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Author: Bell, Janice F.
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Bell, Janice F.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Diehr, Paula K.
Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities
Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w41u402327vjp318/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We tested relations between aspects of maternal work and birth outcomes in a national sample and in subgroups known to experience disparities.

Methods: Three indices of work attributes (Status and Recognition, Physical Demands, and Exposure to Conflict) were derived by factor analysis of variables extracted from the Department of Labor's O*Net database. The indices were linked to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth using occupation codes for the primary jobs held by women who gave birth between 1979 and 2000 and worked during the quarter prior to birth (n = 3,386 births to n = 2,508 mothers). Multiple regression was used to model birth outcomes as functions of the work attribute indices, controlling for several measures of socioeconomic status and risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.

Results: In the full sample, work-related Physical Demands were associated with lower average birthweight and increased odds of preterm birth while Status and Recognition was associated with higher average birthweight and lower odds of fetal growth restriction. In stratified models, Status and Recognition was associated with higher birth weight among women with low (versus high) income and with lower odds of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) education. Physical Demands were associated with higher rates of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) income and education and among African-American mothers (compared to Whites).

Conclusions: The work environment is an important predictor of healthy births. Relations between maternal work attributes and birth outcomes differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and according to the outcome under investigation. Further research with measures of work attributes specific to maternal work experiences is recommended to confirm our findings.

Bibliography Citation
Bell, Janice F., Frederick J. Zimmerman and Paula K. Diehr. "Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities." Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
2. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Bell, Janice F.
Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.
Also: http://jech.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/60/6/513
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Hispanics; Income; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Design: Regression analysis of a large, nationally representative dataset, linked to US census and other county and state level sources of data on ecological covariates. The regressions control for individual economic and demographic covariates as well as relevant potential ecological confounders.

Setting: The US population in the year 2000.

Participants: 4817 US adults about age 40, representative of the US population.

Main outcome measures: Two outcomes were studied: self reported general health status, dichotomised as \"fair\" or \"poor\" compared with \"excellent\", \"very good\", or \"good\", and depression as measured by a score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression instrument >16.

Results: State generosity was significantly associated with a reduced odds of reporting poor general health (OR 0.84, 95%CI: 0.71 to 0.99), and the county unemployment rate with reduced odds of reporting depression (OR 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84 to 0.97). The measure of income inequality is a significant risk factor for reporting poor general health (OR 1.98, CI: 1.08 to 3.62), controlling for all ecological and individual covariates. In stratified models, the index of social capital is associated with reduced odds of reporting poor general health among black people and Hispanics (OR 0.40, CI: 0.18 to 0.90), but not significant among white people. The inequality measure is significantly associated with reporting poor general health among white people (OR 2.60, CI: 1.22 to 5.56) but not black people and Hispanics.

Conclusions: The effect of income inequality on health may work through the influence of invidious social comparisons (particularly among white subjects) and (among black subjects and Latinos) through a reduction in social capital. Researchers may find it fruitful to recognise the cultural specificity of any such effects.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Janice F. Bell. "Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.