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Source: Journal of Economic Perspectives
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Bhaskar, V.
Manning, Alan
To, Ted
Oligopsony and Monopsonistic Competition in Labor Markets
Journal of Economic Perspectives 16,2 (Spring 2002): 155-174.
Also: http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/0895330027300
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Firms; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Wage Determination

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since its genesis in industrial organization and the theory of the firm, models of imperfect competition have permeated many fields of economics ranging from international trade to macroeconomics to public finance. For example, in the 1980s, the introduction of product market imperfections revolutionized our understanding of trade policies and comparative advantage (Brander and Spencer, 1985; Krugman, 1979). At the same time, macroeconomists began to use models of monopolistic competition to explain how small costs of adjusting prices could give rise to business fluctuations (Akerlof and Yellen, 1985; Blanchard and Kiyotaki, 1987; Mankiw, 1985). This trend is now influencing labor economics, with a growing literature arguing that employers have some market power in the setting of wages. Indeed, the most common sources for market power--product differentiation and imperfect information--seem to apply with equal if not greater force to labor markets as compared with product markets. The advantage of an approach based on oligopsony is that it leads to more plausible and less elaborate explanations of many labor market phenomena that are otherwise regarded as puzzles. This paper surveys a number of areas where this approach has proved fruitful in recent years.
Bibliography Citation
Bhaskar, V., Alan Manning and Ted To. "Oligopsony and Monopsonistic Competition in Labor Markets." Journal of Economic Perspectives 16,2 (Spring 2002): 155-174.
2. Freeman, Richard B.
Why Do So Many Young Americans Commit Crimes and What Might We Do About It?
Journal of Economic Perspectives 10,1 (Winter 1996): 25-42.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.10.1.25
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Education; Illegal Activities; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Economics; Labor Market, Secondary

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This essay examines the following questions. What induces young American men, particularly less educated and black men, to engage in crime in large numbers despite the risk of imprisonment? Is the rising rate of criminal involvement related to the collapse in the job market for the less skilled? Is "locking them up" the only efficacious way to fight crime? It shows that participation in crime and involvement with the criminal justice system has reached such levels as to become part of normal economic life for many young men. Evidence is presented that labor market incentives influence the level of crime and that the depressed labor market for less skilled men in the 1980s and l990s has contributed to the rise in crime.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. "Why Do So Many Young Americans Commit Crimes and What Might We Do About It?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 10,1 (Winter 1996): 25-42.
3. Goodman, Joshua
The Wages of Sinistrality: Handedness, Brain Structure, and Human Capital Accumulation
Journal of Economic Perspectives 28,4 (Fall 2014): 193-212.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23973564?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Cognitive Ability; Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Earnings; Handedness; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using five datasets from the United States and the United Kingdom, I show that, consistent with prior research, both maternal left-handedness and poor infant health increase the likelihood of a child being left-handed.
Bibliography Citation
Goodman, Joshua. "The Wages of Sinistrality: Handedness, Brain Structure, and Human Capital Accumulation." Journal of Economic Perspectives 28,4 (Fall 2014): 193-212.
4. Kletzer, Lori G.
Job Displacement
Journal of Economic Perspectives 12,1 (Winter 1998): 115-136.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.12.1.115
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Human Capital; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the late 1970s and early to mid-1980s, changes in technology, consumer demand, international competition, and some deep recessions all contributed to large-scale blue-collar job displacement. More recently, corporate downsizing has added large numbers of white-collar workers to the group of dislocated workers. A public perception has grown that worklife in the l990s is more precarious (New York Times, 1996). The past decade and a half has seen a veritable explosion of research in the area of permanent job loss. My discussion here is not intended to be an exhaustive survey of that literature; interested readers can find that in Fallick (1996) and Kletzer (1995b). Instead, this paper will discuss the state of knowledge on the issues and questions of job displacement. How has the incidence of displacement changed from the 1980s to the l990s? How do the characteristics of displaced workers compare to the characteristics of other workers who experience unemployment? What are the conseque nces of displacement? How important is the loss of firm-specific human capital for a displaced worker? How do earnings of displaced workers change? What is the appropriate public policy response for displaced workers?
Bibliography Citation
Kletzer, Lori G. "Job Displacement." Journal of Economic Perspectives 12,1 (Winter 1998): 115-136.
5. O'Neill, June E.
The Role of Human Capital in Earnings Differences Between Black and White Men
Journal of Economic Perspectives 4,4 (Autumn 1990): 25-45.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1942720
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Census of Population; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Human Capital Theory; Racial Differences; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines some of the factors behind the continuing earnings differentials for black and white men. After tracing some of the historical factors impacting blacks' acquisition of human capital, specifically schooling, from the late 1800s through the 1980s, the author details the earnings disparities that persisted, regardless of educational attainment or region, for black men during the period 1940-1980. Two factors that are thought to have impacted on the rise in relative earnings of black men during these forty years, improvements in the quality of schooling and a decline in labor market discrimination against blacks, are discussed. Utilizing data from the NLSY on respondents' AFQT scores, school records and earnings, the author examines whether the continuing differences in educational achievement as measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) which have persisted for blacks regardless of the number of years of schooling completed explain the earnings disparity between blacks and whites. It was found that: (1) scores on the AFQT showed a positive correlation with wages, holding schooling constant; (2) the effect of AFQT scores was larger for blacks than for whites; and (3) the standard measures of schooling quality studied had no effect on the wages of the young men studied.
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E. "The Role of Human Capital in Earnings Differences Between Black and White Men." Journal of Economic Perspectives 4,4 (Autumn 1990): 25-45.
6. Pergamit, Michael R.
The National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.15.2.239
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Demography; Economics, Demographic; Education; Employment, Youth; Family Planning; Family Studies; Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Methods/Methodology; Sample Selection; Training; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article describes the design features and topical coverage of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The NLS are perhaps the oldest and most widely used panel surveys of individuals in the United States. These surveys were started in the mid-1960s to exam employment issues faced by different cohorts of the U.S. population. Since then, the NLS surveys have expanded to include two new cohorts of youth. Survey topic areas include employment, education, training, family relationships, financial well-being, and health. Information on data access is also provided.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "The National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
7. Pergamit, Michael R.
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.15.2.239
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are perhaps the oldest and longest running panel surveys of individuals in the United States. These surveys were originally started at the U.S. Department of Labor in the mid-1960s to examine employment issues faced by different segments of the U.S. population. The four "original cohorts" were Young Men, Young Women, Mature Women (women who had finished their childbearing and were returning to the labor force), and Older Men (men approaching retirement). Since that time, the NLS program has expanded to include two new cohorts of youth. Table 1 provides an overview of the NLS cohorts over time. The NLS surveys have been widely used for over a quarter of a century and across a large number of academic disciplines including economics, sociology, psychology, education, medicine, and public policy. Hundreds of Ph.D. dissertations and thousands of journal articles rely on NLS data. The success of the NLS program is in part attributable to three aspects of the surveys: high retention rates, careful design features, and the broad range of subject areas studied. Over the past decade, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 has been the most widely used and most important of the NLS data sets. Thus, rather than attempting to describe each of the longitudinal surveys in detail, this paper will convey the approach and scope of the NLS program by focusing primarily on NLSY79. The new youth cohort begun in 1997, the NLSY97, will be discussed further below.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R., Charles R. Pierret, Donna S. Rothstein and Jonathan R. Veum. "Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
8. Waldfogel, Jane
Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children
Journal of Economic Perspectives 12,1 (Winter 1998): 137-156.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.12.1.137
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Japan; Japanese; Job Tenure; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Parenthood; Wage Differentials; Wage Equations; Wage Gap; Wages, Women; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The narrowing of the gender gap in pay in the 1980s and 1990s, following decades in which the gap between the hourly earnings of women and men held constant, has been one of the most notable trends in the labor market in recent years. The decline in the gender gap has been all the more remarkable because it occurred while other types of wage inequality were increasing. These recent trends in the gender gap and in wage inequality have been extensively studied. However, less attention has been paid to the "family gap"-the wage differential between women with and without children. Although much of the evidence on links between family policies and women's pay is speculative, there is one policy--maternity leave--where we now have more persuasive evidence. Recent research in the United States, as well as comparative research on Britain and Japan, suggests that maternity leave coverage may raise women's pay. This research tells a clear story as to how such an effect might operate maternity leave coverage, by raising women's retention over the period of childbirth, raises women's wages by increasing their levels of work experience and job tenure and allowing them to maintain good job matches. Thus, maternity leave, along with other family policies, may be an effective remedy for the family gap in pay. (Adapted from the article by CHRR.)
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane. "Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children." Journal of Economic Perspectives 12,1 (Winter 1998): 137-156.