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Source: AERA Open
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Markowitz, Anna J.
Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012
AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2332858416653732
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Income; Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies show large differences between economically advantaged and disadvantaged parents in the quality and quantity of their engagement in young children's development. This "parenting gap" may account for a substantial portion of the gap in children's early cognitive skills. However, researchers know little about whether the socioeconomic gap in parenting has increased over time. The present study investigates this question, focusing on income- and education-based gaps in parents' engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with preschool-aged children. We draw on data from four national studies conducted over 25 years. We found a decrease in income-based gaps in children's book ownership and library attendance but increasing income-based gaps for several other parent behaviors, including reading and telling stories to children and teaching children letters, words, and numbers. Income-based gaps in children's participation in out-of-home cultural activities also increased. Results for education-based gaps were similar. These gaps largely arose from top-income families pulling away from their middle- and low-income counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Rebecca M. Ryan and Anna J. Markowitz. "Changes in Income-Based Gaps in Parent Activities With Young Children From 1988 to 2012." AERA Open published online (August 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416653732.
2. Markowitz, Anna J.
Associations Between Emotional Engagement With School and Behavioral and Psychological Outcomes Across Adolescence
AERA Open published online (5 June 2017): DOI: 10.1177/2332858417712717.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2332858417712717
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Children, Behavioral Development; Children, School-Age; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Psychological Effects; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although a small body of research suggests that emotional engagement with school is related to youth behavioral and psychological outcomes, it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal relationships and at what age engagement matters most for student outcomes. Using data from two large, national surveys, this study uses three analytic strategies to reduce threats to causal inference and assess whether the central relationship changes as youth age. Results across both data sets are consistent with a causal relationship between emotional engagement with school and youth behavioral and psychological outcomes that decreases somewhat as youth age. Given the importance of emotional engagement for these outcomes, and the importance of avoiding problem behaviors and maintaining healthy psychological functioning for students' long-run outcomes, research should continue to explore the ways in which schools and educational policy can influence students' engagement.
Bibliography Citation
Markowitz, Anna J. "Associations Between Emotional Engagement With School and Behavioral and Psychological Outcomes Across Adolescence." AERA Open published online (5 June 2017): DOI: 10.1177/2332858417712717.
3. Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Lee, Kenneth T. H.
Parent Income–Based Gaps in Schooling: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID
AERA Open published online (April 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416645834.
Also: http://ero.sagepub.com/content/2/2/2332858416645834.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Both income inequality and the achievement test score gap between high- and low-income children increased dramatically in the United States beginning in the 1970s. Recent work by Chetty, Hendren, Kline, Saez, and Turner (2014) suggests that, unlike the test score gap, the gap in college enrollment is essentially constant. This article takes a longer historical view and investigates trends in income-based gaps in a number of schooling attainment measures using data from two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) as well as 31 birth cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Findings support Chetty and colleagues' conclusion of little change in college enrollment for their cohorts but show significant increases in college enrollment gaps between Chetty and colleagues' and prior cohorts in both the PSID and the NLSY. We further find strong evidence of growing gaps in college completion. In contrast, gaps in high school graduation have fallen, which provide at least one optimistic sign of catching up among low-income individuals. The net result of these trends is to produce a modestly increasing gap in completed schooling between children growing up in low- and high-income families.
Bibliography Citation
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M. and Kenneth T. H. Lee. "Parent Income–Based Gaps in Schooling: Cross-Cohort Trends in the NLSYs and the PSID." AERA Open published online (April 2016): DOI: 10.1177/2332858416645834.