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Source: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Black, Dan A.
Hasan, Amer
Lane, Julia
Report on Task 2: Developing a Deeper Understanding of the Labor Market Dynamics of Recently Discharged Veterans
National Opinion Research Center (NORC), the University of Chicago, May 20, 2007.
Also: http://www.dol.gov/vets/research/NORCIIrev3_june_12.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Military Service; Racial Differences; Transition, Job to Job; Transitional Programs; Unemployment; Veterans

Introduction
In our previous report, "The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 Year Old Veterans," we used a well-known dataset, the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine the labor market outcomes of 20-24 year old veterans 1, 13, 26 and 39 weeks after they exit the military. That study found that employment rates increase and unemployment rates decrease over time, which provides some evidence that the high reported levels of unemployment result from job search.

Although the previous study shed a great deal of light into the dynamics of the labor market behavior of veterans, it is also important to see whether their outcomes immediately after leaving the military differ from that of their civilian counterparts. The core challenge is that veterans who leave military employment are, by definition, transitioning either from one employment to another, or moving out of the labor market. The appropriate civilian counterparts, then, are individuals undergoing similarly significant labor market transitions, either to another employer or out of the labor market.

Therefore, in this report, we examine how veterans move into employment after leaving the military by comparing them to three sets of civilians. The labor market outcomes of veterans are first compared to those of each civilian comparison group in turn, and then are analyzed relative to the outcomes all three comparison groups. The first comparison group is comprised of 20-24 year old civilians who become unemployed after a relatively long period of continuous employment. The second group consists of civilians who had left a single job that was held for a substantial period of time. The third and final civilian comparison group, which most closely mirrors a Current Population Survey cohort, is made up of a random sample of civilians in a particular week, whose outcomes are compared to those of a group of young veterans in the same week. In this way the outcomes of veterans and civilians can be compared during the same calendar time, which means that they are facing common macroeconomic conditions, such as unemployment rates, job creation, and labor market demand.

Of course, in order to correctly make the comparisons, it is important to control as much as possible for the differences in the characteristics of veterans relative to civilians. Thus, after making straightforward comparisons of veterans to those of the three civilian cohort groups, we assess the labor market outcomes of veterans relative to those of our civilian comparison groups, controlling for important demographic and labor market characteristics, such as race, gender, ability and receipt of unemployment compensation benefits. We apply these controls beginning in Section 4 of this study, entitled "Labor Market Dynamics."

In Section 5, we differentiate veteran outcomes by type of military service, whether in the regular military, National Guard or Reserves. Section 6 analyzes the impact of Unemployment Compensation benefits. Finally, we compare the post-separation earnings of veterans to those of their civilian cohorts.

Our core findings are as follows:

  • Discharged veterans are more likely to be employed than their civilian counterparts. They are also less likely to be out of the labor force.
  • These results are consistent, but differ in magnitude, depending on whether the veterans were regular military or in the National Guard or Reserves. By and large, both employment and labor market participation are higher, and unemployment is lower, for those whose service was in the Guard or Reserves.
  • The financial returns to military service are significant. Former service members earn more than any of the civilian groups to which they were compared.

Bibliography Citation
Black, Dan A., Amer Hasan and Julia Lane. "Report on Task 2: Developing a Deeper Understanding of the Labor Market Dynamics of Recently Discharged Veterans." National Opinion Research Center (NORC), the University of Chicago, May 20, 2007.
2. Black, Dan A.
Lane, Julia
Report on Task 1: The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 Year Old Veterans
National Opinion Research Center (NORC), the University of Chicago, January 1, 2007.
Also: http://www.dol.gov/vets/research/trajectories_rev.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Military Service; Racial Differences; Training, Occupational; Unemployment; Veterans

Introduction
Recent statistics reporting high rates of unemployment for 20-24 year old veterans have been a source of substantial concern. Since high levels of unemployment can result from multiple causes, including lack of job opportunities or lengthened search for jobs, with different policy responses, it is important to analyze the phenomenon in more detail.

In this study we use a well-known dataset, the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the labor market outcomes of 20-24 year old veterans 1, 13, 26 and 39 weeks after they exit the military. We begin by describing the dataset, and then document what proportion of veterans are employed, unemployed, out of the labor force and in military service at each point in time. This examination includes an analysis of how much veterans' experiences vary by their characteristics, such as race and ASVAB scores. We conclude by describing the labor market trajectories of unemployed veterans.

This report represents the first part of a two part study. The second part will expand on this snapshot analysis by providing a more detailed analysis of the factors contributing to unemployment, and the pathways taken to work. Since recent veterans may be productively using unemployment compensation to search for the best possible job, or to engage in additional study, the analysis of outcomes will be expanded to include a study of the educational attainment, and earnings of veterans, as well as a comparison of the outcomes of veterans to observationally similar non-veterans. The study will also examine, to the extent possible, veterans' use of training programs. In addition, since the unemployment surge coincided with a surge in Reserve/National Guard deployments, the second part will also examine, to the extent possible, the variation in outcomes for regular military versus Reserve/National Guard service members.

Bibliography Citation
Black, Dan A. and Julia Lane. "Report on Task 1: The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 Year Old Veterans." National Opinion Research Center (NORC), the University of Chicago, January 1, 2007.
3. Daniel, Kermit
Does Marriage Make Men More Productive?
Report No. 92-2, Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Behavior; Dual-Career Families; Family Size; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wages; Wives, Work; Work Hours

Married men receive higher wages than single men. It is well-documented that this difference remains even when one controls for a vast array of worker and job traits. The remaining marriage premium is as large as differences associated with race or union status, and it exhibits features suggesting that it reflects systematic differences in productivity between married and single men. In order to explore whether being married causes men to be more productive, the authors developed and tested a model of productivity augmentation within marriage. The model is based on the idea that whatever the exact mechanism, productivity augmentation is likely to require the input of the spouse's time. The model produces several testable implications, and preliminary empirical results from the NLSY support the model. It is consistent with differences in the marriage premium associated with sex and race, as well as with individual-level variation in the marriage premium and with its aggregate time-series behavior. Marriage may make men more productive.
Bibliography Citation
Daniel, Kermit. "Does Marriage Make Men More Productive?" Report No. 92-2, Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC, 1992.
4. Frankel, Martin R.
McWilliams, Harold A.
Spencer, Bruce D.
National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior, Youth Survey (NLS): Technical Sampling Report
Chicago IL: National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, August 1983.
Also: http://www.nlsinfo.org/nlsy79/docs/79html/NLSY79%20Tech%20Samp%20Rpt.pdf
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, Youth; Labor Supply; Longitudinal Data Sets; Manpower Research; Sample Selection; Sampling Weights/Weighting; Statistical Analysis; Statistics

Cover title: NLSY technical sampling report (1983) & addendum (1992) [i.e. 1994]. Title of addendum: NLSY technical sampling report addendum : standard errors and deft factors for rounds IV through XIV. "The survey is sponsored by the U.S. Departments of Labor and Defense under a grant to the Center for Human Resource Research at Ohio State University. NORC has a subcontract to provide data collection services. The youth cohort is a continuation of the National Longitudinal Surveys begun in 1965 by the Center for Human Resource Research for the Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research of the U.S. Department of Labor"--Introd. "August, 1983." "February 1994"--T.p. of addendum. Photocopy. Includes bibliographical references.
Bibliography Citation
Frankel, Martin R., Harold A. McWilliams and Bruce D. Spencer. National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior, Youth Survey (NLS): Technical Sampling Report. Chicago IL: National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, August 1983..
5. Huang, Fali
Child Development Production Functions
Presented: San Antonio, TX, Society of Labor Economics 9th Annual Meeting, April 2004.
Also: http://client.norc.org/jole/SOLEweb/huang.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Work Histories

Early child development is a crucial part of human capital formation. This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using NLSY(79)child data. A sample of eight- and nine-year old children is constructed where over two hundred current and historical inputs starting from mother's prenatal care period are included. A tree structured regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications, explicitly allowing for non-linear structures and unobserved heterogenous child innate ability. The estimation results show that both current and earlier inputs matter, where the most important inputs are books, reading, and discipline. Child abilities evolve over time and are affected by home inputs. A mother's working hours do not matter when detailed inputs and child ability are controlled; nor do a child's race, sex, and birth order.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Fali. "Child Development Production Functions." Presented: San Antonio, TX, Society of Labor Economics 9th Annual Meeting, April 2004.