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Author: Spitze, Glenna D.
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. South, Scott J.
Spitze, Glenna D.
Determinants of Divorce over the Marital Life Course
American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 583-590.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095590
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Marital Stability; Racial Differences; Urbanization/Urban Living; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the Young and Mature Women samples of the NLS (number of cases = 8,158) are used to examine how the determinants of divorce (and separation) vary by the duration of marriage. In general, little evidence is found that the strength of previously identified predictors of divorce varies by marital duration. Variables such as race, wife's labor force participation, husband's employment, and urban residence seem to influence the probability of divorce, irrespective of the stage in the marital life course. The principal exception to this finding is the effect of wife's education, which appears to decrease the probability of divorce at early marital durations but to increase it at later durations. There is also suggestive evidence that the effects of home ownership and age at marriage may vary by marital duration. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
South, Scott J. and Glenna D. Spitze. "Determinants of Divorce over the Marital Life Course." American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 583-590.
2. Spitze, Glenna D.
Black Family Migration and Wives' Employment
Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (November 1984): 781-790.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352526
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Family; Job Search; Migration; Minority Groups; Racial Differences

Using data from the NLS of Young and Mature Women, this paper isolates determinants of black family migration in the U.S., incorporates variables reflecting the wife's employment experience into that model, and sorts out patterns of racial differences in the migration decision-making process. It also presents data, by race, on reasons for long-distance migration and whether wives line up jobs before a move. Stated reasons for moves and migration determinants are similar by race, leading to a residual minority group-status explanation for overall differences in rates. Implication of the findings for black women's employment are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Black Family Migration and Wives' Employment." Journal of Marriage and Family 46,4 (November 1984): 781-790.
3. Spitze, Glenna D.
Effect of Wives' Employment on Family Migration
Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Job Status; Marriage; Migration; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the effect of a wife's employment on her family's probability of migration, testing hypotheses derived from economic migration theory and from sociological research on work and family life. Data for white married women from the NLS of Young and Mature Women are aggregated across two-year time periods and then disaggregated by age groups. Results indicate deterrent effects of both wife's employment and her income, a minor interaction between employment and job satisfaction, and none with sex-role attitude variables. There are distinct age patterns, with earnings playing a greater role in the 20s and employment status in the early 30s. After this point, wives' employment plays no part in the family migration process. Possible age and cohort interpretations are discussed. It is concluded that increasing levels of female labor force participation may slow general levels of migration somewhat, particularly for young couples.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Effect of Wives' Employment on Family Migration." Presented: Pittsburgh, PA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1983.
4. Spitze, Glenna D.
Family Migration and Wives' Employment
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Black Family; Earnings; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Migration; Mobility, Job; Occupations, Female; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Traditionally, family migration has been explained in terms of job opportunities of individuals or family heads, treating wives implicitly as tied movers or stayers. This research builds upon recent revisions which take into account women's rising employment, using a dual-earner family model. It also tests for tied migration as a contributing cause of the sex earnings gap by measuring effects of migration on earnings and other employment characteristics and by measuring the duration of any effects found. Using data from the NLS Young and Mature Women surveys, it is found that reasons for moving are similar for whites and blacks, and that only around five percent of moves could be precipitated by a wife's job offer or transfer. For whites, both wife's employment and earnings deter migration, mainly for women with high earnings and middle earnings shares, and only up to the middle thirties. For blacks, wife's employment does not deter migration although for dual-earner black couples, wife's weeks worked have a negative impact. Young white employed women who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to move, as are those whose husbands approve of their working. Black husband-wife couples are less likely than whites to move but this is not due to the combined operation of the independent variables examined here. White women who move are less likely to be employed, work fewer weeks, and earn less a year later. A move also decreases job satisfaction for mature women. These consequences last only one to two years. Policy implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Family Migration and Wives' Employment." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
5. Spitze, Glenna D.
Family Migration Largely Unresponsive to Wife's Employment
Sociology and Social Research 70,3 (April 1986): 231-234
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Journal has ceased publication, check OCLC - Worldcat for libraries holdings.
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Husbands, Influence; Life Cycle Research; Migration; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the influence of a wife's job opportunities on the decision of a family to migrate, using data on white families from the NLS Young and Mature Women cohorts. A model was tested which included the influences of family life-cycle stage, community ties, husband's socioeconomic status, and wife's employment. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses suggest no overall wife employment status effect (though some significant effects were found for certain age groups). Suggestions for further research include analyses of: (1) migration patterns of families with high steady incomes in which the earnings of the wife are relatively equal to those of the husband; and (2) the ways by which all family members' individual preferences and intra-family influences combine to affect the migration decision-making process.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Family Migration Largely Unresponsive to Wife's Employment." Sociology and Social Research 70,3 (April 1986): 231-234.
6. Spitze, Glenna D.
Role Experiences of Young Women: A Longitudinal Test of the Role Hiatus Hypothesis
Journal of Marriage and Family 40,3 (August 1978): 471-479.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350928
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): College Education; Employment; High School; Job Training; Marriage; Sex Roles; Siblings; Training, Occupational; Work Experience

Using data from the NLS of Young Women, a test was made of the effect of three specific types of "role hiatus experiences" on young women's taste for paid employment and on their sex role beliefs. With controls for background variables and for beliefs and tastes measured while the young women were still in high school, it was found that the experiences of paid employment, occupational training, and college attendance before the onset of marriage and motherhood all altered tastes for paid employment but failed to affect sex role attitudes. While college and occupational training increased taste for paid employment, holding a job at this point in these young women's lives caused a decrease in this taste.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Role Experiences of Young Women: A Longitudinal Test of the Role Hiatus Hypothesis." Journal of Marriage and Family 40,3 (August 1978): 471-479.
7. Spitze, Glenna D.
The Division of Task Responsibility in U.S. Households: Longitudinal Adjustments to Change
Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 689-701.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578819
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Earnings, Wives; Family Structure; Household Demand; Household Models; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLS of Young and Mature Women are used to test both static and dynamic models of the division of household task responsibility. Static results provide weak support for the time availability and the power/earnings perspectives. Changes in wife's hours worked or earnings over a 2- or 3-year period led to adjustments in task division, although the unequal "starting point" for that division challenges the economists' view of its rationality.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "The Division of Task Responsibility in U.S. Households: Longitudinal Adjustments to Change." Social Forces 64,3 (March 1986): 689-701.
8. Spitze, Glenna D.
The Effect of Family Migration on Wives' Employment: How Long Does it Last
Social Science Quarterly 65,1 (March 1984): 21-36.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ298694&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ298694
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Job Status; Marriage; Migration; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "The Effect of Family Migration on Wives' Employment: How Long Does it Last." Social Science Quarterly 65,1 (March 1984): 21-36.
9. Spitze, Glenna D.
Work Commitment Among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Work Attitudes

The research analyzes the relations between young women's attitudes and preferences about market work and their labor force and family-building experiences in early adulthood, focusing on the causal relations between early employment and work-related attitudes, and between these attitudes and the timing of family formation. Data over a five-year period on women age 14 to 24 in l968 are taken from the NLS of Young Women. The major thrust of the findings suggests that work-related attitudes and preferences of young women are highly mutable during early adulthood, and relate only minimally to the timing or quality of early labor force experiences. Long term preferences for market work are linked to family building and dissolution. Women with a taste for paid employment delay marriage and childbearing, presumably to allow time for preparation for market work, and also are more likely than others to dissolve a marriage. Taste for market work decreases upon first marriage but increases with marital dissolution or the birth of a child, presumably due to changes in resources.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. "Work Commitment Among Young Women: Its Relation to Labor Force Participation, Marriage, and Childbearing." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
10. Spitze, Glenna D.
South, Scott J.
Women's Employment, Time Expenditure and Divorce
Journal of Family Issues 6 (1985): 307-239
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Divorce; Earnings, Wives; Household Demand; Husbands, Attitudes; Marital Instability; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research on the relationship between wives' employment and divorce has focused on two types of explanations, those positing change motives regarding divorce and those suggesting changed opportunities. Without discounting totally the path from income to opportunity, we focus here on a somewhat neglected alternative, that leading from time constraints to changed motives toward maintaining a marriage. We argue that time spent by the wife working outside the home impedes the completion of tasks necessary to the maintenance of the household, and hence increases the probability of divorce. Using data from the Young and Mature Women samples of the NLS, we find that among employed women, hours worked has a greater impact on marital dissolution than do various measures of wife's earnings. In partial support of our hypotheses, the relationship between wife's hours worked and the probability of divorce is strongest for middle income families and families in which the husband disapproves of his wife's employment.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. and Scott J. South. "Women's Employment, Time Expenditure and Divorce." Journal of Family Issues 6 (1985): 307-239.
11. Spitze, Glenna D.
Waite, Linda J.
Labor Force and Work Attitudes
Sociology of Work and Occupations 7,1 (February 1980): 3-32.
Also: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/7/1/3.abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Family Influences; Sex Roles; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors examine the relationship between work related attitudes held while in school and early labor force experiences. Findings show that neither variable affects the extent of employment during the first four years after schooling is completed. Women with long range work plans usually begin in low status and low paying jobs which possibly have a greater chance for advancement, compared to those who do not plan for later work. During this early period, attitudes and tastes change in response to certain job characteristics. However, strong tastes for market work may influence early labor force behavior which maximize long term benefits of employment and so might affect timing of work, childbearing, and characteristics of beginning jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. and Linda J. Waite. "Labor Force and Work Attitudes." Sociology of Work and Occupations 7,1 (February 1980): 3-32.
12. Spitze, Glenna D.
Waite, Linda J.
Wives' Employment: The Roles of Husbands' Perceived Attitudes
Journal of Marriage and Family 43,1 (February 1981): 117-124.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351422
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Husbands, Attitudes; Husbands, Influence; Marriage; Schooling; Sex Roles; Wives; Wives, Attitudes; Work Attitudes

Using data from the NLS of Young Women, the relations between husbands' perceived attitudes toward their wives' working and the early employment attitudes and behavior of wives are examined. Revisions in husbands' perceived attitudes during the early years of marriage, to conform with wives' employment attitudes and behavior, are found. In turn, wives' employment behavior is influenced by husbands' perceived preferences, but only among black respondents are wives' attitudes influenced by perceived attitudes of husbands. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. and Linda J. Waite. "Wives' Employment: The Roles of Husbands' Perceived Attitudes." Journal of Marriage and Family 43,1 (February 1981): 117-124.
13. Spitze, Glenna D.
Waite, Linda J.
Young Women's Preferences for Market Work: Responses to Marital Events
Research in Population Economics 3 (1981): 147-166
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Family Resources; First Birth; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Motherhood; Work Attitudes; Work History

The authors examine how women's relative preferences for market work and home work are affected by first marriage, marital dissolution, and first birth. The findings show that first marriage decreases market work preferences through age 24 but not beyond that age. Marital dissolution tends to increase market work preferences for ages 19 through 29. Finally, first birth has no immediate impact; however, 1 to 2 years later there are significant upward revisions in market work preferences.
Bibliography Citation
Spitze, Glenna D. and Linda J. Waite. "Young Women's Preferences for Market Work: Responses to Marital Events." Research in Population Economics 3 (1981): 147-166.
14. Waite, Linda J.
Spitze, Glenna D.
Young Women's Transition to Marriage
Demography 18,4 (November 1981): 681-694.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/b8n6453728t53wxu/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Marriage; Occupational Status; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines determinants of timing of marriage for young women by modeling the transition from the single to the married state by age. The authors find that those characteristics of a young woman's parental family that reflect the availability of parental resources tend to decrease the chances of a marriage during the early teens. Chances of marrying appear to decrease with increases in the availability and attractiveness of alternatives to the wife role and in the costs of assuming it.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Glenna D. Spitze. "Young Women's Transition to Marriage." Demography 18,4 (November 1981): 681-694.