Search Results

Author: Lundberg, Shelly
Resulting in 26 citations.
1. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women
Report, Seattle WA: Human Affairs Research Center, Battelle Institute, March 1994
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Discrimination, Sex; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Fertility; Hispanics; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences

This study finds that early childbearing reduces the educational attainment of young women by one to three years. The estimates control for both observed and unobserved differences in background and personal characteristics and take account of the endogeneity of fertility. We use an extensive set of predictors for early fertility, including state and county-level policy variables and other indicators of the costs and availability of abortion and contraception. Adolescent fertility has a strong negative effect on the schooling levels achieved by white, black, and Hispanic women. These results suggest that, if public policies are successful in reducing teenage pregnancy and childbearing, they will also increase the educational attainment of disadvantaged young women and improve their chances for economic self-sufficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women." Report, Seattle WA: Human Affairs Research Center, Battelle Institute, March 1994.
2. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women
Family Planning Perspectives 27,1 (January 1995): 23-28.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135973
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Education; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Fertility; Hispanics; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study finds that early childbearing reduces the educational attainment of young women by one to three years. The estimates control for both observed and unobserved differences in background and personal characteristics and take account of the endogeneity of fertility. We use an extensive set of predictors for early fertility, including state and county-level policy variables and other indicators of the costs and availability of abortion and contraception. Adolescent fertility has a strong negative effect on the schooling levels achieved by white, black, and Hispanic women. These results suggest that, if public policies are successful in reducing teenage pregnancy and childbearing, they will also increase the educational attainment of disadvantaged young women and improve their chances for economic self-sufficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women." Family Planning Perspectives 27,1 (January 1995): 23-28.
3. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Education; Educational Returns; Endogeneity; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Wage Dynamics; Wages, Adult; Wages, Young Men; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We present a model and estimates of the relationship between teenage childbearing and early human capital development, and the resulting consequences for wages in early adulthood. The analysis recognizes that the teenage childbearing decision is endogenous because it is likely to be related to the expected costs of and returns to investing in education teen work experience, and early adult work experience. We use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility on education and work experience, and of the effects of all these outcomes on adult wages.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?" Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
4. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?
Discussion Paper No. 1145-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp114597.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Economic Well-Being; Education; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Wages, Adult; Wages, Young Women; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The consequences of teen childbearing for the future well-being of young women remain controversial. In this paper, we model and estimate the relationship between early childbearing and human capital investment, and its effect on wages in early adulthood. Taking advantage of a large set of potential instruments for fertility--principally state- and county-level indicators of the costs of fertility and fertility control--we use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility on education and work experience, and the effects of these outcomes on adult wages. For both black and white women, adolescent fertility substantially reduces years of formal education and teenage work experience. White teenage mothers also obtain less early adult work experience than young women who delay childbearing. We also find that, through these human capital effects, teenage childbearing has a significant effect on a young woman's market wage at age 25. Our results, unlike those of recent "revisionist" studies, suggest that public policies that reduce teenage childbearing are likely to have positive effects on the economic well-being of many young mothers and their families.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?" Discussion Paper No. 1145-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
5. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?
Journal of Human Resources 34,3 (Summer 1999): 421-448.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146375
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Teenagers; Wages, Adult; Wages, Youth; Work Experience

We estimate the relationship between teenage childbearing, human capital investment, and wages in early adulthood, using a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a large set of potential instruments for fertility--principally state and county-level indicators of the costs of fertility and fertility control. Adolescent fertility substantially reduces years of formal education and teenage work experience and, for white women only, early adult work experience. Through reductions in human capital, teenage childbearing has a significant effect on market wages at age 25. Our results suggest that public policies which reduce teenage childbearing are likely to have positive effects on the economic well-being of many young mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?" Journal of Human Resources 34,3 (Summer 1999): 421-448.
6. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Instrument Selection: The Case of Teenage Childbearing and Women's Educational Attainment
Discussion Paper No. 1077-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1995.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp107795.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Methods/Methodology; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research has identified situations in which instrumental variables (IV) estimators are severely biased and has suggested diagnostic tests to identify such situations. We suggest a number of alternative techniques for choosing a set of instruments that satisfy these tests from a universe of a priori plausible candidates, and we apply them to a study of the effects of adolescent childbearing on the educational attainment of young women. We find that substantive results are sensitive to instrument choice, and make two recommendations to the practical researcher: First, it is prudent to begin with a large set of potential instruments, when possible, and pare it down through formal testing rather than to rely on a minimal instrument set justified on a priori grounds. Second, the application of more restrictive tests of instrument validity and relevance can yield results very different from those based on less restrictive tests that produce a more inclusive set of instruments, and is the preferred, conservative approach when improper instrument choice can lead to biased estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Instrument Selection: The Case of Teenage Childbearing and Women's Educational Attainment." Discussion Paper No. 1077-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1995.
7. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Teen Childbearing and Human Capital: Does Timing Matter?
Working Paper, Center for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Battelle Memorial, Seattle WA, October 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Racial Differences; Schooling; Teenagers; Variables, Instrumental; Wages; Work Experience

In this paper, we model and estimate the relationship between teenage childbearing at different ages and human capital investment. Taking advantage of a large set of potential instruments for fertility--principally state and county-level indicators of the costs of fertility and fertility control--we use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility at different ages on education and work. Using data from the NLSY, we find that teenage childbearing at any age substantially reduces years of formal education and early adult work experience for both black and white women. The effects of early and later teen births are similar for both education and early adult work experience. There are no important racial differences in the effects. In contrast, we find no significant impact of a first birth during ages 20-24 on education or work experience. An early teen birth fails have stronger detrimental effects because younger teen mothers are as likely to graduate from high school as older teen mothers, and are equally unlikely to attend college. Our results suggest that "a teen birth is a teen birth", and that public policies that reduce teenage childbearing are likely to have positive effects on the economic well being of many young mothers and their families.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Teen Childbearing and Human Capital: Does Timing Matter?" Working Paper, Center for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Battelle Memorial, Seattle WA, October 1999.
8. Lundberg, Shelly
Division of Labor by New Parents: Does Child Gender Matter?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1787, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp1787.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Birth Order; Child Care; Dual-Career Families; Fertility; Gender Differences; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper documents some distinct and surprising patterns of specialization among new parents in the NLSY79. Child gender has significant effects on the labor supply of both mothers and father, and these effects are opposite at the two ends of the education spectrum – boys reduce specialization among the college-educated and increase specialization among parents with less than a high school education. Estimates from the recent American Time Use Survey are generally consistent with the NLSY79 findings, and indicate that highly educated parents devote more child care time to young sons. The labor supply results are inconsistent with previous research that found boys substantially increase the work hours of their fathers relative to girls but have no effect on mother's work hours. Possible explanations for the heterogeneous responses to sons and daughters across education groups include a bias towards same-sex parental inputs as desired child quality increases and child gender effects on the relative bargaining power of the mother and father. No evidence of improved maternal bargaining power can be found in the leisure consumption of mothers of young sons in the ATUS, but patterns in parental child care time suggest gender differences in child production functions.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Division of Labor by New Parents: Does Child Gender Matter?" IZA Discussion Paper No. 1787, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
9. Lundberg, Shelly
Division of Labor in Exigency: Work Hours of New Parents in the NLSY79
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2005.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0108_1430_0601.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Dual-Career Families; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Excerpt from Introduction: In this paper, I examine the determinants of the work hours of married female respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) and their husbands during the 3 years following a first birth. There are a number of reasons to think that labor supply decisions during this short period could have long-term consequences for the economic independence of the mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Division of Labor in Exigency: Work Hours of New Parents in the NLSY79." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2005.
10. Lundberg, Shelly
Family Background, Non-Cognitive Skills, and Gender Gaps in Education
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Gender Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Around the world, with the exception of parts of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, the educational attainment of young women now exceeds that of young men. A number of researchers have suggested that the increase in single-parent households may be contributing to the growing gender gap in education, as boys are likely to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of father absence than girls, either because the influence of a same-sex parent is crucial or because boys are more susceptible to environmental adversity. Using data on young cohorts of men and women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, I investigate the association between college graduation and father (and step-father) presence earlier in life, as well as mother-fixed-effect models with opposite-sex siblings to control for unobserved parental and household characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Family Background, Non-Cognitive Skills, and Gender Gaps in Education." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
11. Lundberg, Shelly
Men and Islands: Dealing with the Family in Empirical Labor Economics
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Washington, March 2005.
Also: http://www.econ.washington.edu/user/Lundberg/Men_LE.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Forthcoming in Labour Economics

I would like to suggest that family arrangements in the developed world have become, over the past few decades, so complex, so varied, and so transitory that the key work-family problem facing labor economists is the simultaneity of individual decisions in these two domains. The presence of a partner, wife, or child in a man's household influence his work effort and his earnings, but are also influenced by his past labor market decisions, current constraints, and his expectations about future opportunities. With widespread increases in divorce, cohabitation, and nonmarital childbearing, men are far more likely to be marginal decision-makers with respect to family status domains such as marriage and custodial parenthood, and these decisions are closely connected to a man's strategies as an individual worker and investor. Demographic changes have practical implications both for the returns to marriage and costs of children literature, and for labor economists who use family status measures as controls for unobserved productivity. No single econometric technique or set of techniques can "solve" the family-work simultaneity problem, but a recognition that the world has changed in a way that makes a clear separation between family economics and labor economics impossible can improve our modeling of, and understanding of, work and income.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Men and Islands: Dealing with the Family in Empirical Labor Economics." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Washington, March 2005.
12. Lundberg, Shelly
Men and Islands: Dealing with the Family in Empirical Labor Economics
Presented: Lisbon, Portugal, European Association of Labor Economists Annual Meeting, September 2004.
Also: http://www.econ.washington.edu/user/Lundberg/Men_LE.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: European Association of Labour Economists
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Fatherhood; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I would like to suggest that family arrangements in the developed world have become, over the past few decades, so complex, so varied, and so transitory that the key work-family problem facing labor economists is the simultaneity of individual decisions in these two domains. The presence of a partner, wife, or child in a man's household influence his work effort and his earnings, but are also influenced by his past labor market decisions, current constraints, and his expectations about future opportunities. With widespread increases in divorce, cohabitation, and nonmarital childbearing, men are far more likely to be marginal decision-makers with respect to family status domains such as marriage and custodial parenthood, and these decisions are closely connected to a man's strategies as an individual worker and investor. Demographic changes have practical implications both for the returns to marriage and costs of children literature, and for labor economists who use family status measures as controls for unobserved productivity. No single econometric technique or set of techniques can "solve" the family-work simultaneity problem, but a recognition that the world has changed in a way that makes a clear separation between family economics and labor economics impossible can improve our modeling of, and understanding of, work and income.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Men and Islands: Dealing with the Family in Empirical Labor Economics." Presented: Lisbon, Portugal, European Association of Labor Economists Annual Meeting, September 2004.
13. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Economic Incentives Matter?
Journal of Labor Economics 13,2 (April 1995): 177-200.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2535102
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cost-Benefit Studies; Family Planning; Household Composition; Medicaid/Medicare; Modeling; Parental Marital Status; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Religion; State Welfare; Welfare

An empirical model is developed of adolescent premarital childbearing in which a woman's decisions affect a sequence of outcomes: premarital pregnancy, pregnancy resolution, and the occurrence of marriage before the birth. State welfare, abortion, and family planning policies alter the costs and benefits of these outcomes. For white adolescents, welfare, abortion, and family planning policy variables have significant effects on these outcomes consistent with theoretical expectations. Black adolescents' behavior shows no association with the policy variables. The different racial results may reflect differences in sample size or important unmeasured racial differences in factors that influence fertility and marital behavior. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Economic Incentives Matter?" Journal of Labor Economics 13,2 (April 1995): 177-200.
14. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Opportunity Costs Matter?
Discussion Paper No. 926-90, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavioral Differences; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Planning; Household Composition; Medicaid/Medicare; Racial Differences; Religion; State Welfare; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study develops an empirical model of adolescent premarital childbearing which emphasizes the influence of opportunity costs. The model estimates determinants of premarital pregnancy, the choice to abort or carry to teem, and whether a marriage occurs before the birth. The sample is from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The long-run opportunity costs are the predicted effects of premarital childbearing on own future wages and welfare benefits. State variables on abortion and family planning policy and availability, which are proxies for the costs of abortion and avoiding pregnancy, represent short-run costs. For white adolescents, the long-run wage measure has statistically significant effects on abortion and pregnancy outcomes that are consistent with theoretical expectations. Their behavior also is associated with welfare, abortion, and family planning policy variables in directions consistent with an opportunity-cost model of behavior. Black adolescents' behavior shows no association with the opportunity-cost or policy variables. This may be a function of sample size. It may also be that there are important unmeasured racial differences in the factors that influence fertility and marital behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Opportunity Costs Matter?" Discussion Paper No. 926-90, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1990.
15. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Effects of State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing Among White Adolescents
Family Planning Perspectives 22,6 (November-December 1990): 246-251+275.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135680
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Planning; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Government Regulation; Marital Status; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the impact of public policies and programs on the probability and resolution of premarital pregnancies. Data from the 1979-1986 NLSY fertility and marital histories of a sample of young white women who were ages 14-16 in 1979 are examined. Various measures of a state's abortion funding policies, the restrictiveness of its abortion laws, the availability of family planning services, the extent of welfare benefits, and proportions of women at risk of unintended pregnancies are developed. It was found that: (1) laws restricting contraceptive availability were associated with a higher risk of pregnancy; (2) policies restricting public funding of abortion reduced the likelihood that young women would obtain an abortion; and (3) higher welfare benefits reduced the probability that pregnant teenagers would marry before the birth of their child.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Effects of State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing Among White Adolescents." Family Planning Perspectives 22,6 (November-December 1990): 246-251+275.
16. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Measuring Lifetime Earnings Losses Caused by Teenage Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Earnings; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates the effect of early childbearing, both with and without an early marriage, on a young woman's future potential earnings using data from the NLSY. The approach used differs from others in that it: (1) examines both married and unmarried teenage mothers in order to isolate the effect of premarital childbearing from that of early childbearing; (2) corrects for selection biases which may arise from choices to participate in the labor market or from fertility and marriage choices; and (3) estimates the long term impact on earnings of early and premarital births, instead of a one year snapshot of this impact. It was found that a premarital birth leads to a substantial long-term reduction of earnings for white and Hispanic girls, but has essentially no effect on black girls' earnings. The results are strikingly consistent with the suggestion, based largely on casual, qualitative and journalistic evidence, that high rates of black premarital childbearing partly result because the labor market opportunities facing adolescent blacks are so poor that they sacrifice few long run earnings by not postponing motherhood.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Measuring Lifetime Earnings Losses Caused by Teenage Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Population Association of America Meetings, 1989.
17. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Teenage Childbearing and Adult Wages
Discussion Papers in Economics No. 90-24, Seattle WA: Department of Economics, University of Washington, August 1990.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/fth/washer/90-24.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Maternal Employment; Religion; Wages, Adult

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The paper estimates the effect of early childbearing on a young woman s future wages using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. By following both married and unmarried teenage mothers we isolate the effect of premarital childbearing from that of early childbearing. Our methodology differs from that of earlier work, in that we estimate the long term impact on wages or early and premarital births. instead of a one year snapshot of this impact. and correct for selection biases due to labor market participation decisions, and to fertility and marriage choices. We find that a premarital birth leads to a long term reduction in wages for white women, but has no negative effects on black women's wages. A marital birth reduces wages substantially for whites and blacks. The results are consistent with the suggestion that rates of black premarital childbearing are high because the labor market opportunities facing adolescent blacks are so poor that they sacrifice nothing by becoming unwed mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Teenage Childbearing and Adult Wages." Discussion Papers in Economics No. 90-24, Seattle WA: Department of Economics, University of Washington, August 1990.
18. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Testing the Opportunity Cost Hypothesis of Adolescent Premarital Childbearing
Presented: Toronto, ON, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
Also: Working Paper, University of Washington, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Differences; Child Care; Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Contraception; Family Planning; Fathers, Absence; General Assessment; Home Environment; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study develops an empirical model of adolescent premarital childbearing which emphasizes the influence of opportunity costs. The model estimates determinants of premarital pregnancy, the choice to abort or carry to term, and whether a marriage occurs before the birth. The sample is from the NLSY. The long run opportunity costs are the effects of premarital childbearing on own future wages and welfare benefits. State variables on abortion and family planning policy and availability, which are proxies for the costs of abortion and avoiding pregnancy, represent short run costs. Young white women appear to systematically respond to differences in long run opportunity costs associated with different teenage fertility and marital outcomes. The long run wage measure has statistically significant effects on abortion and pregnancy outcomes that are consistent with theoretical expectations. Their behavior also is associated with welfare, abortion and family planning policy variables in directions consistent with an opportunity cost model of behavior. Black behavior shows no association with the opportunity cost or policy variables. This may be a function of sample size. It may also be that there are important unmeasured racial differences in the factors that influence fertility and marital behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Testing the Opportunity Cost Hypothesis of Adolescent Premarital Childbearing." Presented: Toronto, ON, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990.
19. Lundberg, Shelly
Romich, Jennifer L.
Decision-Making by the Children of the NLSY
Working Paper, University of Washington, June 20, 2006.
Also: http://www.ccpr.ucla.edu/docs/Lundberg-Child%20decisions.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: School of Social Work, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do not cite without author's permission

In this paper we present a very simple model of a parent's choice among three alternate parenting regimes -- parental control, child autonomy, and shared decision-making -- as a framework for an empirical investigation of child reports of who makes decision about their activities. We describe the child decision-making indices constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child data (NLSY-C), and present ordered logit models of shared and sole decision-making on seven domains of child activity. We find that the determinants of sole decision-making by the child and shared decision-making with parents are quite distinct, and that sharing decisions appears to be a form of parental investment in child development rather than a simple stage in the transfer of authority.

The data we use are from the ongoing National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the associated Child Supplement and Work History files. The NLSY tracks a nationally representative sample of men and women who were age 14-21 in 1979. ...This analysis uses a pooled sample constructed from the universe of children ages 10-14 in the 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 waves. Some children may contribute more than one observation: an 11-year-old surveyed in 1996 might also be included as a 13-year-old in 1998. Eliminating observations with wave-specific child or parent non-response on the key dependent and labor supply variables gives a sample of 6280 child-years.

Also presented: Insitute for Social Sciences, Cornell University, April 4, 2006; Institute for Economy, University of Bergen, June 14, 2006; Institute for Social & Economic Research (ISER) Monday Seminars, University of Essex, Colchester, England, October 9, 2006.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Jennifer L. Romich. "Decision-Making by the Children of the NLSY." Working Paper, University of Washington, June 20, 2006.
20. Lundberg, Shelly
Romich, Jennifer L.
Maternal Labor Supply and Child Decision Power: Evidence on the Adultification Hypothesis
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2005.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0108_1015_0201.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Bargaining Model; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we apply a bargaining model to predict how maternal employment may be related to children's power in making decisions about household resources and rules. The paper proceeds as follows. Section II. outlines a model of bargaining between parents and children. Next we overview the implications of this model for empirical investigations. Section IV contains a description of our sample drawn, from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child data (NLSY-C), and the decision-making indexes used as our key dependent variables. Results are presented on family structure, mothers' work and children's autonomous and shared participation in decision-making. We find little evidence to support the adultification hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Jennifer L. Romich. "Maternal Labor Supply and Child Decision Power: Evidence on the Adultification Hypothesis." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Economic Association Meeting, January 2005.
21. Lundberg, Shelly
Romich, Jennifer L.
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Decision-Making by Children
IZA Discussion Paper No. 2952, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2007.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp2952.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the determinants of decision-making power by children and young adolescents. Moving beyond previous economic models that treat children as goods consumed by adults rather than agents, we develop a noncooperative model of parental control of child behavior and child resistance. Using child reports of decision-making and psychological and cognitive measures from the NLSY79 Child Supplement, we examine the determinants of shared and sole decision-making in seven domains of child activity. We find that the determinants of sole decision-making by the child and shared decision-making with parents are quite distinct: sharing decisions appears to be a form of parental investment in child development rather than a simple stage in the transfer of authority. In addition, we find that indicators of child capability and preferences affect reports of decision-making authority in ways that suggest child demand for autonomy as well as parental discretion in determining these outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly, Jennifer L. Romich and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Decision-Making by Children." IZA Discussion Paper No. 2952, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2007.
22. Lundberg, Shelly
Romich, Jennifer L.
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Decision-Making by Children
Review of Economics of the Household 7,1 (March 2009): 1-30.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/618610672t3ml3r5/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children; Cognitive Ability; Ethnic Differences; Household Composition; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the determinants of decision-making power by children and young adolescents. Moving beyond previous economic models that treat children as goods consumed by adults, we develop a noncooperative model of parental control of child behavior and child resistance. Using child reports of decision-making and psychological and cognitive measures from the NLSY79 Child Supplement, we examine the determinants of shared and sole decision-making based on indices created from seven domains of child activity. We find that the determinants of sole decision-making by the child and shared decision-making with parents are quite distinct: sharing decisions appears to be a form of parental investment in child development rather than a simple stage in the transfer of authority. In addition, we find that indicators of child capabilities and preferences affect reports of decision-making authority in ways that suggest child demand for autonomy as well as parental discretion in determining these outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly, Jennifer L. Romich and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Decision-Making by Children." Review of Economics of the Household 7,1 (March 2009): 1-30.
23. Lundberg, Shelly
Romich, Jennifer L.
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Decision-making by the Children of the NLSY
Working Paper, University of Washington, April 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: School of Social Work, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented at the Work, Family and Public Policy Seminar, Olin Business School, Washington University in St. Louis, April 2007.

We investigate the acquisition of decision-making power by young adolescents. Whereas previous economic models have treated children as either goods consumed or investment choices made by adults, we develop a model of non-cooperative interaction between parents and children. Using child reports of decision-making and psychological and cognitive measures from the NLSY79 Child Supplement, we find evidence that child preferences, child capabilities, and parental discretion all shape who makes decisions about young adolescents' lives. The determinants of sole decision-making by the child and shared decision-making with parents are quite distinct. Results indicate that sharing decisionmaking is a form of parental investment in child development rather than a simple stage in the transfer of authority.

Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly, Jennifer L. Romich and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Decision-making by the Children of the NLSY." Working Paper, University of Washington, April 2007.
24. Romich, Jennifer L.
Lundberg, Shelly
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns between Parents and Young Adolescents
Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Structure; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: How young adolescents and parents share – or do not share – decisions about aspects of youth and family life is considered an important indicator of family process. Young adolescents who make decisions without parental input are more likely to become delinquent and less likely to complete schooling. Prior research on the determinants of decision patterns has largely focused on parental, family-level and environmental factors, and the assumed relationship with subsequent child behavior is that the decision-making patterns shape, rather than reflect, children's behavior. However, recent attention to the role of children as active agents within their environments suggests that questioning the assumption that sharing of decisions is a parent-led process is warranted. In this study, we examine ways in which children's characteristics and actions may shape family decision-making processes. Specifically, we examine how family decision patterns reported by young adolescents vary as a function of prior socio-cognitive functioning and behavior. Methods: The sample consists of 2632 young adolescents whose mothers are respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). This study's outcomes of interest are whether decisions about young adolescents' lives are made autonomously by the young adolescents ("sole decisions"), jointly by parents and youth ("shared"), or solely by their parents ("parent"). These outcomes are predicted by a set of cognitive and psycho-social measures observed prior to the outcome wave. Individual models are used to test whether traits predict decision patterns and sibling fixed-effects models allow us to estimate effects of child characteristics net of stable family contributions. Results: Three predictors are significant in both the individual and sibling fixed effect models, suggesting that these relationships are robust and exist net of consistent unobserved effects of the parent, family, or environment. Children with high verbal aptitude (PPVT) share more decisions with their parents. Children with high mathematical aptitude (as measured by the PIAT-M) make more decisions autonomously. More impulsive children are more likely to make decisions without consulting parents, an effect that is concentrated among children of less-educated mothers and stronger among single-mother, relative to two-parent, households. Conclusions and implications: Our findings add more information about how decision-sharing patterns may arise and as such suggest that this linkage between autonomy and delinquency may be more nuanced than previously acknowledged. Earlier work on single-parent families and the "control" of adolescents suggested that family structure mattered, and that single-mothers were less likely to be able to "control" adolescents. Our findings reveal that control matters when a counteracting force is necessary. When claims for autonomy are made by impulsive children, mothers likely to have lower resources are unable to counteract young adolescents' desires for autonomy. This more nuanced view of the role of parenting suggests that prevention practices should include an assessment and self-assessment of parents' ability to respond to their children's demands for autonomy.
Bibliography Citation
Romich, Jennifer L., Shelly Lundberg and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns between Parents and Young Adolescents." Presented: Washington, DC, Meetings of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR): Research That Matters, January 17-20, 2008.
25. Romich, Jennifer L.
Lundberg, Shelly
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns Between Young Adolescents and Parents
Working Paper, University of Washington, April 2007.
Also: http://faculty.washington.edu/romich/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: School of Social Work, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reports on a study of whether young adolescents make decisions autonomously, share decisions with their parents, or have decisions made for them by parents. Using a sample of 2,620 12- and 13-year-olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Child Study we examine how childhood behavior and competence influence decision patterns in young adolescence. Individual models are used to test whether traits predict decision patterns and sibling fixed-effects models allow us to estimate effects of child characteristics net of stable family contributions. In both individual and sibling fixed-effects models, children with higher verbal ability share more decision-making with parents. Children with greater mathematical aptitude and children who are impulsive are more likely to make decisions without consulting parents. The impulsivity effect is stronger in families with fewer resources. These results suggest that children directly and indirectly influence household decision-sharing patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Romich, Jennifer L., Shelly Lundberg and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns Between Young Adolescents and Parents." Working Paper, University of Washington, April 2007.
26. Romich, Jennifer L.
Lundberg, Shelly
Tsang, Kwok Ping
Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns Between Young Adolescents and Parents
Journal of Research on Adolescence 19,4 (December 2009): 587-600.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00612.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

This article reports on a study of whether young adolescents make decisions autonomously, share decisions with their parents, or have decisions made for them by parents. Using a sample of 2,632 12- and 13-year-olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Survey we examine how childhood behavior and competence influence decision patterns in young adolescence. Individual models are used to test whether traits predict decision patterns, and sibling fixed-effects models allow us to estim\ate effects of child characteristics net of stable family contributions. In both individual and sibling fixed-effects models, children with higher verbal ability share more decision making with parents. Children with greater mathematical aptitude and children who are impulsive are more likely to make decisions without consulting parents. The impulsivity effect is stronger in families with fewer resources. These results suggest that children directly and indirectly influence household decision-sharing patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Romich, Jennifer L., Shelly Lundberg and Kwok Ping Tsang. "Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns Between Young Adolescents and Parents." Journal of Research on Adolescence 19,4 (December 2009): 587-600.