Search Results

Source: Lexington Books
Resulting in 17 citations.
1. Borus, Michael E.
Tomorrow's Workers
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Dropouts; Job Search; Occupational Aspirations; Part-Time Work; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes; Work Knowledge

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter provides an overview of the youth population and its employment status. The next chapter describes those who are already working, including the kinds of jobs they have, their attitudes toward those jobs, and the determinants of their pay. Chapter three focuses on youths who are seeking employment, their methods of job search, their wage expectations and the limitations and barriers they must overcome. Because a major determinant of employment success is education and training, chapter four enlarges on the experiences of the young people in school and in a variety of training programs. The fifth chapter focuses on another set of crucial determinants of success in the work force-the hopes, plans, and expectations of the youths themselves. The final chapter summarizes the findings of the earlier chapters and draws implications for public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E. Tomorrow's Workers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983.
2. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Behavior; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wages; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The economic effects of variations in women's health are analyzed from two related perspectives: first, the impact of poor health on labor supply and wage rates is examined and earnings losses calculated; and second, the analysis is extended to the family unit to study whether the wife's health status influences the work behavior of her spouse. The health measure used is the impairment index of functional limitations calculated for all women in 1977. Wage and hour equations are estimated by multivariate procedures (OLS and TOBIT). Issues of sample selectivity bias are addressed. The findings show that women with health problems suffer consequences that compound their already disadvantaged position in the labor market. Black men were also found to increase their work activity in response to the poor health of their wives; there is no evidence of a similar compensatory effect among white women.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
3. Daymont, Thomas N.
Statham, Anne
Occupational Atypicality: Changes, Causes, and Consequences
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Little change was found in the tendency for middle-aged women to be employed in female-typed occupations. Family constraints on the time and energies of women do not explain the differential allocation of women to male-and female-typed occupations. Among whites, those who displayed a strong commitment to the labor market were only very slightly more likely than women with a weak commitment to be in atypical or male-typed occupations; moreover, among blacks, those who displayed a strong commitment to the labor market were actually slightly more likely to be in female-typed occupations. These results thus contradict the hypothesis, derived from human-capital theory that occupational sex segregation is largely explained by men and women choosing different occupations based on differences in their commitment to the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Daymont, Thomas N. and Anne Statham. "Occupational Atypicality: Changes, Causes, and Consequences" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
4. Hills, Stephen M.
D'Amico, Ronald
Shapiro, David
Lynch, Lisa M.
The Changing Labor Market: A Longitudinal Study of Young Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Displaced Workers; Industrial Sector; Local Labor Market; Military Service; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Transfers, Skill

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In a review of the 1966-1981 data from the Young Men's cohort, this book discusses the consequences of job dislocation on the careers of young men, and focuses on displacement within the construction, automobile, and steel industries. Also examined are the household costs of unemployment, the factors influencing career mobility patterns, the long-run effects of military service, and the extent of skill transfer between military and civilian occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Ronald D'Amico, David Shapiro and Lisa M. Lynch. The Changing Labor Market: A Longitudinal Study of Young Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.
5. Morgan, William R.
Returning to School at Midlife: Mature Women with Educational Careers
In: Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986: pp. 51-72
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morgan, William R. "Returning to School at Midlife: Mature Women with Educational Careers" In: Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986: pp. 51-72
6. Morgan, William R.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Leisure Activities and Social Networks
In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985: pp. 119-145
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Leisure; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morgan, William R., Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence L. Less. "Leisure Activities and Social Networks" In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985: pp. 119-145
7. Mott, Frank L.
Women, Work, and Family: Dimensions of Change in American Society
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Job Training; Marital Disruption; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 1, Introduction and Overview, Frank L. Mott; Chapter 2, Young Women's Decisions to Attend College: Desires, Expectations, and Realizations, Steven H. Sandell; Chapter 3, Pregnancy, Motherhood, and Work Activity, Frank L. Mott and David Shapiro; Chapter 4, Sex Segregation in the Labor Market: An Analysis of Young College Women's Occupational Preferences, Patricia K. Brito and Carol L. Jusenius; Chapter 5, Work Attachment, Investments in Human Capital, and the Earnings of Young Women, David Shapiro and Timothy J. Carr; Chapter 6, The Migration of Young Families: An Economic Perspective, Steven H. Sandell and Peter J. Koenig; Chapter 7, The Causes and Consequences of Marital Breakdown, Frank L. Mott and Sylvia F. Moore; Chapter 8, Highlights of the Volume and Some Policy Implications, Frank L. Mott. See abstract for Mott, Years for Decision, Volume 4 (1978); R&D Monograph 24. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. Women, Work, and Family: Dimensions of Change in American Society. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978.
8. Mott, Frank L.
Haurin, R. Jean
Factors Affecting Mortality in the Years Surrounding Retirement
In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Employment; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mortality; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article presents an analysis of the mortality rates of older men and shows to what extent factors such as race, education and marital status are independent predictors of mortality. Black men have systematically higher mortality than whites, but almost all of this difference reflects differences in socioeconomic background. In contrast, the effect of marital status appears more deeply embedded. After controlling for background factors as well as for differences between the married and non-married in employment and health status, married men still face more favorable survival prospects. Detailed employment measures as well as self-report health measures permit (1) documentation of the health-mortality association and (2) more effective measurement of other mortality differentials. The generally acknowledged overall declines in mortality over the past fifteen years have affected all segments of the society; blacks and whites, the well- and the poorly educated, and the healthy and unhealthy, have all apparently benefited from the general improvements in health and medical care services available in our society. One population subgroup, however, has benefited to a substantially greater extent than others-- individuals not at work who frequently have reported illnesses of long duration. In this regard, it may be fair to conclude that those most in need have indeed benefited the most from the secular improvements in health care.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and R. Jean Haurin. "Factors Affecting Mortality in the Years Surrounding Retirement" In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
9. Nestel, Gilbert
Mercier, Jacqueline
Shaw, Lois B.
Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Status; Poverty; Remarriage; Widows

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The end of a marriage leaves most women to face the emotional trauma of the loss of a spouse, the problems of heading a family alone, and the adjustment to the loss of a major source of income. The welfare of these women and their families is not unrelated to the reason the marriage terminated. It is also affected by whether or not the woman remarries. Data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to explore the experiences of married women who divorce, are separated, or lose their spouse because of death in the period 1967-1976. A multivariate analysis provides a profile of the divorced and widowed women who remarry. The short-run consequences of a change in marital status in the 1967-1977 decade is also provided. Women who remain married throughout the decade become the reference group for these comparisons. The findings indicate that the incidence of poverty is higher among women who change marital status than among those continuously married. Sources of income differ with widows depending on Social Security Survivors Benefits and separated women on welfare payments. Remarriage was not very frequent; one-third of divorced women and one-sixth of the widows had remarried by 1977. Women who were worse off economically and those with little education were most likely to remarry, but black women and older women were less likely to remarry regardless of economic need.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert, Jacqueline Mercier and Lois B. Shaw. "Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
10. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Mott, Frank L.
Morgan, William R.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Among American Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Mortality; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally representative sample of men age 45-59 in 1966 show that by 1981 most had retired. One third of all retirements and almost half of those by black men were caused by poor health; fewer than five percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent left the labor market in discouragement due to labor market adversity. Most retirements, however, are voluntary, and most take place before age 65. Trends in mortality differentials show that general improvements in health and medical care have benefited all groups, especially the chronically ill. The data highlight a trend toward early retirement in the 1960s and 1970s and show that only 30 percent of retirements actually took place at the age men expected when asked at age 59. Economic well being, leisure activities and social interactions, psychological and physical well being are examined. The experience of the minority who continue to work beyond the normal retirement age is also analyzed.

Introduction and overview / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Factors affecting mortality in the years surrounding retirement / Frank L. Mott and R. Jean Haurin -- The volume and pattern of retirements, 1966-1981 / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Retirement expectation and the timing of retirement / Gilbert Nestel -- Economic well-being in retirement / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Leisure activities and social networks / William R. Morgan, Herbert S. Parnes, and Lawrence J. Less -- Longitudinal effects of retirement on men's psychological and physical well-being / Joan E. Crowley -- Shunning retirement : the experience of full-time workers / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less.

Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin, Lawrence L. Less, Frank L. Mott, William R. Morgan and Gilbert Nestel. Retirement Among American Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.
11. Rhoton, Patricia
Statham-Macke, Anne
Attitudes Toward Women Working: Changes Over Time and Implications for the Labor Force Behaviors of Husbands And Wives
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Husbands, Attitudes; Husbands, Influence; Job Patterns; Sex Roles; Wives, Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter examines the relationship among the respondent's attitudes toward women's roles, the effect of those attitudes on work behavior, and the feedback between women's experience and later attitudes. In addition to these issues, for women married to the same spouse throughout the decade, a smaller subset of women who were married to men in the Older Men's Cohort was studied. Instead of using the wife's perception of her husband's attitudes, it was possible to examine the effects of husbands' attitudes on their wives' work activity and the wives' work activity on their husbands' subsequent attitudes. In general, it appears that the impact of attitudes on work activity has decreased over time, while the impact of work activity on attitudes has increased. Husbands' attitudes toward women working are significantly modified by their wives' work. Also, less traditional husbands tend to work fewer hours.
Bibliography Citation
Rhoton, Patricia and Anne Statham-Macke. "Attitudes Toward Women Working: Changes Over Time and Implications for the Labor Force Behaviors of Husbands And Wives" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
12. Shaw, Lois B.
Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Migration; Unemployment; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Middle-aged women were found to work intermittently for a variety of reasons. Family responsibilities remained an important reason for irregular work patterns. Health was a major cause of intermittent employment and long periods out of the work force, especially among black women. A family's migration to another area often resulted in interruption of employment for white women. All of these reasons for irregular work patterns suggest family or health constraints or personal preferences that were not strongly influenced by the state of the job market. However, high unemployment rates in some areas affected the work behavior of women who had not previously been well established in the labor market. Job leaving because of business conditions was common among women who had not worked steadily in the preceding five years. Among women who had worked most of the time in the recent past, a small minority, generally the less educated, also experienced job loss and considerable unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
13. Shaw, Lois B.
Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Husbands, Influence; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Remarriage; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally-representative sample of women who were age 30 to 44 when first interviewed in 1967 are analyzed. Chapter One describes the extent of the decreasing family responsibilities and increasing labor market involvement for these women over the fifteen-year period. Chapter Two explores the employment patterns of white and black women following the birth of their first child and the impact of this labor force participation as they reach middle-age. Chapter Three examines the degree of responsibility given to women age 45 to 59 as well as the extent to which authority is related to past work experience and current family roles. Chapter Four discusses the educational investments made by women at midlife, and Chapter Five examines the extent to which they increased their labor market involvement as a result of family disruptions or husband's unemployment or disability. Chapter Six describes the factors that determine women's early withdrawal from the labor market. Chapter Seven illustrates the usefulness of hazard rate models in exploring the transition from divorce to remarriage and finds a striking difference in the mean duration to remarriage between whites and non-whites. Chapter Eight focuses on the expected retirement income and retirement plans of white and black middle-aged women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.
14. Shaw, Lois B.
Problems of Labor Market Reentry
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Unemployment; Wages; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women's reentry into the labor force after a relatively long absence was investigated in order to determine whether the length of time away, the age of the woman, and the economic climate in the period from 1966 to 1977 affected labor market reentry and the ease or difficulty of becoming reestablished in the labor force. Reentrants who lived in areas of high unemployment ran an increased risk of leaving the labor force again after reentry. Those who reentered the labor force during the middle 1970s after an absence of at least five years had wages nearly 10 percent lower in real terms than the wages of women who had entered in the late sixties or early seventies, but neither the length of time since they had last worked nor the fact that they were somewhat older than women who entered earlier explained their lower wages. One possible explanation is that the slow growth of the economy combined with the influx of young women workers from the baby-boom generation brought increased competition for entry-level jobs that did not require much work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Problems of Labor Market Reentry" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
15. Shaw, Lois B.
Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Dropouts; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands, Influence; Marital Dissolution; Schooling; Wages; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 1, Introduction and Overview--Shaw, Lois B. and O'Brien, Theresa; Chapter 2, Problems of Labor- Market Reentry--Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 3, Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns-Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 4, Occupational Atypicality: Changes, Causes, and Consequences-Daymont, Thomas and Statham, Anne; Chapter 5, Attitudes toward Women Working: Changes over Time and Implications for the Labor-Force Behaviors of Husbands and Wives--Statham, Anne and Rhoton, Patricia; Chapter 6, Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women--Chirikos, Thomas N. and Nestel, Gilbert; Chapter 7, Economic Consequences of Midlife Change in Marital Status--Nestel, Gilbert, Mercier, Jacqueline, and Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 8, Summary and Conclusions--Shaw, Lois B.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983.
16. Shaw, Lois B.
O'Brien, Theresa
Introduction and Overview
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Income; Marital Status; Occupational Attainment; Unemployment; Wages; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter describes broad changes in the family circumstances, attitudes, and employment of middle-aged women over the ten-year period 1967-1977. During this period, over 80 percent of white women and 90 percent of black women worked at some time. About 35 percent of white women and 45 percent of black women worked fairly continuously throughout the ten years, but sporadic work patterns were also common. Women who worked continuously over the decade had real-wage gains of about 15 percent. However, women who reentered the labor force or worked sporadically were no better off in 1977 than the average female worker in 1967. The growing employment of women is important for their families and society. The percentage of families in poverty was reduced by at least 50 percent because of the contribution of working wives.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Theresa O'Brien. "Introduction and Overview" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
17. Sproat, Kezia
Churchill, Helene
Sheets, Carol T.
The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience: An Annotated Bibliography
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Labor Market Surveys; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This compendium summarizes almost 900 research articles, working papers, and dissertations completed from the mid- 60s through the mid-80s utilizing data from the five NLS cohorts. Arranged alphabetically by primary author, each entry includes an abstract, a series of keywords identifying the research areas addressed, as well as an identification of the NLS cohort(s) utilized in the research. To facilitate use, indices are provided which allow the reader to locate NLS research articles via authors and coauthors, title, subject areas, as well as cohort(s).
Bibliography Citation
Sproat, Kezia, Helene Churchill and Carol T. Sheets. The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience: An Annotated Bibliography. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.