Search Results

Author: Jang, Bohyun
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Brakenhoff, Brittany
Jang, Bohyun
Slesnick, Natasha
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Longitudinal Predictors of Homelessness: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97
Journal of Youth Studies 18,8 (2015): 1015-1034.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13676261.2015.1020930
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Family Structure; Homelessness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Runaways

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Homeless youth represent a vulnerable and understudied population. Little research has prospectively identified factors that may place youth at risk for experiencing homelessness. The current study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97 (NLSY-97) to examine predictors of experiencing homelessness as a young adult (before age 25). The NLSY-97 includes a nationally representative sample of 8984 youth. Data were first collected from these youth when they were between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The current study examined whether individual and family risk factors reported during adolescence predict homelessness by the age of 25. The findings showed that multiple runaway episodes, nontraditional family structure, lower educational attainment, and parental work limitations due to health increased the risk of homelessness. A permissive parenting style and being Hispanic protected against homelessness. This study offers unique insight into risk and protective factors for youth homelessness and has important clinical implications.
Bibliography Citation
Brakenhoff, Brittany, Bohyun Jang, Natasha Slesnick and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Longitudinal Predictors of Homelessness: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97." Journal of Youth Studies 18,8 (2015): 1015-1034.
2. Jang, Bohyun
A Cohort Comparison of the Transition to Adulthood in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Human Ecology, The Ohio State University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Life Course; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I use data from the public and geocode files from both the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the transition to adulthood and compare it across cohorts. These data are well suited for this dissertation because both contain a wide range of life course information, and respondents from each dataset have undergone the same developmental stages at different historical times (i.e. their 20s during 1980s and in the 2000s for the NLSY79 and 97 respectively).

This dissertation is separated into three independent studies; first, in chapter 2, I use Latent Class Analysis to investigate distinct patterns in the transition to adulthood for men and women. Results show that young adults in the NLSY97 are more disproportionately distributed to different classes, which indicates their diverse paths to adulthood compared to those of the NLSY79. In the following chapter, I examine the complexity of life course transitions by focusing on mobility and union formation. Findings reveal that life course events are closely related to each other but the relationship differs by cohort, pointing to contextual influence on young adults' life courses. As a decision on the life course is likely made in concert with other life events, chapter 4 examines endogeneity between life course transitions. I find that unobserved characteristics affect the estimation of life course events in both cohorts, and therefore ignoring the factors could misrepresent the actual relationship between life events. From these findings, I address implications of theory, methodology, and social policy for those in the transition to adulthood in chapter 5.

Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun. A Cohort Comparison of the Transition to Adulthood in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Human Ecology, The Ohio State University, 2014.
3. Jang, Bohyun
Casterline, John
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Interrelationships between Life Course Events in the United States
Presented: Budapest, Hungary, European Population Conference, June 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: European Association for Population Studies (EAPS)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Family Formation; Fertility; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Marriage; Mobility, Residential

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family events are closely related to residential changes (Kulu & Milewski 2007; Clak & Withers 2007). People consider residential moves in response to changes in family size or in anticipation of new family members. While previous research has demonstrated interrelationships between mobility and fertility (Kulu & Steele 2013), relatively little is known about the association between mobility and union transitions. Union formation (i.e., marriage and cohabitation) may trigger residential changes because of a need for additional space. In addition, mobility may influence union transitions. For example, researchers have found that family formation behaviors are related to housing career and homeownership (Murphy & Sullivan 1985; Mulder & Billari 2010), which mostly require residential changes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine how the two life course transitions are linked to each other. We separate union types into marriage and cohabitation and mobility into migration (a between-county move) and residential mobility (a within-county move). As individuals experience multiple union transitions and residential changes over the life course, we use a multi-level, multi-process, competing-risks model allowing for person specific characteristics. In the NLSY97, about 14% of the sample has experienced marriage without cohabitation and 57% have cohabited. Regarding mobility, about 18% have moved within the same county and 59% have changed residence to different county. Preliminary findings from separate estimation of each transition suggest that migration and residential mobility are the most critical determinants for marriage and cohabitation, and vice versa. Moreover, we found significant person specific random effects in each equation. We will estimate two multi-level competing risks models simultaneously for a full model.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, John Casterline and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Interrelationships between Life Course Events in the United States." Presented: Budapest, Hungary, European Population Conference, June 2014.
4. Jang, Bohyun
Casterline, John
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Migration and Marriage: Modeling the Joint Process
Demographic Research 30,47 (30 April 2014): 1339-1366.
Also: http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol30/47/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Keyword(s): Life Course; Marriage; Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We will investigate the relationship between migration and marriage in the United States, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We allow for interdependency between the two events and examine whether unobserved common factors affect the estimates of both migration and marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, John Casterline and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Migration and Marriage: Modeling the Joint Process." Demographic Research 30,47 (30 April 2014): 1339-1366.
5. Jang, Bohyun
Clark, William A. V.
Snyder, Anastasia R.
The Transmission of Homeownership in the United States: How Much Does Family Matter?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Background; Family Characteristics; Home Ownership; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research in Europe has shown strong evidence of intergenerational transmission of homeownership either via financial supports or socialization. This paper extends that research to the US context and asks the question about whether or not the same factors play a role in the transmission of homeownership in the United States. We further expand the previous research by accounting for housing trajectories of both parents and children using the longitudinal information of NLSY79 and NLSY79 child/young adult. Although it is not possible to replicate the exact same set of variables, the analysis does show that having parents who are owners is a positive effect on the likelihood of being an owner as is education and income in the US. Unlike the research in Europe it does not appear that parent's net worth or parent’s income is an important variable in the transmission of homeownership.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, William A. V. Clark and Anastasia R. Snyder. "The Transmission of Homeownership in the United States: How Much Does Family Matter?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
6. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
A Cohort Comparison of Life Course Transitions among Young Adults in the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Education; Employment; Income; Life Course; Marriage; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Transition to adulthood has delayed and become less standardized across cohorts and generational gaps in the transitions have grown. Few studies, however, have accounted for dynamic association between timing and sequences of multiple life-course events. Using comparable datasets from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997, we compare the sequence of 4 life events (education, full-time employment, marriage, and childbirth) during transition to adulthood between two birth cohorts. We use distance measure obtained via optimal matching to cluster similar sequences together in both cohorts. In addition, we will examine how the different pathways influence personal incomes at age 30. Preliminary findings suggest that the life course sequences are more diverse for those from the NLSY79 than their counterparts from the NLSY97. However, only 12% of the NLSY97 sample has completed all of the four life transitions by age 30 while about 28% of the NLSY79 have completed.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "A Cohort Comparison of Life Course Transitions among Young Adults in the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
7. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
A Cohort Comparison of Relationship between Mobility and Union Formation among Young Adults in the US
Presented: Busan, Republic of Korea, IUSSP International Population Conference, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP)
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Marriage; Migration; Mobility, Residential; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Migration and residential mobility hold significance among young adults in the transition to adulthood, representing a life course event such as a transition to independence from parents and family, a turning point which diverts previous experiences, and an investment behavior for maximizing life chances. Despite several studies on the relationship between mobility and family formation, little is known about the role of mobility in union formation (i.e., marriage and cohabitation) and how that relationship has changed over time. By using two comparable datasets of different birth cohorts from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 (NLSY79 and NLSY97), this study examines how moving events are related to union formation and how the relationship has changed across decades in the United States. As the NLSY studies have collected panel data from nationally representative samples of two birth cohorts, that is, those born in 1957-1964 for the NLSY79 and born in 1980-1984 for the NLSY97, the current study will contribute greatly to understanding the changing role of migration and residential mobility as a life course event in the United States
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "A Cohort Comparison of Relationship between Mobility and Union Formation among Young Adults in the US." Presented: Busan, Republic of Korea, IUSSP International Population Conference, August 2013.
8. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Migration, Residential Mobility and Union Formation
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Geocoded Data; Marriage; Migration; Mobility, Residential

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the importance of migration and residential mobility as a predictor of other life course events, few studies have accommodated or emphasized the effect of the migration and residential mobility in investigating union formation among young people. By using public and geocode data files from the NLSY97, we estimate discrete time competing risks that examine the relationship between changes in residence and first union formation. The results indicate that change in residence significantly increases the likelihood of union formation; either migration or residential mobility is significantly associated with higher relative risks of cohabitation over remaining single, and residential mobility increases the relative risks of cohabitation versus staying single but decreases the risk of marriage versus cohabitation. An increase in the number of migration slightly raises the relative risks of cohabitation versus remaining single, whereas more residential mobility significantly decreases the relative risks of marriage over either cohabiting or remaining single.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Migration, Residential Mobility and Union Formation." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
9. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Moving and Union Formation in the Transition to Adulthood in the United States
Advances in Life Course Research 23 (March 2015): 44-55.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260814000367
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Geocoded Data; Life Course; Marriage; Mobility, Residential; Transition, Adulthood

Although previous research has paid attention to profound changes in union formation among young adults, few studies have incorporated moving events in the estimation of union formation. Moreover, less attention has been given to detailed moving experiences in young adults' life course. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine the relationship between moving and first union formation of young adults in the United States. Moving events are aggregated by distance moved, economic conditions in origin and destination places (i.e. moving within the same county, moving to new counties with better or the same economic conditions, and moving to new counties with worse economic conditions) and the time since a move. Our findings suggest that moving events, regardless of type, are significantly related to first union formation for females while the time since a move is important to union formation of males.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "Moving and Union Formation in the Transition to Adulthood in the United States." Advances in Life Course Research 23 (March 2015): 44-55.
10. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
The Role of Residential Mobility in the Transition to First Marriage
Presented: Orlando FL, National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, November 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Marriage; Mobility, Residential

Using data from the NLSY79, this study examined the role of residential mobility in the transition to first marriage. The preliminary results found that individual and household characteristics are significantly related with the transition into first marriage; however, the unemployment rate in a local county does not significantly impact the odds of first marriage. Mobility factors are significantly related to the transition to first marriage; the total number of moves does not appear to have a huge influence on union formation; rather, the timing of move is more important to the transition to marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun and Anastasia R. Snyder. "The Role of Residential Mobility in the Transition to First Marriage." Presented: Orlando FL, National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, November 2011.
11. Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Mernitz, Sara E.
The Life Course of High School Dropouts During the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; High School Dropouts; Life Course; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, about 10% of adolescents did not earn a high school diploma in the late 2000s. The high school dropout results in growing variability in young adult's lives and the beginning of adulthood. Less attention, however, has been given to the life course of those who drop out high school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examined the life course of high school dropouts and its association with risk factors. We focused on heavy drinking because it has a wide range of impacts on health and future outcome. Our preliminary findings using a latent class analysis suggested that 4 classes model best described the life course of high school dropouts (traditional pathway, no transition, employed cohabitor, employed single parent). A multinomial logit model showed that those who had heavy drinking at age 18 were less likely to belong to "no transition" class.
Bibliography Citation
Jang, Bohyun, Anastasia R. Snyder and Sara E. Mernitz. "The Life Course of High School Dropouts During the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
12. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Jang, Bohyun
Snyder, Anastasia R.
A Cohort Comparison of Predictors of Young Adult Union Formation and Dissolution in the US
Advances in Life Course Research 38 (December 2018): 37-49.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104026081830056X
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marital Dissolution; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The theory of the second demographic transition argues that as educated Americans began valuing self-actualization and individual autonomy, delays in union formation spread through the US. The accelerated adulthood theory suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage distinguishes young adulthood such that those with fewer resources have shorter, more informal (i.e. cohabitation) unions, and those with more resources delay but achieve marriage and have greater union stability. We use two large, nationally representative samples of young adults collected about twenty years apart, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts to examine cohort differences in union formation and dissolution and test interaction effects in demographic and socioeconomic correlates. We found that the NLSY97 cohort 1) entered into unions earlier than the NLSY79 cohort, 2) entered direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation) later than the NLSY79 cohort, and 3) entered cohabiting unions earlier than the NLSY79 cohort. A greater proportion of young adults in the NLSY97 cohort dissolved their first union between ages 16 and 30. We found that socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults had earlier unions by some indicators (e.g. lower maternal education) and later unions by other indicators (e.g. unemployment) in both cohorts. We also found that in both cohorts, socioeconomic disadvantage undermined union stability. We also found evidence for interaction effects; some indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g. income, employment, and maternal education) had exacerbated effects on union formation and stability in the NLSY97 as compared to the NLSY79 cohorts perhaps because inequality grew over the twenty years between cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M., Bohyun Jang and Anastasia R. Snyder. "A Cohort Comparison of Predictors of Young Adult Union Formation and Dissolution in the US." Advances in Life Course Research 38 (December 2018): 37-49.
13. Sandberg-Thoma, Sara
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Jang, Bohyun
Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12183/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Independence; Exits; Health, Mental; Life Course; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162) and returns to (n = 6,530) the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from and returns to the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from and earlier returns to the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sandberg-Thoma, Sara, Anastasia R. Snyder and Bohyun Jang. "Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids." Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
14. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Jang, Bohyun
Failure to Launch? Exits from and Returns to the Parental Home among Emerging Adults in the U.S.
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Life Course; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines exits from and returns to the parental home across two cohorts using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97. Recent reports find that about 30% of young adults aged 25–34 lived with their parents at some point during the Great Recession, and 24% of 18–34 year olds returned to their parental home. The findings contribute to the existing literature because most recent studies documenting an alarming rise in coresidence with parents use cross sectional data and fail to take a dynamic view of home leaving and returning across the emerging adult life course. Our findings suggest that large differences in home leaving and returning do not exist between the NLSY79 and NLSY97 cohorts. Within cohort variability does however find significant variability in home leaving and returning by sex, race/ethnicity and reason for first exit.
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R. and Bohyun Jang. "Failure to Launch? Exits from and Returns to the Parental Home among Emerging Adults in the U.S." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
15. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Kotila, Letitia
Jang, Bohyun
The Significance of Marriage in Rural America
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Life Course; Marital History/Transitions; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines how marital experiences in the United States differ by residential location: nonmetro, suburban and central city residences. Previous studies find that significant differences in marital behavior can be observed by residence in the U.S. Specifically, nonmetro residents show a distinct affinity for marriage that is evidenced by earlier marriage, lower rates of divorce, shorter duration between divorce and remarriage, higher rates of remarriage. Overall, nonmetro women have been found to spend a larger share of their lives married compared to other women. The findings from these prior studies need to be more closely examined, however, because significant data limitations could have biased those findings. This study uses data from the NLSY79 to examine marital experiences across the life course and carefully measure is residential differences exist in marital behavior, and explanations for those differences, between nonmetro and other populations in the U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R., Letitia Kotila and Bohyun Jang. "The Significance of Marriage in Rural America." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
16. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Mernitz, Sara E.
Jang, Bohyun
The Transition to Adulthood Among the Forgotten Half: Home Leaving and Living Arrangement Among Less Educated Young Adults in the United States
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Exits; High School Completion/Graduates; Residence; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

College experiences during emerging adulthood are associated with various life course transitions for young adults, including leaving the family home and living independently, but little is known about how these patterns differ for those who do not attend college. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examined the timing of first parental home-leaving and the type of first living arrangement for young adults who do not pursue post- secondary education, comparing young men and women. Life table estimates found that young women exit the family home sooner after finishing high school, and most exit to live with a romantic partner, motivated in large part by early pregnancy. Discrete-time competing risk models found that, controlling for individual, family and contextual factors, female young adults exited earlier to live with a partner. Individual characteristics and family context are significantly associated with the timing and type of home leaving.
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R., Sara E. Mernitz and Bohyun Jang. "The Transition to Adulthood Among the Forgotten Half: Home Leaving and Living Arrangement Among Less Educated Young Adults in the United States." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.