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Source: Work and Family
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Changes in Wages and Benefits Among Young Adults
Work and Family, Report 849. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, July 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk011.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits; Education; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Training; Wage Differentials; Wage Rates; Wages, Youth

This issue of Work and Family examines recent changes in the structure of wages and in employer-provided benefits made available to young workers. Also, changes in the wage structure and in benefits are compared by educational level. For young workers in their first 5 years out of school, it is found that average wage rates for men fell substantially between the 1970's and 1980's, whereas there was little overall change in average wage rates for women workers. This decline in wages was particularly severe for men with 12 years of education or less. In addition, while there was little change in the availability of health and retirement benefits for young workers between the 1970's and 1991, there was an increase in available maternity leave, training, and profit-sharing opportunities. For most types of benefits examined here, there is a positive association between the availability of benefits and level of education.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Changes in Wages and Benefits Among Young Adults." Work and Family, Report 849. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, July 1993.
2. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Child-Care Arrangements of Young Working Mothers
Work and Family, Report 820. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk007.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Support; Dual-Career Families; Earnings; Family Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Shift Workers; Work Hours

Uses the 1988 data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on the income of men, aged 23 to 31, who are noncustodial fathers. Based on 872 men who are non custodial fathers examines the father's income needed to pay the hypothetical minimum assured benefit for the children with whom they do not live. Sixty-five percent of young noncustodial fathers could pay the entire hypothetical minimum assured benefit with less than two-fifths of their gross income. For example, 35 percent could pay at least the entire hypothetical minimum assured benefit using less than one-fifth of their income and 30 percent would use between one-fifth and two-fifths. At the other end of the income range, however, 9 percent have no income; to pay the entire hypothetical minimum assured benefit, 14 percent would pay four-fifths or more of their income and 12 percent would use between two-fifths and four-fifths of their income. Also estimated the payments these same fathers would be required to make under a percentage-of-income guideline, typical of state child support guidelines, and then compared these payments with the hypothetical minimum assured benefit. We found that 34 percent of the fathers would be required to pay the entire hypothetical minimum assured benefit; 9 percent would pay nothing because they have no income; and 57 percent would be required to pay part of the minimum assured benefit. 29 percent would be exempt from making child support payments; and 37 percent would be required to pay a part of the minimum assured benefit. In particular, 6 percent of young noncustodial fathers would have their payments lowered because full payment would cause them to live in poverty. Policy makers can use these data in considering how much they want to require noncustodial fathers to pay for the support of their children under a child support assurance system.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Child-Care Arrangements of Young Working Mothers." Work and Family, Report 820. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1992.
3. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Jobs Held and Weeks Worked by Young Adults
Work and Family, Report 827. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, August 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk005.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Event History; Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Layoffs; Work History

This report presents information on the cumulative number of jobs and weeks of work for young workers using data from the Youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). These data describe a sample of young men and women who were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979 and who have been interviewed annually since that year. A key feature of this survey is that it collects information in an event history format, in which dates are collected for the beginning and ending of important events. In the case of work, the starting date for every job is recorded, and if a person stops work far that employer, the ending date is recorded as well. For multiple jobholders, information is gathered for each job, with starting and ending dates. Periods of non work within a job, such as periods on layoff, or when ill, pregnant, and so forth are also recorded. By recording the dates of all jobs and all periods of non work, the survey provides a nearly complete and continuous employment history for each individual in the sample. This discussion of young workers gives the average number of jobs held and average weeks of work since age 18. The sample is restricted to those who were age 18 or younger as of January 1, 1978. The time frame analyzed runs from January 1, 1978 to January 1, 1990. Consequently, averages are computed for individuals for ages 18 through 29.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Jobs Held and Weeks Worked by Young Adults. Work and Family, Report 827. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, August 1992..
4. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Never Too Old To Learn. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Work and Family, Report 856. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk010.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Education; Education; Educational Attainment; Job Training; Training; Unemployment Rate, Regional; Women

Data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys were used in an analysis of the acquisition of education and training by women at later ages over the 1979-89 period. These data described a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and who had been interviewed regularly at later intervals. Between the years of 1979 and 1989, the survey collected information about the occurrence and duration of all education and training programs. This analysis examined the extent of participation in education and training programs among this group of women from 1979-1989, a time in which they aged from 42-57 to 52-67. The time spent in education and training, as measured by total hours involved in these programs, was also analyzed. In addition, reasons why these women participated in programs outside of college education and company training over the 1984-89 period were addressed. Over 40 percent of women were found to have participated in some education or training program during the 11-year period. The primary forms of instruction were company training and college courses. White women more likely had some education or training than other women, but among program participants, other women spent more time in these programs than white women. Evidence on instructional programs other than company training and college education indicated that over one-third of the women participated in these programs for job-related reasons. (YLB)
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Never Too Old To Learn. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys. Work and Family, Report 856. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1993..
5. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Part-Time Employment Transitions Among Young Women
Work and Family, Report 824. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, May 1992
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Part-Time Work; Women

This report takes a look at transitions of women into and out of part-time work by examining the same women over time, using data from the Young Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The NLS provide information on a sample of women who were between the ages of 14 and 24 in 1968 and have been interviewed regularly since then. Two groups of women are studied: 1) those who were age 29 to 33 in 1978, and 2) those who were 29 to 33 in 1983. The labor force transitions of the two groups are compared over a 5-year period. Over the past 20 years, the labor force participation rate of women has increased dramatically. In 1970, 41.6 percent of women over age 16 participated in the labor force. By 1990, this rate increased to 57.5 percent. During this same period the growth of the service sector has expanded part-time employment because most part-time workers are employed in the services and retail trade industries. Part-time employment offers a variety of advantages and disadvantages to workers. Part-time work may provide the flexibility some workers desire to maintain family, personal, and employment responsibilities simultaneously. For persons who are entering or reentering the labor market after a prolonged absence, part-time employment may also serve to ease the transition into full-time employment. Part-time work, however, rarely provides the job security, promotion potential, or other nonmonetary benefits of full-time employment. As a result, part-time work is sometimes thought both to create and to limit opportunities. In 1988, an average of 13.3 million women worked part time, accounting for about two-thirds of all persons on such schedules. Women in the prime working ages, 25 to 54, were five times more likely than their male counterparts to work part time. These women accounted for nearly 40 percent of part-time employment. The substantial employment of women in part-time jobs makes any study of part-time work especially relevant to women.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Part-Time Employment Transitions Among Young Women. Work and Family, Report 824. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, May 1992.
6. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Promotions Among Women
Work and Family, Report 868. Washington DC: US. Department of Labor, March 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk008.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status; Private Sector; Working Conditions

For most workers, the conditions of employment such as wages, benefits, and work environment are extremely important aspects of a job. Also of importance is an individual's rank or position within an organization. In many firms there exists a well-established job hierarchy in which advancement takes the form of promotions to higher level jobs, which is often considered part of the "structure" of an organization. Past research into the causes and consequences of promotions has focused primarily on federal workers, lawyers, and academics examining gender differentials in promotion within these sectors. However, little is known about the internal labor market, promotion activity, and the consequences of promotion among groups of private sector workers. This report uses data from the Young Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys to examine how the conditions of employment such as wages, benefits, and work environment affect a woman's rank or position within an organization. In 1991, when the women were age 37 to 48, the survey asked questions to working women about whether a promotion was received at their current or last job and about certain characteristics of the promotion, such as whether the promotion involved more pay, more challenging work, more authority over others, or more responsibility.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Promotions Among Women. Work and Family, Report 868. Washington DC: US. Department of Labor, March 1994..
7. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Turning Thirty--Job Mobility and Labor Market Attachment
Work and Family, Report 862. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, December 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk009.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Job Tenure; Mobility, Labor Market; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Work Experience

This issue of Work and Family analyzes the labor market experience of individuals between their 18th and 30th birthdays. Some of the more significant findings include: Between the ages of 18 and 30, a typical individual has held 7.5 jobs and has 8.6 years of work experience. This suggests that workers between these ages experience 3.4 years of joblessness. On their 30th birthday, over 40 percent of workers have held their current job for 2 years or less, and about a quarter have been at their job more than 6 years. However, only 15 percent of individuals have spent 2 years or less in the longest job held between age 18 and 30, and about 30 percent have spent more than 6 years in the longest job. The average time spent at the longest job held between age 18 and age 30 is 5 years. Blacks and female high school dropouts tend to have the least work experience and the least job tenure by age 30.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Turning Thirty--Job Mobility and Labor Market Attachment. Work and Family, Report 862. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, December 1993..
8. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Women in Their Forties
Work and Family, Report 843. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk002.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Labor Force Participation; Women

This issue of Work and Family examines the labor market and marital status experiences of women in their forties using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. These data track the experiences of women as they aged from 40 to 49 during the 1967-86 time period. Over 85 percent of these women worked at some time in their forties. On average, women worked 289 weeks, or about 58 percent of weeks worked by those who work a full-year each year during their forties over this time period. There are significant differences between women in labor force attachment and marital status transitions by race and education. In particular, among women in their forties, high school dropouts worked substantially fewer weeks, and were less likely to be in the labor force at both age 40 and age 49. They were also less likely to be married at both age 40 and age 49 than other women.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Women in Their Forties. Work and Family, Report 843. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1993..
9. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work and Family: Employer-Provided Training Among Young Adults
Report 838. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, February 1993.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/nls/nlswk003.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Training; Training, Occupational; Vocational Rehabilitation; Vocational Training

This report presents information on employer-provided training using data from the Youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). These data describe a sample of young men and women who were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979 and who have been interviewed annually since that year. This survey contains some of the most comprehensive data currently available on training among young adults. Between the years of 1979 and 1986, the survey collected information about the occurrence and duration of all government-sponsored training programs and all privately supported training that lasted at least 4 weeks. In subsequent years, the training questions in the survey changed in order to ask respondents about all types of training (up to four programs) since the last interview, regardless of duration. Potential sources of training include business schools, apprenticeships, vocational and technical institutes, correspondence courses, company training, seminars outside of work, and vocational rehabilitation centers. These sources of training exclude any training received through formal schooling. It is important to emphasize that the measures of training do not capture informal training. Hence, any learning that occurs through methods such as observing coworkers, learning by doing, or speaking with supervisors is not measured here.
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Work and Family: Employer-Provided Training Among Young Adults." Report 838. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, February 1993.
10. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Patterns of Women Near Retirement
Work and Family, Report 830. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/pdf/nlswk004.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Women; Work Experience

This report examines the labor market activity of older married women using data from the Mature Women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The survey provides the first adequate data for analyzing women's retirement behavior. The data provide information on a sample of women who were between the ages of 30 and 45 in 1967 and have been interviewed regularly since then. The analysis focuses on the years 1967-89, a period in which the age range of these women changed from 39-54 to 52-67. This time span and these age ranges provide an opportunity to capture the transition from work to retirement among women. Interviews were not conducted and data, therefore, are not available for the years 1978, 1980, 1983, 1985, and 1987. Respondents who did not work at all between 1976 and 1989 are excluded from the analysis, so that only the retirement decisions of women with some work experience over this period are considered. Two questions concerning the work patterns of these women as they approach retirement are addressed. First, are there significant differences in the work trends of older married women and older single women? Second, what is the relationship between the labor market activity of wives and husbands in their later years?
Bibliography Citation
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Work Patterns of Women Near Retirement. Work and Family, Report 830. Washington DC: US Department of Labor, 1992..