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Source: Epidemiology
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Jackson, John W.
VanderWeele, Tyler J.
Decomposition Analysis to Identify Intervention Targets for Reducing Disparities
Epidemiology 29,6 (November 2018): 825-835.
Also: https://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2018/11000/Decomposition_Analysis_to_Identify_Intervention.11.aspx
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childhood; Educational Attainment; Epidemiology; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been considerable interest in using decomposition methods in epidemiology (mediation analysis) and economics (Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition) to understand how health disparities arise and how they might change upon intervention. It has not been clear when estimates from the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition can be interpreted causally because its implementation does not explicitly address potential confounding of target variables. While mediation analysis does explicitly adjust for confounders of target variables, it typically does so in a way that effectively entails equalizing confounders across racial groups, which may not reflect the intended intervention. Revisiting prior analyses in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on disparities in wages, unemployment, incarceration, and overall health with test scores, taken as a proxy for educational attainment, as a target intervention, we propose and demonstrate a novel decomposition that controls for confounders of test scores (e.g. measures of childhood socioeconomic status [SES]) while leaving their association with race intact. We compare this decomposition with others that use standardization (to equalize childhood SES [the confounders] alone), mediation analysis (to equalize test scores within levels of childhood SES), and one that equalizes both childhood SES and test scores. We also show how these decompositions, including our novel proposals, are equivalent to implementations of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, but provide a more formal causal interpretation for these decompositions.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, John W. and Tyler J. VanderWeele. "Decomposition Analysis to Identify Intervention Targets for Reducing Disparities." Epidemiology 29,6 (November 2018): 825-835.
2. Margerison-Zilko, Claire E.
Catalano, Ralph
Hubbard, Alan
Ahern, Jennifer
Maternal Exposure to Unexpected Economic Contraction and Birth Weight for Gestational Age
Epidemiology 22,6 (November 2011): 855-858.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21900824
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Economic Changes/Recession; Economic Well-Being; Geocoded Data; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Job Turnover; Maternal Employment; Poverty; State-Level Data/Policy; Stress; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: The macro-level economy may affect fetal health through maternal behavioral or physiologic responses.

Methods: We used a multilevel design to examine associations between exposure to state-level unexpected economic contraction during each trimester of gestation and birth weight for gestational age percentile and small for gestational age (SGA), using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We examined differences in observed associations by maternal educational attainment, race/ethnicity, employment status, and poverty status.

Results: Exposure in the first trimester was associated with a 3.7 percentile point decrease in birth weight for gestational age (95% confidence interval [CI] = −6.8 to −0.6). This association appeared stronger for women “keeping house” or with <12 years education. Exposure in the first trimester was also associated with increased odds of SGA (odds ratio = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.1 to 2.1]) and term SGA (odds ratio = 1.6 [95% CI = 1.2 to 2.3]).

Conclusions: Unexpected economic contraction during early pregnancy may be associated with reduced fetal growth.

Bibliography Citation
Margerison-Zilko, Claire E., Ralph Catalano, Alan Hubbard and Jennifer Ahern. "Maternal Exposure to Unexpected Economic Contraction and Birth Weight for Gestational Age." Epidemiology 22,6 (November 2011): 855-858.