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Author: Strauss, Richard S.
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Strauss, Richard S.
Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem
Pediatrics 105,1 (January 2000): N1-N5.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/105/1/e15
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanics; Obesity; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Social Emotional Development; Weight

Results. Scholastic and global self-esteem scores were not significantly different among 9- to 10-year-old obese and nonobese children. However, over the 4-year period, obese Hispanic females and obese white females showed significantly decreased levels of global self-esteem compared with nonobese Hispanic females and nonobese white females, respectively. Mild decreases in self-esteem also were observed in obese boys compared with nonobese boys. As a result, by 13 to 14 years of age, significantly lower levels of self-esteem were observed in obese boys, obese Hispanic girls, and obese white girls compared with their nonobese counterparts. Decreasing levels of self-esteem in obese children were associated with significantly increased rates of sadness, loneliness, and nervousness compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged. In addition, obese children with decreasing levels of self-esteem over the 4-year period were more likely to smoke and drink alcohol compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged.
Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. "Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem." Pediatrics 105,1 (January 2000): N1-N5.
2. Strauss, Richard S.
Knight, Judith
Influence of the Home Environment on the Development of Obesity in Children
Pediatrics 103,6 (June 1999): e85.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/6/e85
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Cognitive Development; Family Income; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Weight

Context. Obesity is the most common health problem facing children. The most recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III suggest that 22% of children and adolescents are overweight and that 11% are obese. Objective. To investigate prospectively the association between the home environment and socioeconomic factors and the development of obesity in children. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Population. A total of 2913 normal weight children between the ages of 0 and 8 years were followed over a 6-year period. We examined the roles of race, marital status, maternal education, family income, and parental occupation, as well as standardized measures of the home environment (The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]-Short Form) on the development of childhood obesity. Primary Outcome Measure. Incidence of obesity. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >95th percentile for age and gender at the 6-year follow-up. Results. Maternal obesity was the most significant predictor of childhood obesity (OR: 3.62 [2. 65-4.96]). The HOME-Short Form cognitive scores and household income were also significant predictors of childhood obesity (OR, low HOME-cognitive: 2.64 [1.48-4.70], medium HOME-cognitive: 2.32 [1. 39-3.88]; low income: 2.91 [1.66-5.08], medium income: 2.04 [1.21-3. 44]). Children who lived with single mothers were also significantly more likely to become obese by the 6-year follow-up, as were black children, children with nonworking parents, children with nonprofessional parents, and children whose mothers did not complete high school. Neither the child's gender nor the HOME-emotional scores contributed to the development of obesity. After controlling for the child's initial weight-for-height z-score, maternal body mass index, race, marital status, occupation, education, and HOME emotional scores, only the HOME cognitive score and family income remained significant predictors of childhood obesity. Conclusion. Children with obese mothers, low family incomes, and lower cognitive stimulation have significantly elevated risks of developing obesity, independent of other demographic and socioeconomic factors. In contrast, increased rates of obesity in black children, children with lower family education, and nonprofessional parents may be mediated through the confounding effects of low income and lower levels of cognitive stimulation.
Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. and Judith Knight. "Influence of the Home Environment on the Development of Obesity in Children." Pediatrics 103,6 (June 1999): e85.
3. Strauss, Richard S.
Pollack, Harold
Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998
Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.
Also: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/286/22/2845.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Income; Obesity; Racial Differences; Regions; Residence; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Overweight is the most common health problem facing US children. Data for adults suggest that overweight prevalence has increased by more than 50% in the last 10 years. Data for children also suggest that the prevalence of overweight continues to increase rapidly.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent changes in the prevalence of overweight within a nationally representative sample of children.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective cohort study conducted from 1986 to 1998 among 8270 children aged 4 to 12 years (24 174 growth points were analyzed).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of overweight children, defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex, and prevalence of overweight and at-risk children, defined as BMI greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. The roles of race/ethnicity, sex, income, and region of residence were also examined.

RESULTS: Between 1986 and 1998, overweight increased significantly and steadily among African American (P<.001), Hispanic (P<.001), and white (P =.03) children. By 1998, overweight prevalence increased to 21.5% among African Americans, 21.8% among Hispanics, and 12.3% among non-Hispanic whites. In addition, overweight children were heavier in 1998 compared with 1986 (P<.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, overweight increased fastest among minorities and southerners, creating large demographic differences in the prevalence of childhood overweight by 1998. The number of children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile increased significantly from 1986 to 1998 among African American and Hispanic children (P<.001 for both) and nonsignificantly among white children (P =.77).

CONCLUSIONS: Childhood overweight continues to increase rapidly in the United States, particularly among African Americans and Hispanics. Culturally competent treatment strategies as well as other policy interventions are required to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating patterns among children.

Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. and Harold Pollack. "Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998." Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.