assets can only receive cash assistance if they agree to look for work or work in exchange for the receipt of government assistance. This transformation of the social safety net for low-income families with children began with the implementation of numerous state welfare reform demonstration projects. 1 The shift was codified into federal law with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. PRWORA eliminated the AFDC program and replaced it with a block grant to states to establish a Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Although PRWORA provides states with considerable flexibility to decide what support they will provide to families in need of assistance, TANF is clearly intended to emphasize short-term, employment-related assistance.
Bibliography Citation
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann. "How Much More Can They Work? Setting Realistic Expectations for Welfare Mothers." Report to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, July 1997.
23. Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
Acs, Gregory P.
Moving Up, Moving Out or Going Nowhere? A Study of the Employment Patterns of Young Women and the Implications for Welfare Mothers
Report, Washington DC, The Urban Institute, October, 1996.
Also: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=406697
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Educational Returns; Employment, History; Job Patterns; Mobility, Job; Transitional Programs; Wage Growth; Wages, Women; Welfare; Work Experience

The welfare reform bill passed by the 104th Congress and signed by President Clinton represents an ambitious attempt to eliminate long-term dependence on public aid. The success of the Personal Responsibility and Opportunities for Work Reconciliation Act (PROWRA) rests on the ability to move women off the welfare roles and into jobs. Conventional wisdom holds that women on welfare will be better off in the long run if they take a job, any job, even if it means having less money to spend on their and their children's needs. Underlying this thinking is the belief that women who take low paying jobs will eventually move up to higher paying jobs either with their current employers or by changing employers. To investigate the employment patterns of young women, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We construct quarterly employment histories for all the women in our sample beginning at age 19 and continuing through age 27. For each quarter, we determine whether a woman holds (1) a good job (a job paying at least $8/hour for at least 35 hours a week); (2) a bad job, (3) no job but does not receive welfare; or (4) no job and receives welfare. We then examine the probabilities of moving from one employment state to another over time.
Bibliography Citation
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann and Gregory P. Acs. "Moving Up, Moving Out or Going Nowhere? A Study of the Employment Patterns of Young Women and the Implications for Welfare Mothers." Report, Washington DC, The Urban Institute, October, 1996.
24. Pergamit, Michael R.
On the (Lifetime) Prevalence of Running Away from Home
Report, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2010.
Also: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412087-running-away-from-home.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Runaways

This paper follows a nationally representative sample of 12-year olds through their 18th birthday to estimate the percentage of youth who ever run away from home, the number of times they ran away, and the age at which they first run away. Gender and race-ethnicity differences are estimated. These estimates, not found elsewhere, have implications for serving the runaway and homeless youth population.

Excerpt
Running away from home puts youth at risk of violence, crime, drugs, prostitution, HIV and other STDs, and other health problems. Youth who have run away from their home demonstrate high rates of delinquent and problem behaviors, including substance abuse (Johnson, Whitbeck, and Hoyt 2005), truancy (De Man 2000), gang involvement (Yoder, Whitbeck, and Hoyt 2003), criminal activity (Hammer, Finkelhor, and Sedlack 2002), and juvenile arrest (Kaufman and Widom 1999). Runaway youth are not only likely to perpetrate crimes and engage in delinquent behaviors, they are also likely to have been victimized at home (Tyler, Cauce, and Whitbeck 2004; Thompson, Zittel-Palamara, and Maccio 2004; Kurtz and Kurtz 1991) and to experience additional victimization once they leave home.

Estimates of the runaway population are difficult to obtain and the exact number of runaway youth is not really known (Greene, et al. 2003). Several studies have attempted to estimate the number or percentage of youth who have run away from home in the previous year, with estimates ranging widely from 1.6 million to 2.8 million.

Another important measure of runaway behavior is lifetime prevalence, that is, the percentage of youth who ever run away from home. Identifying lifetime prevalence is important for understanding the causes and consequences of running away, yet little is known about lifetime runaway prevalence. The most often cited study by Nye and Edelbrock (1980) estimated that one in eight youth runs away before the age of 18, but that study infers est imates from a cross-sectional survey intended to generate a one-year incidence measure using data collected in 1976.

One confounding problem in understanding the size of the runaway population is that runaway experiences among youth tend to be episodic rather than chronic (Robertson 1991). Since most studies focus on a one-year reference period, little is known about to what extent youth have multiple runaway episodes. Multiple episodes may distort the estimates of lifetime prevalence that are based on a single cross-section survey. Furthermore, studies focused on one year do not capture the age at which youth first ran away, an important factor in understanding the phenomenon.

In this paper, we exploit a useful data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), to develop three measures not generally found in the literature. First, we estimate the percentage of youth who run away from home before the age of 18, that is, "lifetime" prevalence. Second, we estimate the distribution of the number of times youth run away before age 18, and finally, we estimate the age at which these youth first run away.

In the next section, we review the various estimates of runaway incidence. After describing the NLSY97 data set, we present estimates of the percentage of youth who have ever run away, the number of times they've run away, and the age at which they first ran away. We then conclude with a discussion of how these estimates help inform about runaway behavior.

Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "On the (Lifetime) Prevalence of Running Away from Home." Report, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2010.
25. Sorensen, Elaine
Noncustodial Fathers: Can They Afford to Pay More Child Support?
Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, February 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Child Support; Childbearing; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Financial Assistance; Poverty

Bibliography Citation
Sorensen, Elaine. "Noncustodial Fathers: Can They Afford to Pay More Child Support?" Working Paper, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, February 1995.
26. Zaslow, Martha J.
Tout, Kathryn
Botsko, Christopher
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Welfare Reform and Children: Potential Implications
Number A-23 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States". Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 1998.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/308014.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); State Welfare; Welfare

Findings from recent welfare-to-work evaluations point to evidence of program impacts on maternal psychological well-being and on parent-child interaction and the children's home environments.

Adults are typically the focus of welfare policies and programs, even though children comprise a majority of public assistance recipients. In 1995, about two-thirds of those receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children each month were children.1 Moreover, key provisions in the most recent welfare legislation, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), have implications for children.

Based on research findings from welfare-to-work program evaluations and from basic research on child development, we conclude that welfare reform can affect children in diverse ways. These effects will vary depending on state and local policies, family characteristics and risk status, patterns of maternal employment, and children's experiences in the home and in nonmaternal care settings.

Bibliography Citation
Zaslow, Martha J., Kathryn Tout, Christopher Botsko and Kristin Anderson Moore. Welfare Reform and Children: Potential Implications. Number A-23 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States". Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 1998..