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Author: Crane, Jonathan
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Crane, Jonathan
Duncan, Greg J.
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Phillips, Meredith
How Might Genetic Influences on Academic Achievement Masquerade as Environmental Influences?
Smart Library on Children and Families, 2003.
Also: http://www.children.smartlibrary.org/NewInterface/segment.cfm?segment=2606
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Qontent
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Environment; Family Income; Genetics; I.Q.; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reports on Phillips et al.'s study of the effects of families on black and white children's test scores. This abstract comes from the article's description of the researchers' methodology:

"Part of the problem in determining "how much" of the black-white achievement gap results from heredity versus environment is that a person's genes and environment influence each other in complicated ways. It is often difficult to tell what part of a person's situation is influenced by their genetic makeup and what part is shaped by their environment."

"Phillips and her colleagues sought to determine the relative importance of a wide range of family characteristics for children's vocabulary test scores. They did this by running statistical models in which they would factor in different influences and examine how the included variables changed the differences in black and white children's test scores."

Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Jonathan Crane, Greg J. Duncan, Pamela Kato Klebanov and Meredith Phillips. "How Might Genetic Influences on Academic Achievement Masquerade as Environmental Influences?" Smart Library on Children and Families, 2003.
2. Crane, Jonathan
Effects of Home Environment, SES, and Maternal Test Scores on Mathematics Achievement
Journal of Educational Research 89,5 (May-June 1996): 305-314.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00220671.1996.9941332
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Children, Home Environment; Children, Preschool; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Ability; Family Background; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Used data on 1,123 children (aged 5-9 yrs in 1988) and their mothers (aged 15-26 yrs old when children were born) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to assess the effects of home environment, SES, and maternal cognitive test scores (MTS) on mathematics achievement. Statistical analysis supported the following hypotheses: (1) home environment, SES, and MTS have independent effects on children's math scores, controlling for the other factors; (2) the 2-way relationship between MTS and children's math scores will be attenuated by controlling for home environment; (3) the 2-way relationship between MTS and children's math scores will be attenuated by controlling for SES; and (4) the 2-way relationship between SES and children's math scores will be attenuated by controlling for home environment. Home environment had a large effect on children's test scores, even when SES and MTS score controlled. The effects of SES and MTS were smaller. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1 996 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Crane, Jonathan. "Effects of Home Environment, SES, and Maternal Test Scores on Mathematics Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 89,5 (May-June 1996): 305-314.
3. Phillips, Meredith
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Duncan, Greg J.
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Crane, Jonathan
Family Background, Parenting Practices, and the Black-White Test Score Gap
In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 103-145.
Also: http://brookings.nap.edu/books/0815746091/html/103.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Environment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); I.Q.; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Preschool Children; Racial Differences; School Quality; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Chapter: Surveyed recent data from 2 samples of children to investigate R. J. Herrnstein and C. Murray's (see record 1994-98748-000) claims about the association between family background and young children's cognitive skills. The authors examine the contribution of parental education and income to the test score gap among 5- and 6-yr-olds. They then look at a much larger set of family environment indicators, including grandparents' educational attainment, mothers' household size, high school quality, and perceived self-efficacy, children's birth weight, children's household size, and mothers' parenting practices. Most of the analyses use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, focusing on 1,626 African-American and European- American 5- and 6-yr olds. Data on 315 children from the Infant Health and Development Program were used to supplement the analyses. Even though traditional measures of SES account for no more than a third of the test score gap, results show that a broader index of family environment may explain up to two-thirds of it. The results help to identify the family characteristics that matter most for the gap. They suggest that eliminating environmental differences between Black and White families could help to eliminate the test score gap. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Meredith, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg J. Duncan, Pamela Kato Klebanov and Jonathan Crane. "Family Background, Parenting Practices, and the Black-White Test Score Gap" In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 103-145.