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Author: Brent, John
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Bares, Kyle J.
Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research on delinquency has shown that punishment and sanctions have become more punitive over time. While these punishments are meant to serve as a deterrent, research on the topic is mixed with some scholars finding that punishment functions as a deterrent in certain social milieus. Contrary to these findings, other research has found that punishment and sanctions may lead to worse outcomes. While past research has examined the effects of punishment on offending, what is still unknown is the long term affects that punishments--such as arrest--have on youth offending over time. Using the life-course perspective and labeling theory, we examine the relationship between arrest and offending, hypothesizing that arrest serves as a turning point where youth are labeled as delinquent and thus perform more delinquent behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), we find that youth who are arrested report higher levels of delinquency than youth who are not arrested. Further, we find that arrest increases offending within youth across time even when accounting for baseline levels of delinquency. Finally, we find that arrest presents a cumulative effect on delinquency whereby each arrest is accompanied by a proportional increase in delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Bares, Kyle J., Thomas Mowen and John Brent. "Youth Arrest as a Turning Point in Delinquency: The Role of Labeling across Time." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
2. Brent, John
Mowen, Thomas
School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Though under examination, schools are often marked by punitive disciplinary practices that have produced a number of negative consequences at the student- and school-level. Further, the criminalization of school discipline has been charged with establishing a school-to-prison pipeline: a process through which youth--especially racial/ethnic minorities--are enmeshed in criminal justice as a result of school discipline. Building on prior research noting elevated levels of misconduct where heightened forms of discipline are adopted, this study examines whether school discipline serves as a negative turning point for youth within their life-course by contributing to increased odds of delinquency. Further, this effort assesses whether discipline received across multiple years has a 'cumulative' effect on delinquency. To accomplish this, we use four waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997) and cross-lagged dynamic panel models. Results show that youth who are disciplined have significantly higher levels of delinquency across time relative to their peers. Further, each subsequent year the youth is punished leads to a significant increase in the odds of delinquency. In line with the life-course perspective, findings demonstrate that school discipline marks a negative turning point that can have a cumulative effect on delinquency over time.
Bibliography Citation
Brent, John and Thomas Mowen. "School Discipline: Its Impact and Cumulative Effect on Juvenile Delinquency." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Society of Criminology (ASC) Annual Meeting, November 2017.
3. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/53/5/628
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To examine how school discipline may serve as a negative turning point for youth and contribute to increased odds of arrest over time and to assess whether suspensions received across multiple years may present a "cumulative" increase in odds of arrest.

Methods: Using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we use a longitudinal hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to explore how school suspensions contribute to odds of arrest across time while controlling for a number of theoretically important dimensions such as race, age, delinquency, and gender among others.

Results: Results show that youth who are suspended are at an increased risk of experiencing an arrest across time relative to youth who are not suspended and that this effect increases across time. Further, with each subsequent year the youth is suspended, there is a significant increase in odds of arrest.

Conclusion: Supporting prior work, we find that youth who receive a suspension are at an increased odds of contact with the criminal justice system, and increases in the number of suspensions received contribute to significant increases in odds of arrest. Findings demonstrate that suspensions present a form of cumulative effect over time.

Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas and John Brent. "School Discipline as a Turning Point: The Cumulative Effect of Suspension on Arrest." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53,5 (August 2016): 628-653.
4. Mowen, Thomas
Brent, John
Bares, Kyle J.
How Arrest Impacts Delinquency Over Time Between and Within Individuals
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 16,4 (October 2018): 358-377.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1541204017712560
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While some studies find that criminal justice contact may deter future offending, another body of research indicates that contact with the criminal justice system can increase delinquency among youth. Although research has examined the relationship between punishment and offending, from a life-course perspective, we know little about between-individual and within-individual effects of punishment across time. Using a cross-lagged dynamic panel model, results from an analysis of four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 demonstrate that arrest contributes to within-individual increases in delinquency across time even after baseline levels of delinquency are controlled. Between-individual results show that youth who were arrested experience significant increases in offending compared to youth never arrested even after accounting for prior offending. Finally, this study uncovers a "cumulative effect" of arrest in that each subsequent year the youth is arrested relates to increased offending irrespective of prior offending. Overall, findings suggest that arrest contributes to significant increases in delinquency even after baseline levels of offending are directly modeled.
Bibliography Citation
Mowen, Thomas, John Brent and Kyle J. Bares. "How Arrest Impacts Delinquency Over Time Between and Within Individuals." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 16,4 (October 2018): 358-377.