Search Results

Author: Dwyer, Rachel E.
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. DeMarco, Laura
Dwyer, Rachel E.
Haynie, Dana L.
The Accumulation of Disadvantage: Criminal Justice Contact, Credit, and Debt in the Transition to Adulthood
Criminology published online (19 August 2021): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12286.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12286
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Disadvantaged, Economically; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social exclusion of those with criminal justice experience increasingly includes a financial component, but the structure of disadvantage in credit and debt remains unclear. We develop a model of financial disadvantage in debt holding during the transition to adulthood among justice-involved groups. We study cumulative criminal justice contact and debt holding by age 30 using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). The NLSY97 cohort transitioned to adulthood during an era of historically high criminal justice contact, with many experiencing arrests, convictions, and incarceration. We develop a distinct measurement approach to cumulative criminal justice contact by age 30 that captures variation between young adults in the severity of justice encounters in the early life course. We conceptualize financial disadvantage as a lower likelihood of holding debt that facilitates property and attainment investments and a higher likelihood of holding higher cost debts used for consumption or emergencies. We find that those with the most punitive criminal justice contact evidence the most disadvantageous form of debt holding, potentially exacerbating social exclusion. We consider the implications of the accumulation of financial disadvantage for our understanding of criminal justice contact as a life-course process.
Bibliography Citation
DeMarco, Laura, Rachel E. Dwyer and Dana L. Haynie. "The Accumulation of Disadvantage: Criminal Justice Contact, Credit, and Debt in the Transition to Adulthood." Criminology published online (19 August 2021): DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12286.
2. Dwyer, Rachel E.
Student Loans and Graduation from American Universities
Report, Third Way, Washington DC, 2015.
Also: http://www.thirdway.org/report/student-loans-and-graduation-from-american-universities
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Third Way
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Degree; College Graduates; Debt/Borrowing; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Dwyer shows that the relationship between debt and graduation is more complex than it would appear.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E. "Student Loans and Graduation from American Universities." Report, Third Way, Washington DC, 2015.
3. Dwyer, Rachel E.
Hodson, Randy
McCloud, Laura
Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College
Gender and Society 27,1 (February 2013): 30-55.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/27/1/30.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Gender Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Randy Hodson and Laura McCloud. "Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College." Gender and Society 27,1 (February 2013): 30-55.
4. Dwyer, Rachel E.
McCloud, Laura
Hodson, Randy
Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Dropouts; Gender Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Access to credit has become critical for many young Americans to complete a college education and embark on a successful career path. Young people thus increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or forgoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are significantly gendered by gender differences in college preparation and support, and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying significant college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of dropping out of college in the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We find that women and men are both more likely to drop out of college when carrying high debt, but men drop out at lower levels of debt than women. We conclude by considering whether high levels of debt have become one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the structure of social stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Laura McCloud and Randy Hodson. "Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
5. Dwyer, Rachel E.
McCloud, Laura
Hodson, Randy
Youth Debt, Mastery, and Self-Esteem: Class-Stratified Effects of Indebtedness on Self-Concept
Social Science Research 40,3 (May 2011): 727-741.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X11000299
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Educational Attainment; Household Income; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Stress; Student Loans

Young adults at the turn of the 21st century came of age in a time of unprecedented access to credit but slowed growth in earnings, resulting in a dramatic increase in indebtedness. Debt has been little studied by sociologists, even though it is increasingly important in financing both attainment and a middle-class lifestyle, especially for youth in the transition to adulthood. We study the consequences of indebtedness for young adults’ sense of mastery and self-esteem as stratified by class. Young adulthood is a crucial developmental period for mastery and self-esteem, which then serve as a social psychological resource (or deficit) into the adult years. Research suggests that young people have divergent perspectives on debt: some focus on credit as a necessary investment in status attainment, while others worry that readily available credit invites improvidence that can erode the self-concept as debt encumbers achievement and future consumption and increases a sense of powerlessness. We find that both education and credit-card debt increase mastery and self-esteem, supporting the hypothesis that young people experience debt as an investment in the future, and contradicting the expectation that debt used to finance current spending will lower mastery and self-esteem. Our expectation that debt effects are accentuated for those of lower- and middle-class origins but blunted for those of upper-class origins is supported. We find, however, that the positive effects of debt appear to wane among the oldest young adults, suggesting the stresses of debt may mount with age. We conclude that further study of the long-term consequences of debt will be essential for advancing contemporary stratification theory and research.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Laura McCloud and Randy Hodson. "Youth Debt, Mastery, and Self-Esteem: Class-Stratified Effects of Indebtedness on Self-Concept ." Social Science Research 40,3 (May 2011): 727-741.
6. Dwyer, Rachel E.
Neilson, Lisa A.
Nau, Michael
Hodson, Randy
Mortgage Worries: Young Adults and the US Housing Crisis
Socio-Economic Review 14,3 (July 2016): 483-505.
Also: http://ser.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/3/483.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Economic Changes/Recession; Health, Mental; Home Ownership

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 2008 housing crisis and the changes in lending practices that led up to it shook the status of home loans as secure debt in the USA. The crisis hit during a time when many young adults had recently bought their first home, making it a particularly consequential moment in their homeownership career. We investigate the effects of the housing crisis on the mental health of young homeowners using longitudinal data. We model levels of anxiety among young homeowners carrying mortgage debt before and after the recession as an early indicator of how the crisis affected the experience of home loans. The positive effects of being a mortgaged homeowner before the recession declined significantly after the housing crisis. We discuss whether this shift may portend a longer-term shift in American beliefs in the value of investing in housing, with significant implications for financial well-being and wealth stratification.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Lisa A. Neilson, Michael Nau and Randy Hodson. "Mortgage Worries: Young Adults and the US Housing Crisis." Socio-Economic Review 14,3 (July 2016): 483-505.
7. Hodson, Randy
Dwyer, Rachel E.
Neilson, Lisa A.
Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit
The Sociology Quarterly 55,2 (Spring 2014): 315-340.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tsq.12059/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Depression (see also CESD); Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Health, Mental; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an era of increased access to credit, it becomes increasingly important to understand the consequences of taking on unsecured consumer debt. We argue that credit can have both positive and negative consequences resulting from its ability to smooth life transitions and difficulties but that this occurs simultaneously with increased financial risks and stress resulting from carrying unsecured debt. We find that those in the middle of the income distribution suffer the greatest disruptions to mental health from carrying debt. Affluent borrowers are relatively unmoved by debt, suggesting the use of short-term debt as a convenience strategy for the financially well heeled. The least advantaged borrowers also suffer emotionally less from debt, possibly because securing spendable funds for necessities remains their most pressing concern. The onset of the Great Recession, however, produced increased emotional distress for all classes.
Bibliography Citation
Hodson, Randy, Rachel E. Dwyer and Lisa A. Neilson. "Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit." The Sociology Quarterly 55,2 (Spring 2014): 315-340.
8. Nau, Michael
Dwyer, Rachel E.
Hodson, Randy
Can't Afford a Baby? Debt and Young Americans
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 42 (December 2015): 114-122.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562415000402
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Fertility; Parenthood; Student Loans

This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.
Bibliography Citation
Nau, Michael, Rachel E. Dwyer and Randy Hodson. "Can't Afford a Baby? Debt and Young Americans." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 42 (December 2015): 114-122.