Search Results

Author: Bowlus, Audra Jann
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Bowlus, Audra Jann
A Panel Data Analysis of the US-Canadian Nonemployment Rate Gap Between Young, Low Skilled Males
Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques 24,S1 (February 1998): S192-S209.
Also: http://economics.ca/cgi/jab?journal=cpp&article=v24s1p0192
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey (LMAS); Cross-national Analysis; Employment; Employment, Part-Time; Skills; Unemployment; Unemployment Compensation; Unemployment Insurance; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey shows differences in both incidence and duration give rise to the mid-1980 US-Canadian nonemployment rate gap of young, low skilled males. Canadians are more likely to experience a firm-initiated job separation, to have been in a seasonal or temporary job, to experience transition to nonemployment rather than another job, and to take-up unemployment insurance (UI) than Americans. Overall, a pattern emerges of more intermittent employment in Canada with intervening spells of UI-sponsored nonemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. "A Panel Data Analysis of the US-Canadian Nonemployment Rate Gap Between Young, Low Skilled Males." Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques 24,S1 (February 1998): S192-S209.
2. Bowlus, Audra Jann
A Search Interpretation of Male-Female Wage Differentials
Journal of Labor Economics 15,4 (October 1997): 625-657.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/209840
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; College Graduates; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Quits; Wage Differentials

A general equilibrium search framework is used to examine the role of gender differences in labor market behavior patterns (e.g., quit rates for personal reasons) in determining gender wage differentials. For samples of high school and college graduates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), these behavioral patterns are found to be significantly different across the sexes and account for 20%-30% of the wage differentials. In particular, they play a key role in explaining the male-female wage differential that remains after controlling for the gender composition across occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. "A Search Interpretation of Male-Female Wage Differentials." Journal of Labor Economics 15,4 (October 1997): 625-657.
3. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Essays on Labor Market Dynamics and the Existence of Political Equilibrium
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling; Unemployment Rate; Wage Dynamics; Wage Levels

The first essay contains an empirical analysis of how job match quality varies over the business cycle. Using NLSY data I examine two match quality indicators: job tenure and starting wages. There are two main findings. First, match quality is adversely affected during recessions. Both tenure and starting wages are negatively related to the national unemployment rate at the start of the job. Thus during recessions individuals take lower paying jobs which dissolve quicker. Second, the labor market internalizes the mismatching though wages. The increased mismatching during recessions is captured by the labor market through lower wages with individuals moving out of jobs as soon as better times and matches arrive. The remaining two essays focus on cyclical and secular trends in aggregate labor market data using a general equilibrium search model and on factors influencing the existence of political equilibrium in growth models with heterogeneous agents.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. Essays on Labor Market Dynamics and the Existence of Political Equilibrium. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1993.
4. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Job Match Quality over the Business Cycle
In: Panel Data and Labour Market Dynamics. H. Bunzel, et al., eds. London, England: North-Holland, 1993: pp. 21-42
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling; Unemployment Rate; Wage Dynamics; Wage Levels

Does the business cycle have an impact on job-matching, specifically on the quality of job matches? Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to capture match quality at the individual level, I attempt to answer this question. Job tenure is used as a quality indicator under the Jovanovic (1979) model where matches are experience goods. Starting wages are also examined. Both local and national unemployment rates are used as cyclical indicators. The finding is a negative cyclical impact on both job match quality indicators. Thus during recessions individuals take jobs that are lower paying and dissolve quicker.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. "Job Match Quality over the Business Cycle" In: Panel Data and Labour Market Dynamics. H. Bunzel, et al., eds. London, England: North-Holland, 1993: pp. 21-42
5. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Matching Workers and Jobs: Cyclical Fluctuations in Match Quality
Journal of Labor Economics 13,2 (April 1995): 335-350.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2535107
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Job Patterns; Job Tenure; Labor Market Demographics; Wages

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data on tenure and wages, this article analyzes the extent to which the level of job mismatching varies over the business cycle and how it is dealt with by the labor market. I find significant cyclical variation in job match quality and an internalization of the variation by the labor market through wages. Mismatching occurs more during recessions but is primarily captured in starting wages. The evidence suggests the cyclical phenomenon is one of general mismatching rather than an increased number of stopgap jobs during recessions.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. "Matching Workers and Jobs: Cyclical Fluctuations in Match Quality." Journal of Labor Economics 13,2 (April 1995): 335-350.
6. Bowlus, Audra Jann
U.S.-Canadian Unemployment Rate and Wage Differences Among Young, Low-Skilled Males in the 1980s
Canadian Journal of Economics 31,2 (May 1998): 437-464.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/136333
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Canadian Economics Association / Association canadienne d\'economiques
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey (LMAS); Labor Economics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Labor Market Surveys; Monopsony Employers; Skilled Workers; Skills; Unemployment; Wage Equations; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the mid 1980s young low-skilled adults in Canada were much more likely to be out of work than their U.S. counterparts. The unemployment rate gap for this cohort was 7 percentage points. At the same time wage inequality was higher in the United States. Using panel data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey, in this study a general equilibrium search model of the labour market is employed to identify structural differences contributing to these gaps. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differences are driven by a higher job destruction/separation rate in Canada and higher job offer arrival rates in the United States. In general. the model characterizes the U.S. labour market as having less search frictions than that of Canada. That is, Canadian firms are found to have more monopsony power than their U.S. counterparts. Copyright Canadian Economics Association
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann. "U.S.-Canadian Unemployment Rate and Wage Differences Among Young, Low-Skilled Males in the 1980s." Canadian Journal of Economics 31,2 (May 1998): 437-464.
7. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Eckstein, Zvi
Discrimination and Skill Differences in an Equilibrium Search Model
Working Paper 04/98, Tel Aviv, Israel, Foerder Institute for Economic Research and Sackler Institute for Economic Research, February 1998.
Also: http://www.tinbergen.nl/discussionpapers/98112.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Eitan Berglas School of Economics
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Economics of Discrimination; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Human Capital; Labor Market Demographics; Modeling; Quits; Retirement; Schooling; Skilled Workers; Training, Occupational; Unemployment; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we analyze an equilibrium search model with three sources for wage and unemployment differentials among workers with the same (observed) human capital, but different appearance (race): unobserved productivity (skill), search intensities and discrimination (Becker 1957) due to an appearance-based employer disutility factor. Because these sources affect the earnings distributions differently, empirical identification of these potential sources for the explanation of wage and unemployment differentials is possible. We show that the structural parameters of the model, including the firm's disutility from certain workers, are identifiable using standard labor market survey data. We demonstrate identification using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Estimation of these parameters by matching moments from a sample of black and white high school graduates implies: a) blacks have a 9% lower productivity level than whites; b) the disutility factor in employer's preferences is 28% of the white's productivity level; and c) 53% of firms have a disutility factor in their utility towards blacks. (Copies available from: The Eitan Berglas School of Economics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Website: econ.tau.ac.il. No charge. COPYRIGHT: This record is part of the Abstracts of Working Papers in Economics (AWPE) Database, copyright (c) 1997 Cambridge University Press.)
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann and Zvi Eckstein. "Discrimination and Skill Differences in an Equilibrium Search Model." Working Paper 04/98, Tel Aviv, Israel, Foerder Institute for Economic Research and Sackler Institute for Economic Research, February 1998.
8. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Grogan, Louise
Equilibrium Job Search and Gender Wage Differentials in the U.K.
CLIN Working Paper No. 48, Canadian International Labour Network and McMaster University, June 2001.
Also: http://labour.ciln.mcmaster.ca/papers/cilnwp48.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Canadian International Labor Network (CILN)
Keyword(s): Britain, British; British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Cross-national Analysis; Job Search; Unemployment; Unemployment Rate; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The role of gender differences in labour market behaviour in determining the UK male-female wage differential is examined using the British Household Panel Study and the general equilibrium job search framework of Bowlus (1997). We find that search behaviour explains 30-35% of the gender wage differential. This is similar to US findings. Despite more generous maternity policies, females in the UK are more likely to exit to non-participation. Finally, we find the level of search friction is lower in the UK than in the US due tolow job destruction rates in the UK.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann and Louise Grogan. "Equilibrium Job Search and Gender Wage Differentials in the U.K." CLIN Working Paper No. 48, Canadian International Labour Network and McMaster University, June 2001.
9. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Kiefer, Nicholas M.
Neumann, George R.
Equilibrium Search Models and the Transition from School to Work
International Economic Review 42,2 (May 2001): 317-343.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2648733
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Employment; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Job Search; Racial Differences; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment; Wage Differentials

This paper applies the Burdett-Mortensen (1998) equilibrium search model to study the school to work transitions of U.S. high school graduates. We consider the case of discrete firm heterogeneity and provide a computational method to obtain the MLE. Our results show that unemployed blacks receive fewer offers than whites and employed blacks are more likely to lose their jobs. Importantly, employed blacks and whites receive job offers at the same rate. Assigning the whites' search parameters to the blacks and re-solving reveals that 75 percent of the observed wage differential is explained by the job destruction rate differences.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann, Nicholas M. Kiefer and George R. Neumann. "Equilibrium Search Models and the Transition from School to Work." International Economic Review 42,2 (May 2001): 317-343.
10. Bowlus, Audra Jann
Liu, Huju
The Contributions of Search and Human Capital to Earnings Growth over the Life Cycle
European Economic Review 64 (November 2013): 305-331.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014292113001293
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Earnings; Human Capital; Job Search; Life Cycle Research; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wage Growth

This paper presents and estimates a unified model where both human capital investment and job search are endogenized. This unification enables us to quantify the relative contributions of each mechanism to life cycle earnings growth, while investigating potential interactions between human capital investment and job search. Within the unified framework, the expectation of rising rental rates of human capital through job search gives workers more incentive to invest in human capital. In addition, unemployed workers reduce their reservation rental rates and increase their search effort to leave unemployment quickly to take advantage of human capital accumulation on the job. The results show both forces are important for earnings growth and the interactions are substantial: human capital accumulation accounts for 50% of total earnings growth, job search accounts for 20%, and the remaining 30% is due to the interactions of the two.
Bibliography Citation
Bowlus, Audra Jann and Huju Liu. "The Contributions of Search and Human Capital to Earnings Growth over the Life Cycle." European Economic Review 64 (November 2013): 305-331.