Search Results

Author: Gill, Andrew Matthew
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Drug Use and the Value of Life
Working Paper, College of Business and Economics, California State University, Fullerton, May 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Heterogeneity; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between illicit drug use and compensating wage differentials for risk of job-related death. The motivation for this paper proposes the following three conditions: 1. Heterogeneity in individual willingness to bear job risks. 2. Correlation between drug use and willingness to bear job risks helps to identify this heterogeneity. 3. Hersch and Viscusi (1990) found that cigarette smokers and nonseatbelt wearers received lower compensating differentials for risk of nonfatal lost workday injuries than nonsmokers and seatbelt wearers. The findings are discussed and tend to support the above conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. "Drug Use and the Value of Life." Working Paper, College of Business and Economics, California State University, Fullerton, May 1993.
2. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Incorporating the Causes of Occupational Differences in Studies of Racial Wage Differentials
Journal of Human Resources 29,1 (Winter 1994): 20-41.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146054
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Choice; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wage Differentials

This study provides a basic framework for incorporating the causes of occupational differences into analyses of racial wage differentials. Using National Longitudinal Survey data, the influence of personal characteristics, occupational choice, and discrimination on the occupational attainment of young men was investigated. Two findings were reached: First, correcting for self-selection increases importance of occupational distribution in explaining racial wage differentials; and second differential access to high-paying occupations contributes substantially to wage differences.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. "Incorporating the Causes of Occupational Differences in Studies of Racial Wage Differentials." Journal of Human Resources 29,1 (Winter 1994): 20-41.
3. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Social Security and Life-Cycle Labor Supply
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1985. DAI-A 46/11, p. 3452, May 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Social Security

This dissertation examines the labor supply consequences of the social security earnings test and benefit structure in a life-cycle setting. Specifically, the research addresses the contention that the implicit tax on earnings at the age of social security acceptance induces a substitution of market work to younger ages of the life-cycle by changing an individual's relative wage pattern. Using a sample of middle-aged men from the National Longitudinal Survey, this study will present new microeconomic evidence related to the full life-cycle adjustment to the social security system. A recently developed empirical model of labor supply that incorporates the life-cycle considerations mentioned is implemented. The empirical methodology includes the use of panel data to estimate marginal utility of wealth-constant demand functions. Estimation of the model provides parameter estimates needed to construct intertemporal substitution elasticities, as well as responses to parametric changes in wealth and wages over the life cycle.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. Social Security and Life-Cycle Labor Supply. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1985. DAI-A 46/11, p. 3452, May 1986.
4. Gill, Andrew Matthew
The Role of Discrimination in Determining Occupational Structure
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,4 (July 1989): 610-623.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524033
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Human Capital; Modeling, Logit; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Racial Differences

This study attempts to isolate the role of discrimination in determining racial differences in occupational structure. Logit techniques are used to identify and distinguish between determinants of the probability that an individual will choose an occupation and the probability that an individual will be hired for a desired job. The empirical results indicate that much of the under-representation of blacks in managerial, sales and clerical, and craft occupations can be attributed to employment discrimination. These findings thus seriously challenge human capital models, which treat occupational distribution as resulting from individual choice.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. "The Role of Discrimination in Determining Occupational Structure." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,4 (July 1989): 610-623.
5. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Foley, Jack
Predicting Educational Attainment for a Minor Child: Some Further Evidence
Journal of Forensic Economics 9,2 (1996): 101-112.
Also: http://www.nafe.net/JFE/j09_2_01.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Association of Forensic Economics
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; High School Students; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Religion; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper reexamines SK's educational attainment model using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Three key issues motivate the work. First, the NLSY data allow us to avoid the truncation problem encountered by SK in estimating their model of educational attainment. SK note that one limitation of their analysis is that all respondents in their sub-sample from the NLS72 had completed high school. Thus, as they acknowledge, they could not directly estimate the probability that an individual will complete high school which, in turn, limits their ability to estimate population probabilities of educational attainment. The NLSY data set avoids this problem since it contains information on individuals who did not complete high school. Second, we expand the number of explanatory variables used by SK to take advantage of the wealth of family background and demographic characteristics available in the NLSY. SK specify race, parents' education, and an urban-rural control as determinants of future educational attainment. We extend this list to include the influence of such factors as parents' occupation, family composition, number of siblings, and the religion in which one was raised. Finally, we are able to examine the sensitivity of SK's major results to different and more recent data. The NLS72 survey ended in 1986. Since the respondents were highschool seniors in 1972, a large majority of those who completed a college degree would have done so sometime in the mid to late 1970s. The NLSY survey, in contrast, is a continuing survey that was first administered in 1979 when respondents were 14 to 21 years of age. Most college degree recipients would have completed their education roughly between 1982 and 1988.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Jack Foley. "Predicting Educational Attainment for a Minor Child: Some Further Evidence." Journal of Forensic Economics 9,2 (1996): 101-112.
6. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Leigh, Duane E.
Do the Returns to Community Colleges Differ between Academic and Vocational Programs?
Journal of Human Resources 38,1 (Winter 2003): 134-155.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/XXXVIII/1/134.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Graduates; Colleges; Earnings; Transfers, Skill; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

This paper provides new evidence about the payoffs to community colleges' terminal training programs as distinct from their traditional transfer function. Using NLSY data, we offer three main findings. First, four-year college graduates who started at a community tcollege are not at a substantial earnings disadvantage relative to those who started at a four-year college. Second, community college students in terminal training programs enjoy a positive payoff comparable to that received by four-year college starters who do not graduate. Finally, we find evidence of positive self-selection for community college students who choose the terminal training track.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Duane E. Leigh. "Do the Returns to Community Colleges Differ between Academic and Vocational Programs?" Journal of Human Resources 38,1 (Winter 2003): 134-155.
7. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Michaels, Robert J.
Does Drug Use Lower Wages?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 419-434.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524269
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Wages

Microdata from the 1980 and 1984 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS-Y) were used to examine the effects of drug use on wages and employment. It was shown that, once an allowance is made for self-selection effects, drug users actually received higher wages than nondrug users. Data on marijuana and cocaine use from the 1984 NLS-Y were used to examine the hypothesis that drug use reduces labor market productivity, as measured by wages. It was found that, although long-term and on-the-job use of marijuana negatively affected wages, the net productivity effect for all marijuana users was positive. No statistically significant association was found between cocaine use and productivity. The results of the 2 studies indicate that drug use, apparently irrespective of frequency, does not degrade earnings. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Robert J. Michaels. "Does Drug Use Lower Wages?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 419-434.
8. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Michaels, Robert J.
Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use: Discussion by the Authors
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 449-451.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524271
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Earnings; Employment; Endogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Substance Use; Wage Levels; Wage Models

In Does Drug Use Lower Wages?, Andrew M. Gill and Robert J. Michaels examine the effects of drug use on wages and employment, based on microdata from the 1980 and 1984 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey. In contrast to previous research, these findings indicate that, if an allowance is made for self-selection effects, drug users actually received higher wages than nonusers. Another surprising finding is that, while all drug users as a sample population had lower employment levels than nonusers, users of hard drugs did not. In Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Men, Charles A. Register uses data from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 12,686 respondents) to examine the hypothesis that drug use reduces labor market productivity, as measured by wages. Controlling for the probability of employment and the endogeneity of drug use, it is found that, although long-term and on-the-job use of marijuana negatively affects wages, the net productivity effect for all marijuana users is positive. It is concluded that no statistically significant association exists between cocaine use and productivity. In Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use, Discussion by the Authors Gill and Michaels discuss questions left unanswered by Register and Williams, e.g., how drug use might reduce employment and the long-term labor market effects of drug use, and explore future research strategies to estimate fixed-effects specifications of the drug use-earnings relationship. Register and Williams comment on the consistency between their findings and those of Gill and Michaels, but also point out differences, including their divergent methodological styles, Gill's and Michaels's inclusion of women in their study, and different definitions of drug use. Policy implications are briefly discussed. (Copyright 1992, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Robert J. Michaels. "Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use: Discussion by the Authors." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 449-451.
9. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Michaels, Robert J.
The Determinants of Illegal Drug Use
Contemporary Policy Issues 9,3 (July 1991): 93-105.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7287.1991.tb00345.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Earnings; Modeling, Probit; Time Use; Wages

Drug use is analyzed using a model in which an individual's time is allocated among labor, non-drug consumption, leisure, and drug use, where the individual is cognizant of the effect of drug use on wages. Comparative static results are analyzed, and data from the NLSY are used to estimate a probit model of the individual decision to use drugs. It is found that noneconomic factors dominate the decision for both harder drugs and for drugs more broadly defined. Wages and the associated difference in wages between users and nonusers do not influence the likelihood of drug use. Variables indicating underlying personality problems, such as those associated with problem drinking, and a predisposition to illegal acts exert strong influences. Because drug price data are not available, these findings cannot be taken as being conclusive. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Robert J. Michaels. "The Determinants of Illegal Drug Use." Contemporary Policy Issues 9,3 (July 1991): 93-105.
10. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Wolfson, Murray
Market Opportunities and the Job-Risk Choices of Black Men
Working Paper, College of Business and Economics, California State University, Fullerton, May 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: College of Business and Economics (Mihaylo), California State University, Fullerton
Keyword(s): Family Background; Human Capital; Job Hazards; Modeling; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we attempt to shed light on these differences by analyzing risk behavior in the labor market. We present a model of the demand for safety that emphasizes the role of human capital, personal and family background, and differential labor market opportunities in determining the job-risk choices of black males. Job-Risk choices are analyzed by combining a measure of job risk for three-digit occupations with data drawn from the 1984 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We find that human capital differences between whites and blacks are important in determining job risk through their effects on white-collar employment, but also that a large part of the risk differential is unexplained.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Murray Wolfson. "Market Opportunities and the Job-Risk Choices of Black Men." Working Paper, College of Business and Economics, California State University, Fullerton, May 1993.
11. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?
Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000577
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Schooling, Post-secondary; Transfers, Public

This paper provides new estimates of the 'diversion effect' argument advanced by critics of community colleges. As emphasized by Rouse (J. Business Econ. Statist. 13 (1995) 217), information on students' desired level of schooling is essential to properly measure the diversion effect of community colleges as well as their 'democratization effect' increasing access to higher education. Using information on desired years of schooling from early waves of the NLSY, we find that the choice between alternative postsecondary education tracks including the choice of community college students between transfer and terminal programs is highly sensitive to years of desired schooling. Diversion effect estimates are also found to depend on whether we condition on desired schooling. For individuals who express a desire to complete at least 16 years of schooling, our diversion effect estimates lie between −0.7 and −1.0 years. These estimates are clearly dominated by positive democratization effect estimates. On balance, therefore, we find for individuals desiring a bachelor's degree that community colleges increase average educational attainment by between 0.4 and 1.0 years. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?" Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
12. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Labor Market Returns to Community Colleges: Evidence for Returning Adults
Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 334-353.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146218
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Colleges; Earnings; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Market Outcomes; Training, Occupational

Kane and Rouse (1993) furnish evidence that enrollment in a two-year or four-year-college program increases earnings by 5 to 8 percent per year of college credits, whether or nor a degree is earned. This evidence has provided the intellectual basis for policy recommendations to increase access by adult, workers to long-term education and training programs, such as those supplied by community colleges. Yet to be answered, however, is the question whether these favorable return estimates hold for experienced adult workers who return to school. For both A.A. and nondegree community college programs, our results indicate returns that are positive and of essentially the same size for returning adults as they are for continuing high school graduates. Among males in nondegree programs, in fact, returning adults enjoy an incremental earnings effect of 8 to 10 percent above that received by continuing students. (Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1997)
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Labor Market Returns to Community Colleges: Evidence for Returning Adults." Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 334-353.
13. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations
Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775703000633
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Family Background; Racial Studies

The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie actual years of schooling completed. Using NLSY data, we obtain community college 'differential aspirations effect' estimates that range from as high as −0.68 of a year to as low as our preferred estimate of −0.43 of a year. We put these estimates in perspective by showing that they are less than half of the conventionally measured diversion effect estimated for our sample. Regarding democratization, we find that attending a community college results in a substantial expansion in the educational aspirations of students (our 'incremental aspirations effect'), regardless of their family backgrounds and race and ethnicity. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations." Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
14. Leigh, J. Paul
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Do Women Receive Compensating Wages for Risks of Dying on the Job?
Social Science Quarterly 72,4 (December 1991): 727-737
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Keyword(s): Job Hazards; Unions; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Leigh, J. Paul and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Do Women Receive Compensating Wages for Risks of Dying on the Job?" Social Science Quarterly 72,4 (December 1991): 727-737.