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Author: Gritz, R. Mark
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Baydar, Nazli
Greek, April A.
Gritz, R. Mark
Young Mothers' Time Spent at Work and Time Spent Caring for Children
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (March 1999): 61-84.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h367846g48770465/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Child Care; Time Use; Work Hours

Investigated the association between the time a mother spends at work and in different child care activities, using data from 1,248 female participants in the 1981 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) who had children younger than 6 yrs old at the time of the study. The mothers who worked on the index day spent almost one hour less time in physical care, one-half hour less time in interactive care, and over two hours less time in passive supervision of their children. The effects of a set of predictors on time use at work, time use in physical care, interactive care, and passive supervision of children were estimated using a covariance structure model. When the effects of these predictors were controlled, the number of hours at work predicted: (1) a small reduction in time spent in interactive care, and (2) larger reductions in time spent in physical care and passive supervision. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, April A. Greek and R. Mark Gritz. "Young Mothers' Time Spent at Work and Time Spent Caring for Children." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (March 1999): 61-84.
2. Baydar, Nazli
Slusher, Chuck
Charng, Hong-Wen
Gritz, R. Mark
Mom's Money or Dad's Money: Resources Provided to Children
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Income; Maternal Employment; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The association between income and the resources provided to children was investigated. In particular, the income from different sources was hypothesized to have different effects on the stimulation resources that mothers provided to their children. An important problem in estimating the effects of income from different sources on investments in children is that the decisions regarding investments in children and sources of income in the household may have some common unobserved determinants. In order to address this issue a two-stage estimation method was used, where a set of instrumental variables helped identify the effects of maternal employment, maternal earning, paternal earnings, unearned income, and income from public assistance programs on stimulation resources. Data from 6- to 9-year-old Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used. The results indicate differences in the effects of income from different sources on stimulation resources. Paternal earnings had a positive and significant effect on stimulation resources in families of all race/ethnicity groups. Maternal earnings did not have a significant effect on stimulation resources. Welfare income had a negative effect on stimulation resources in white families only. The results indicate that contribution to family income may not be strongly associated with control over resources allocation practices and underscore importance of studying household money management practices directly.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, Chuck Slusher, Hong-Wen Charng and R. Mark Gritz. "Mom's Money or Dad's Money: Resources Provided to Children." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America, March 1999.
3. Branden, Laura
Gritz, R. Mark
Pergamit, Michael R.
Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950030.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Interviewing Method; Nonresponse; Sample Selection

In this paper, we examine the effect of interview length on wave nonresponse in a longitudinal survey, controlling for respondent-specific characteristics known to affect survey response. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a sample of over 10,000 individuals who were 14-22 years old when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals have been interviewed annually every year since then, providing 16 years of data. The interviews have been conducted in person in all years except one. Unlike the CPS or SIPP, the NLSY does not allow proxy responses. The NLSY attempts to interview virtually all living respondents each year. Over the years, the length of the interview has varied. It also varies substantially across individuals in the sample within years. A transition probability model is estimated using hazard equations. Holding constant personal, demographic, and environmental factors known to influence survey response as well as several measures of respondent attitude and cooperation, we find that longer interview length is associated with sample retention. Hypothesizing that interview length may proxy for some uncontrolled dimension of respondent cooperation, an alternative measure to interview length, namely the number of questions asked, was constructed. Reestimating the hazards with this variable generates similar findings. We conjecture that survey length, whether measured in minutes or number of questions asked, measures the saliency or applicability of the survey to the respondent. Those respondents who possess the characteristics most important to the content of the survey have the longest interviews but are also the most interested. The policy prescription we propose is to design survey instruments which include sets of questions applicable to all respondents, focusing less on the average length of the interview and more on the range of potential interview lengths.
Bibliography Citation
Branden, Laura, R. Mark Gritz and Michael R. Pergamit. "Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
4. Cameron, A. Colin
Gritz, R. Mark
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
The Effects of Unemployment Compensation on the Unemployment of Youths
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-4, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1989.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl890010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Job Patterns; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Unemployment, Youth; Wages; Work History

This report examines the role of unemployment insurance (UI) policies on the amount of unemployment that youth experience between jobs. Specifically, the analysis focuses on determining how the weekly benefit amounts and the weeks of eligibility offered by UI programs influence three aspects of nonemployment activities: (1) total length of time spent in nonemployment; (2) fraction of this time reported as unemployment; and (3) likelihood that an individual collects UI during a nonemployment episode. Two intermediate goals of this research included: (1) the computation of a comprehensive summary of the weekly work and earnings experiences of youth; and (2) an assessment of the extent to which youth are eligible for UI and the degree to which they draw on UI entitlements. The aim was to identify two sets of patterns, those describing differences across demographic characteristics and those capturing changes over the period 1979-1984. Data from the NLSY are utilized in these analyses. The empirical results for men presented in this study indicate that an individual who collects UI typically experiences a longer spell of nonemployment, at least up to the exhaustion of UI benefits, and reports a larger fraction of this spell as unemployment than a nonrecipient. The results show slight increases in recipiency and in the fraction of a nonemployment spell listed as unemployment; however, this rise in weekly benefits has essentially no effect on either the length of nonemployment spells or on the number of weeks of unemployment, irrespective of whether one considers the population at large or only the population of UI recipients. Other findings are summarized for young men and are found to also apply for young women with only two exceptions. First, while female UI recipients experience moreunemployment than nonrecipients at least up to the point of benefit exhaustion, there is some ambiguity as to whether a similar relationship exists for women when comparing le ngths of nonemployment spells. Second, the weekly benefit amount is not a factor at all in influencing women's experiences. In contrast to men, changes in weekly benefits have no effect on the fraction of a nonemployment spell reported as unemployment, nor do they affect the likelihood that a woman collects UI benefits. In general, the findings of this report suggest that features of UI programs that change the size of weekly benefit amounts are not likely to affect unemployment, whereas features that alter the amount of weeks of eligibility are likely to shift unemployment for those individuals who experience the longer durations.
Bibliography Citation
Cameron, A. Colin, R. Mark Gritz and Thomas E. MaCurdy. "The Effects of Unemployment Compensation on the Unemployment of Youths." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-4, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1989.
5. Gritz, R. Mark
The Impact of Training on the Frequency and Duration of Employment
Working Paper, University of Washington, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Employment; Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Job Training; Labor Force Participation; Private Sector; Training; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether training will increase the amount of time an individual spends in employment over an extended period. Training can influence this quantity through an effect on either the frequency or the duration of employment spells. A natural framework for modeling the influence of training on both the number and length of employment episodes is provided by continuous time duration models. Using data from the NLSY, the estimation results obtained indicate that participation in a private training program improves the employment prospects of women by increasing both the frequency and duration of employment spells. The implications are less clear for men in that participation in private programs increases the length of both employment and nonemployment episodes. In the case of government programs, participation in training leads to a decline in the amount of time spent employed by both women and men; however, this effect is based upon a small number of observations.
Bibliography Citation
Gritz, R. Mark. "The Impact of Training on the Frequency and Duration of Employment." Working Paper, University of Washington, 1990.
6. Gritz, R. Mark
Durante, Richard
Keane, Michael P.
Lessler, Judith
An Examination of School-to-Work Transitions in the NLSY
Technical Proposal, Battelle Memorial Institute, August 13, 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Labor Force Participation; School Completion; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Transition, School to Work; Welfare; Work Experience

This proposed research program will conduct a comprehensive examination of school-to-work transitions in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort. The results from the five research projects included in the program will enhance the ability of BLS to continue disseminating vital information to policy makers, educating the public so that labor force participants can make more informed choices, and improving NLS survey procedures. The design of the program captures several key elements influencing youths' progression through school to employment. In the first stage, young men and women must successfully negotiate their way to graduation from high school. The second stage encountered in the school-to-work path involves the advancement into postsecondary education. The third project will focus on the interactions of training programs, two- and four-year colleges, and work experience and their impacts on wages and employment. The fourth project will address a closely related issue: the importance of borrowing constraints for youths' decisions to continue in school, and it analyzes how various government policies might induce greater participation in schooling. The final project will assess the reliability and quality of the NLSY survey that provides the data that are essential to improve understanding of the school-to-work transition process.
Bibliography Citation
Gritz, R. Mark, Richard Durante, Michael P. Keane and Judith Lessler. "An Examination of School-to-Work Transitions in the NLSY." Technical Proposal, Battelle Memorial Institute, August 13, 1994.
7. Gritz, R. Mark
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
Participation in Low-Wage Labor Markets by Young Men
NLS Discussion Paper No. 93-16, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl920030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Work Histories

This in-progress research uses data from the NLSY to analyze the process of earnings mobility during the early stages of the life-cycle, with the main effort devoted to understanding the role that participation in low-wage labor markets plays in this process. This research will develop a comprehensive picture of where low-paying jobs fit into the career paths of individuals, including an assessment of both the short-term and the long-term consequences of involvement in low-wage employment on subsequent mobility. This picture will identify the characteristics of workers who participate in low-wage labor markets, the extent to which these workers remain in or return to such markets, and the routes of escape from low- paying jobs. This research has two major objectives. (1) The first task will be to formulate an integrated data set incorporating information on experiences in employment distinguished by level of pay, on schooling and training activities, and on periods of nonemployment. The NLSY offers an unparalleled source for constructing a data set of this type. Part of this task includes several analyses designed to check the reliability of our earnings and employment quantities. (2) The second task will be to develop an empirical model that will summarize youths' experiences in four distinct activities: high-earnings employment, low-earnings employment, educational pursuits, and nonemployment. The estimation of this model will provide a complete characterization not only of the average amounts of time that individuals spend in these activities during the initial years of their working lifetimes, but also of the likelihood that they will move between activities in a particular sequence and for specific durations. To present the implications of this model in a readily understandable format, this project will implement a simple simulation strategy that directly assesses the relationships linking the various categories of employment and time spent not working for different demographic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Gritz, R. Mark and Thomas E. MaCurdy. "Participation in Low-Wage Labor Markets by Young Men." NLS Discussion Paper No. 93-16, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
8. Gritz, R. Mark
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
Mroz, Thomas
An Evaluation of the NLSY
Working Paper, Seattle WA: Battelle Memorial Institute, February 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Attrition; Demography; Employment, Youth; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Sample Selection

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) has become one of the most widely used data sources for investigating many of the economic and demographic circumstances faced by young adults during the 1980s. As the NLSY enters its second decade, some researchers may be concerned about the current representativeness of the NLSY due to attrition which has plagued other longitudinal data sets. There has been surprisingly little attrition from the NLSY, but there has been little research done to date to determine the relevance of the researchers' concern. This study will investigate the nature and potential consequences of attrition in the NLSY, by carrying out an empirical study of the reliability of these data focusing on three groups of questions: 1. Does the sample selection from the NLSY on the basis of attrition status alter the distributions of earnings and other labor-market variables in a way that changes our picture of youths' employment experiences? 2. How well does the NLSY replicate the labor-market experiences of various demographic segments of the youth population in the US? 3. What are the characteristics of those who miss surveys in the NLSY? Also, what are the characteristics of those who return to the sample?
Bibliography Citation
Gritz, R. Mark, Thomas E. MaCurdy and Thomas Mroz. "An Evaluation of the NLSY." Working Paper, Seattle WA: Battelle Memorial Institute, February 1994.
9. MaCurdy, Thomas E.
Mroz, Thomas
Gritz, R. Mark
An Evaluation of the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth
Journal of Human Resources 33,2 (Spring 1998): 345-436.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146435
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Attrition; Data Quality/Consistency; Labor Market Surveys; NLS Description; Welfare; Work History

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) has become one of the most widely used data sources for investigating many of the economic and demographic circumstances faced by young adults during the 1980s. The usefulness of the NLSY for empirical analyses relies on the presumption that these data are representative of the population of U.S. youths throughout the 1980s. As the NLSY approaches its third decade, researchers may be concerned about the ongoing representativeness of the NLSY due to the possibility of nonrandom attrition.
Bibliography Citation
MaCurdy, Thomas E., Thomas Mroz and R. Mark Gritz. "An Evaluation of the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth." Journal of Human Resources 33,2 (Spring 1998): 345-436.