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Source: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania
Resulting in 5 citations.
1. Johnson, Richard W.
Neumark, David B.
Wage Declines Among Older Men
Preliminary Paper, Population Studies Center, the University of Pennsylvania, 1992
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Human Capital; Social Security; Wage Dynamics; Wage Growth; Wage Rates; Wages, Men

This paper re-examines the evidence an whether real wages decline with age among older men. While the human capital model of wage growth predicts that wages will fall as workers near the end of their career, we demonstrate that two alternative theories -- based on the shirking model and the forced-saving hypothesis -generally do not predict wage declines for older workers. Our analysis indicates that factors other than the depreciation of human capital can explain most of the drop in wages. In particular, longitudinal estimation of age-wage profiles reveals that much of the observed decline in cross-sectional data results from the tendency of lower-wage workers to remain at work while collecting Social Security.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Richard W. and David B. Neumark. "Wage Declines Among Older Men." Preliminary Paper, Population Studies Center, the University of Pennsylvania, 1992.
2. Miller, Ann R.
Evaluation of Data. Part II: The Measurement of Change: A Comparison of Retrospective and Panel Surveys
In: Migration, Employment, and Occupational Mobility. Philadelphia, PA: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupations; Quits; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper compares certain basic findings from the NLS and similar measures from the 1970 Census of Population, with a view to determining the extent to which they differ and the extent to which the patterns of labor force mobility described by each are similar. Although the findings presented are of considerable substantive interest, the primary purpose is methodological. In general, the two surveys of labor market behavior have been in remarkable agreement on the very broad aspects presented here, with the single important exception of the level of occupational mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Ann R. "Evaluation of Data. Part II: The Measurement of Change: A Comparison of Retrospective and Panel Surveys" In: Migration, Employment, and Occupational Mobility. Philadelphia, PA: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1977
3. O'Connell, Martin
Mortality and Labor Force Projections from Longitudinal Survey Data
Mimeo, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Mortality; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates worker and nonworker mortality by using the transition matrix. The findings indicate substantially higher mortality for males out of the labor force for both races and substantiate the often observed inverse relation between educational attainment and mortality experience among white males.
Bibliography Citation
O'Connell, Martin. "Mortality and Labor Force Projections from Longitudinal Survey Data." Mimeo, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1975.
4. Smith, Herbert L.
A Reanalysis of Data Concerning the Effects of Maternal Employment on the Vocabularies of Four-Year-Old Children
Working Paper, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Keyword(s): Child Development; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Family Income; Gender Differences; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Research Methodology; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Tests and Testing

In a recent article in Demography, Desai, Chase-Lansdale, and Michael (1989) use data from the NLSY to examine the effects of maternal employment on the intellectual ability of young children. The chief vehicle is the regression of scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised (PPVT) on measures of maternal employment plus a variety of control variables. They conclude that maternal employment has a statistically significant adverse impact on a child's intellectual ability, but only for boys and only then for boys in higher income families. This paper reanalyzes data used by Desai et al. (1989) and concludes that their findings are largely unsubstantiated and very much open to misinterpretation. Among the criticisms discussed: The sample used in the article (NLSY) is designed to over-represent the disadvantaged American population and self-selection of women on the basis of early childbearing makes the sample even more unrepresentative; socioeconomic status (SES) is op erationalized in terms of an income measure that ignores mother's earnings, but is then discussed and interpreted in terms of the mother's education; the presence of sampling weights distorts characteristics of the sample; the crucial result of the study involves what is functionally a three-factor interaction--the effect of maternal work on child's PPVT score varies by the sex of the child and the level of non-maternal family income. Put simply, there is no statistical evidence that the effect of maternal work on child's PPVT score varies by either the child's sex or the family's non-maternal income, much less the two together.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Herbert L. "A Reanalysis of Data Concerning the Effects of Maternal Employment on the Vocabularies of Four-Year-Old Children." Working Paper, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1990.
5. Todd, Petra E.
Wolpin, Kenneth I.
The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School and Racial Test Score Gaps
Presented: Buffalo, NY, Human Capital Conference, 2006.
Also: http://athena.sas.upenn.edu/~petra/papers/revpaper.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Teachers/Faculty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper studies the determinants of children's scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents' ability and unobserved endowments. The empirical results show that both contemporaneous and lagged inputs matter in the production of current achievement and the importance of allowing for unobserved endowment effects. We use cross-validation methods to select among competing specifications and find support for a variant of a value-added model of the production function augmented to include information on lagged inputs. Using this specification, we study the sources of test score gaps between black, white and Hispanic children. The estimated model captures key patterns in the data, such as the widening of minority-white test score gaps with age and differences in the gap pattern between Hispanics and blacks. We find that differences in mother's ability (as measured by AFQT) accounts for about half of the test score gap. However, home inputs also account for a significant proportion. Equalizing home inputs at the average levels of white children would close the black-white and the Hispanic-white test score gaps in math and reading by about 10-20%.

Earlier versions of this paper were presented at Columbia University and at the Institute for Research on Poverty conference in Madison, WI. An earlier version was presented at seminars at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Harris School of Public Policy (Chicago), UCLA, UCSD, Columbia University, University of Toulouse, University of Bergen, and a conference at the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank.

Bibliography Citation
Todd, Petra E. and Kenneth I. Wolpin. "The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School and Racial Test Score Gaps." Presented: Buffalo, NY, Human Capital Conference, 2006.