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Author: Binder, Melissa
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Anderson, Deborah J.
Binder, Melissa
Krause, Kate
The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,2 (January 2003): 273-295.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3590938
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Human Capital; Mothers, Income; Skills; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women; Work Hours

This paper seeks an explanation for the well-documented wage disadvantage of mothers compared to women without children. An analysis of data from the 196888 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women shows that human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explain 5557% of the gap. Further analysis suggests that mothers tended to face the highest wage penalty when they first returned to work. A finding that medium-skill mothers (high school graduates) suffered more prolonged and severe wage losses than either low- or high-skill mothers casts doubt on the work-effort explanation for the wage gap, according to which women reduce work effort in response to childcare duties. The authors instead cite variable time constraints: high school graduates are likely to hold jobs requiring their presence during regular office hours, and are unlikely to gain flexibility by finding work at other hours or by taking work home in the evening. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J., Melissa Binder and Kate Krause. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,2 (January 2003): 273-295.
2. Anderson, Deborah J.
Binder, Melissa
Krause, Kate
The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2002
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Motherhood; Mothers; Skill Depreciation; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies of motherhood wage penalty typically focus on the "pure" effect of children, holding all else equal. But as all parents know, the arrival of a child means that nothing stays the same. One change especially salient to labor economists is that many mothers exit the work force. Absences from the labor market are likely to reduce wages because general and firm-specific skills depreciate and workers lose rents associated with good job matches. Low-skilled workers may be less vulnerable to such earnings erosion, since they have less human capital and their wages reflect less rent. If so, these workers may escape a motherhood wage penalty. Conversely, we would expect highly skilled women to experience the largest penalties for exiting the labor force to care for their children.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J., Melissa Binder and Kate Krause. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2002.
3. Anderson, Deborah J.
Binder, Melissa
Krause, Kate
The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why?
American Economic Review 92,2 (May 2002): 354-359.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282802320191606
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Graduates; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors study the motherhood wage penalty using the 1968-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Young Women (NLSYW). This data allows them to investigate both cross-sectional samples (with ordinary least-squares [OLS] models) and panel samples (with fixed-effects models to control for heterogeneity). The authors conclude that the least skilled do not suffer lower wages for becoming mothers; high-skilled workers should face high costs for exiting; and women who are high-school graduates and black college graduates appear to occupy a middle position.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J., Melissa Binder and Kate Krause. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why? ." American Economic Review 92,2 (May 2002): 354-359.