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Author: Malamud, Ofer
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Kaestner, Robert
Malamud, Ofer
Headstrong Girls and Dependent Boys: Gender Differences in the Labor Market Returns to Child Behavior
NBER Working Paper No. 29509, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2021.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w29509
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Earnings; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

The authors use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (C-NLSY79) to examine gender differences in the associations between child behavioral problems and early adult earnings. They find large and significant earnings penalties for women who exhibited more headstrong behavior and for men who exhibited more dependent behavior as children. In contrast, there are no penalties for men who were headstrong or for women who were dependent. While other child behavioral problems are also associated with labor market earnings, their associations are not significantly different by gender. The gender differences in headstrong and dependent behavior are not explained by education, marriage, depression, self-esteem, health, or adult personality traits. However, one potential explanation is that these gender differences are a consequence of deviations from gender norms and stereotypes in the workplace.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Ofer Malamud. "Headstrong Girls and Dependent Boys: Gender Differences in the Labor Market Returns to Child Behavior." NBER Working Paper No. 29509, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2021.
2. Malamud, Ofer
Wozniak, Abigail
The Impact of College Education on Geographic Mobility: Evidence from the Vietnam Generation
Working Paper Series 08.11. Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Mobility; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

College-educated workers are twice as likely as high school graduates to make lasting long-distance moves, but little is known about the role of college itself in determining geographic mobility. Unobservable characteristics related to selection into college might also drive the relationship between college education and geographic mobility. We explore this question using a number of methods to analyze both the 1980 Census and longitudinal sources. We conclude that the causal impact of college completion on subsequent mobility is large. We introduce new instrumental variables that allow us to identify educational attainment and veteran status separately in a sample of men whose college decisions were exogenously influenced by their draft risk during the Vietnam War. Our preferred IV estimates imply that graduation increases the probability that a man resides outside his birth state by approximately 35 percentage points, a magnitude nearly twice as large as the OLS migration differential between college and high school graduates. IV estimates of graduation’s impact on total distance moved are even larger, with IV estimates that exceed OLS considerably. We provide evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 that our large IV estimates are plausible and likely explained by heterogeneous treatment effects. Finally, we provide some suggestive evidence on the mechanisms driving the relationship between college completion and mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Malamud, Ofer and Abigail Wozniak. "The Impact of College Education on Geographic Mobility: Evidence from the Vietnam Generation." Working Paper Series 08.11. Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago, 2008.
3. Malamud, Ofer
Wozniak, Abigail
The Impact of College Graduation on Geographic Mobility: Identifying Education Using Multiple Components of Vietnam Draft Risk
Discussion Paper No. 3432, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1136237
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Education; Labor Market Demographics; Migration; Migration Patterns; Mobility; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

College-educated workers are twice as likely as high school graduates to make lasting long distance moves, but little is known about the role of college itself in determining geographic mobility. Unobservable characteristics related to selection into college might also drive the relationship between college education and geographic mobility. We explore this question using a number of methods to analyze both the 1980 Census and longitudinal sources. We conclude that the causal impact of college completion on subsequent mobility is large. We introduce new instrumental variables that allow us to identify educational attainment and veteran status separately in a sample of men whose college decisions were exogenously influenced by their draft risk during the Vietnam War. Our preferred IV estimates imply that graduation increases the probability that a man resides outside his birth state by approximately 35 percentage points, a magnitude nearly twice as large as the OLS migration differential between college and high school graduates. IV estimates of graduation's impact on total distance moved are even larger, with IV estimates that exceed OLS considerably. We provide evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 that our large IV estimates are plausible and likely explained by heterogeneous treatment effects. Finally, we provide some suggestive evidence on the mechanisms driving the relationship between college completion and mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Malamud, Ofer and Abigail Wozniak. "The Impact of College Graduation on Geographic Mobility: Identifying Education Using Multiple Components of Vietnam Draft Risk." Discussion Paper No. 3432, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2008.