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Author: Cheng, Siwei
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Cheng, Siwei
A Life Course Trajectory Framework for Understanding the Intracohort Pattern of Wage Inequality
American Journal of Sociology 120,3 (November 2014): 633-700.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/676841
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Wage Gap

Much research has been devoted to cross-sectional and intercohort patterns of wage inequality, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms for the intracohort pattern of wage inequality. To fill this intellectual gap, this article establishes a life course trajectory (LCT) framework for understanding the intracohort pattern of wage inequality. First, the author proposes and conceptualizes three essential properties of the LCT framework (random variability, trajectory heterogeneity, and cumulative advantage) that are used to establish a mathematical formalization of the LCT framework. Both the conceptualization and the formalization imply that intracohort wage inequality will increase over the life course due to random variability, trajectory heterogeneity, and cumulative advantage. Finally, the author combines the LCT framework with the multilevel growth curve model, then applies the model to data from the NLSY79, and finds support for the significance of random variability, trajectory heterogeneity, and between-group cumulative advantage properties but not the within-group cumulative advantage property.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "A Life Course Trajectory Framework for Understanding the Intracohort Pattern of Wage Inequality." American Journal of Sociology 120,3 (November 2014): 633-700.
2. Cheng, Siwei
Risk Pooling in The Family: Within Couple Inter-Temporal Responsiveness in Labor Market Activities
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Resources; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Husbands, Income; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family is a social institution that serves many social functions. Recently, a growing body of research calls attention to the role of family as a form of microlevel risk pooling, in that members of a family can pool their economic resources and adjust their behaviors to alleviate the impact of economic insecurity that they face on the labor market. The current paper studies the within-couple inter-temporal responsiveness in labor market participation as an empirical case of within-family risk pooling. Applying fixed-effect models to NLSY79 data, I found that that among married couples, the wife tends to adjust her labor supply according to the labor market outcomes of her husband, such that if the husband earns less annual income, works fewer hours, or receives a lower hourly wage, the wife will increase the amount of annual work hours or stay in employment statuses with greater level of labor market participation. In addition, the wife's responsiveness in labor market activities is greater when there is a young child present in the household, when the family income level is in the middle range, and when wife is contributing close to half of total family income.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "Risk Pooling in The Family: Within Couple Inter-Temporal Responsiveness in Labor Market Activities." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
3. Cheng, Siwei
The Accumulation of (Dis)Advantage: Dynamics of the Wage Effect of Marriage over the Life Course for Men and Women
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Gender Differences; Life Course; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Effects; Wage Gap; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper extends current understandings of the wage effect of marriage by examining its long-term dynamics over the life course for men and women respectively. Applying fixed-effect models to 103,392 person-year observations of the NLSY79 data, I found that (1) marriage is associated with higher rate of wage growth for men, yet lower rate of wage growth for women; (2) the positive association between marriage and wage growth for men is mainly attributable to work experience while the negative association between marriage and wage growth for women is mainly attributable to childbearing; (3) the gender difference in the pattern of variations in the wage effect of marriage over the life course causes the gender wage gap to grow over the life time. And the two mechanisms account for 1/3 and 1/5, respectively, of the total growth in the gender wage gap due to marriage over a 20-year life span.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Accumulation of (Dis)Advantage: Dynamics of the Wage Effect of Marriage over the Life Course for Men and Women." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
4. Cheng, Siwei
The Accumulation of (Dis)advantage: The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Long-Term Wage Effect of Marriage
American Sociological Review 81,1 (February 2016): 29-56.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/81/1/29
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Life Course; Marriage; Racial Differences; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A sizable literature examines whether and why marriage affects men's and women's wages. This study advances current research in two ways. First, whereas most prior studies treat the effect of marriage as time-invariant, I examine how the wage effect of marriage unfolds over the life course. Second, whereas prior work often focuses on the population-average effect of marriage or is limited to some particular gender or racial group, I examine the intersection of gender and race in the effect of marriage. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find that the marriage wage premium grows steadily and at a similar pace among white and black men. The marriage wage premium declines toward negative among white women, yet it grows steadily among black women. Furthermore, measured work experience explains a substantial amount of the wage premium among black men, yet it has little explanatory power among white men, pointing to the importance of unobserved factors in white men’s marriage premium. Changes in work experience negatively affect married white women's wages, yet they positively affect married black women's wages, pointing to the important differences between black and white families.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Accumulation of (Dis)advantage: The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Long-Term Wage Effect of Marriage." American Sociological Review 81,1 (February 2016): 29-56.
5. Cheng, Siwei
The Age Trajectory of Earnings Inequality: An Evaluation of Three Mechanisms
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Life Course; Wage Gap; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The age trajectory of earnings inequality within a cohort of population is an important macro-level phenomenon that stems from micro-level life course process of earnings attainment. Unfortunately, the sociological understanding of this inequality-generating process over people’s life course has been hindered by the lack of formal model and systematic empirical tests (DiPrete and Eirich 2006). To rectify this intellectual gap, this paper establishes a formal model that elucidates three important mechanisms that can produce the increase in earnings inequality over age: growth rate heterogeneity, status acceleration and cumulative disturbance. In this model, we will explicate why these three mechanisms should matter for the age trajectory of earnings inequality, and demonstrate their effects through micro-simulation. Further, the formal model enables us to identify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms using micro-level longitudinal data. Using NLSY79, a nationally-representative longitudinal data of a total of 418,638 person-year observations, we find that that all three mechanisms have contributed to the increase in earnings inequality yet to varying degrees. Moreover, their contributions differ for men and women: for men, the three mechanisms explain relatively equal proportions of the increase in earnings inequality from age 25 to 45; yet, for women, the bulk (80%) of increase in earnings inequality between age 25 and 45 is explained by the mechanism of cumulative disturbance.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Age Trajectory of Earnings Inequality: An Evaluation of Three Mechanisms." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
6. Cheng, Siwei
Brand, Jennie E.
Zhou, Xiang
Xie, Yu
Who Benefits First? Whose Benefits Last? Economic Returns on College Over the Life Cycle
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; Earnings; Educational Returns; Life Cycle Research; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most prior research on the college premium focuses on earnings at a certain age or averaged across the lifetime. We believe, however, that there are three important reasons for considering these college returns as varying over the life cycle. First, the economic benefits of college may emerge slowly rather than instantaneously over the career, therefore, college may be associated with a higher initial earnings as well as faster earnings growth rate. Second, individuals with varying propensity of attending college may also reap the returns to college at different life stages, which leads to the heterogeneity in the college premium across the propensity spectrum. Third, the life cycle variations in college premium may further depend on family and personal characteristics. Applying propensity-score based methods to data from NLSY79, our preliminary findings show that these three arguments are supported by empirical evidence in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei, Jennie E. Brand, Xiang Zhou and Yu Xie. "Who Benefits First? Whose Benefits Last? Economic Returns on College Over the Life Cycle." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.