Search Results

Author: Der, Geoff
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Batty, G. David
Der, Geoff
Deary, Ian J.
Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Pediatrics 118,3 (September 2006): 943-950.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/3/943
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Intelligence; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Variables, Independent - Covariate

BACKGROUND. Numerous studies have reported that maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is related to lower IQ scores in the offspring. Confounding is a crucial issue in interpreting this association. METHODS. In the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, IQ was ascertained serially during childhood using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the total score for which comprises results on 3 subtests: mathematics, reading comprehension, and reading recognition. Maternal IQ was assessed by using the Armed Forces Qualification Test. There were 5578 offspring (born to 3145 mothers) with complete information for maternal smoking habits, total Peabody Individual Achievement Test score, and covariates. RESULTS. The offspring of mothers who smoked ≥1 pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy had an IQ score (Peabody Individual Achievement Test total) that was, on average, 2.87 points lower than children born to nonsmoking mothers. Separate control for maternal education (0.27-IQ-point decrement) and, to a lesser degree, maternal IQ (1.51-1Q-point decrement) led to marked attenuation of the maternal-smoking-offspring-IQ relation. A similar pattern of results was seen when Peabody Individual Achievement Test subtest results were the outcomes of interest. The only exception was the Peabody Individual Achievement Test mathematics score, in which adjusting for maternal IQ essentially led to complete attenuation of the maternal-smoking-offspring-IQ gradient (0.66-IQ-point decrement). The impact of controlling for physical, behavioral, and other social indices was much less pronounced than for maternal education or IQ. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that previous studies that did not adjust for maternal education and/or IQ may have overestimated the association of maternal smoking with offspring cognitive ability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Batty, G. David, Geoff Der and Ian J. Deary. "Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Pediatrics 118,3 (September 2006): 943-950.
2. Batty, G. David
Der, Geoff
Deary, Ian J.
Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46,3 (March 2007): 377-377.
Also: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24194980&site=ehost-live
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Keyword(s): Children; Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The article presents a study to find the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's cognitive ability. In the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, IQ was determined during childhood using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the total score for which comprises results on 3 subtests that is reading comprehension, mathematics and reading recognition.
Bibliography Citation
Batty, G. David, Geoff Der and Ian J. Deary. "Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46,3 (March 2007): 377-377.
3. Deary, Ian J.
Der, Geoff
Shenkin, Susan D.
Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association Between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?
Intelligence 33,5 (September-October 2005): 445-454.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289605000577
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight–cognitive ability association. We analysed mother and child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Random effects models were employed to utilise fully the repeated cognitive tests on the same child, and to include all children of each mother. Mother's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) was significantly related to child's birth weight. Birth weight was significantly related to the child's scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. This association was attenuated by up to two-thirds after taking into account mother's AFQT score. In this large sample the association between birth weight and cognitive ability was substantially explained by mother's IQ. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2005 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Deary, Ian J., Geoff Der and Susan D. Shenkin. "Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association Between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?" Intelligence 33,5 (September-October 2005): 445-454.
4. Deary, Ian J.
Irwing, Paul
Der, Geoff
Bates, Timothy C.
Brother--Sister Differences in the g Factor in Intelligence: Analysis of Full, Opposite-Sex Siblings from the NLSY1979
Intelligence 35,5 (September-October 2007): 451-456.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289606001115
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; g Factor; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Intelligence; Siblings; Sisters

There is scientific and popular dispute about whether there are sex differences in cognitive abilities and whether they are relevant to the proportions of men and women who attain high-level achievements, such as Nobel Prizes. A recent meta-analysis (Lynn, R., and Irwing, P. (2004). Sex differences on the progressive matrices: a meta-analysis. Intelligence, 32, 481–498.), which suggested that males have higher mean scores on the general factor in intelligence (g), proved especially contentious. Here we use a novel design, comparing 1292 pairs of opposite-sex siblings who participated in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY1979). The mental test applied was the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), from which the briefer Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores can also be derived. Males have only a marginal advantage in mean levels of g (less than 7% of a standard deviation) from the ASVAB and AFQT, but substantially greater variance. Among the top 2% AFQT scores, there were almost twice as many males as females. These differences could provide a partial basis for sex differences in intellectual eminence. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Deary, Ian J., Paul Irwing, Geoff Der and Timothy C. Bates. "Brother--Sister Differences in the g Factor in Intelligence: Analysis of Full, Opposite-Sex Siblings from the NLSY1979." Intelligence 35,5 (September-October 2007): 451-456.
5. Der, Geoff
Batty, G. David
Deary, Ian J.
Effect of Breast Feeding on Intelligence in Children: Prospective Study, Sibling Pairs Analysis, and Meta-Analysis
British Medical Journal 333,7575 (4 November 2006): 945-948.
Also: http://www.bmj.com/content/333/7575/945.full
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Breastfeeding; Cognitive Ability; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); I.Q.; Pairs (also see Siblings); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence.
Design: Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are considered in the context of other studies that have also controlled for parental intelligence via meta-analysis.
Setting: 1979 US national longitudinal survey of youth.
Subjects: Data on 5475 children, the offspring of 3161 mothers in the longitudinal survey.
Main outcome measure: IQ in children measured by Peabody individual achievement test.
Results: The mother's IQ was more highly predictive of breastfeeding status than were her race, education, age, poverty status, smoking, the home environment, or the child's birth weight or birth order. One standard deviation advantage in maternal IQ more than doubled the odds of breast feeding. Before adjustment, breast feeding was associated with an increase of around 4 points in mental ability. Adjustment for maternal intelligence accounted for most of this effect. When fully adjusted for a range of relevant confounders, the effect was small (0.52) and non-significant (95% confidence interval -0.19 to 1.23). The results of the sibling comparisons and meta-analysis corroborated these findings.
Conclusions: Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children. While breast feeding has many advantages for the child and mother, enhancement of the child's intelligence is unlikely to be among them.

Policy summary:
Breast feeding does not increase children's intelligence
Despite its many advantag es, breast feeding has little effect on children's intelligence. In a cohort study of 3161 mothers and 5475 children, Der and colleagues (p. 945) found that breast feeding was associated with higher IQ in children, but that this effect was almost entirely accounted for by maternal IQ. More intelligent mothers were more likely to breast feed, and maternal IQ was more predictive of feeding choice than mothers' age, education, home environment, and antenatal smoking status, or children's birth weight and birth order.

Bibliography Citation
Der, Geoff, G. David Batty and Ian J. Deary. "Effect of Breast Feeding on Intelligence in Children: Prospective Study, Sibling Pairs Analysis, and Meta-Analysis." British Medical Journal 333,7575 (4 November 2006): 945-948.
6. Der, Geoff
Batty, G. David
Deary, Ian J.
The Association Between IQ in Adolescence and a Range of Health Outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth
Intelligence 37,6 (November-December 2009): 573-580.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289608001669
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Cognitive Ability; Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; I.Q.; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Morbidity; Mortality

A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health outcomes ascertained at 40 years of age. We use data on 7476 participants in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 who had their cognitive ability measured at baseline and completed the 'Health at 40' interview module between 1998 and 2004. The Health at 40 module includes assessments of general health and depression, nine medically diagnosed conditions, and 33 common health problems. Higher mental test scores were associated with lower depression scores, better general health, significantly lower odds of having five of the nine diagnosed conditions and 15 of the 33 health problems. A health disadvantage of higher cognitive ability was evident for only three of the 33 health problems.
Bibliography Citation
Der, Geoff, G. David Batty and Ian J. Deary. "The Association Between IQ in Adolescence and a Range of Health Outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth." Intelligence 37,6 (November-December 2009): 573-580.
7. Wraw, Christina
Deary, Ian J.
Der, Geoff
Gale, Catharine R.
Intelligence in Youth and Mental Health at Age 50
Intelligence 58 (September-October 2016): 69-79.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616300356
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intelligence; Sleep; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Background: Few cognitive epidemiology studies on mental health have focused on the links between pre-morbid intelligence and self-reports of common mental disorders, such as depression, sleep difficulties, and mental health status. The current study examines these associations in 50-year-old adults.

Methods: The study uses data from the 5793 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) who responded to questions on mental health at age 50 and had IQ measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when they were aged between 15 and 23 years in 1980. Mental health outcomes were: life-time diagnosis of depression; the mental component score of the 12-item short-form Health Survey (SF-12); the 7-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); and a summary measure of sleep difficulty.

Bibliography Citation
Wraw, Christina, Ian J. Deary, Geoff Der and Catharine R. Gale. "Intelligence in Youth and Mental Health at Age 50." Intelligence 58 (September-October 2016): 69-79.
8. Wraw, Christina
Deary, Ian J.
Der, Geoff
Gale, Catharine R.
Maternal and Offspring Intelligence in Relation to BMI across Childhood and Adolescence
International Journal of Obesity published online (30 January 2018): DOI: 10.1038/s41366-018-0009-1.
Also: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41366-018-0009-1
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Body Mass Index (BMI); Children; I.Q.; Mothers; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth.

Method: Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). A series of regression analyses tested the association between IQ and offspring's BMI by age group, while adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and family SES. The analyses were stratified by sex and ethnicity (non-Black and non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic).

Bibliography Citation
Wraw, Christina, Ian J. Deary, Geoff Der and Catharine R. Gale. "Maternal and Offspring Intelligence in Relation to BMI across Childhood and Adolescence." International Journal of Obesity published online (30 January 2018): DOI: 10.1038/s41366-018-0009-1.
9. Wraw, Christina
Deary, Ian J.
Gale, Catharine R.
Der, Geoff
Intelligence in Youth and Health at Age 50
Intelligence 53 (November-December 2015): 23-32.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289615001014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intelligence

Background: The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort.

Methods: Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately.

Bibliography Citation
Wraw, Christina, Ian J. Deary, Catharine R. Gale and Geoff Der. "Intelligence in Youth and Health at Age 50." Intelligence 53 (November-December 2015): 23-32.
10. Wraw, Christina
Der, Geoff
Gale, Catharine R.
Deary, Ian J.
Intelligence in Youth and Health Behaviours in Middle Age
Intelligence 69 (July-August 2018): 71-86.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617302672
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Exercise; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intelligence; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Objective: We investigated the association between intelligence in youth and a range of health-related behaviours in middle age.

Method: Participants were the 5347 men and women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) 2012 survey. IQ was recorded with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when participants were aged 15 to 23 years of age. Self-reports on exercise (moderate activity, vigorous activity, and strength training), dietary, smoking, drinking, and oral health behaviours were recorded when participants were in middle age (mean age = 51.7 years). A series of regression analyses tested for an association between IQ in youth and the different health related behaviours in middle age, while adjusting for childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult SES.

Conclusion: In the present study, a higher IQ in adolescence was associated with a number of healthier behaviours in middle age. In contrast to these results, a few associations were also identified between higher intelligence and behaviours that may or may not be linked with poor health (i.e. skipping meals and snacking between meals) and with behaviours that are known to be linked with poor health (i.e. drinking alcohol and the number of cigarettes smoked). To explore mechanisms of association, future studies could test for a range of health behaviours as potential mediators between IQ and morbidity or mortality in later life.

Bibliography Citation
Wraw, Christina, Geoff Der, Catharine R. Gale and Ian J. Deary. "Intelligence in Youth and Health Behaviours in Middle Age." Intelligence 69 (July-August 2018): 71-86.