Search Results

Source: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Bernhardt, Annette
Morris, Martina
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc A.
Inequality and Mobility: Trends in Wage Growth for Young Adults
Working Paper 99-03, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, July 1999.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/info-core/library/wp_lists/psu.html#1999
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Occupational Investment; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

After two decades of rising wage inequality, it is important to examine the impact of these changes on lifetime wage growth. This paper compares the intragenerational mobility of two NLS cohorts of young white men: the first entered the labor market in the late 1960s, the second in the early 1980s. For each cohort, we analyze wage profiles across 16 years using a mixed-effects model. We find that long-term wage growth has both stagnated and become more unequal in recent years. Changes in the composition of and returns to education, experience, occupation and other covariates explain about half the rise in inequality, leaving a significant residual. Our findings suggest a decline in the economic welfare of workers who entered the labor market in the 1980s.
Bibliography Citation
Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark S. Handcock and Marc A. Scott. "Inequality and Mobility: Trends in Wage Growth for Young Adults." Working Paper 99-03, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, July 1999.
2. Farkas, George
Beron, Kurt
Family Linguistic Culture and Social Reproduction: Verbal Skill from Parent to Child in the Preschool and School Years
Working Paper 01-05, Population Research Institute, March 2001.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/general/pubs/working_papers/psu-pri/wp0105.pdf.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Ethnic Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.

We use the NLSY data so as to reveal unprecedented detail on the age pattern of oral vocabulary growth. Separately for Whites and Blacks, we find that social class differences in vocabulary growth emerge at the very earliest ages, and attain a substantial magnitude by 36 months of age. These social class differences continue to widen during ages three and four, although this occurs more strongly among African-Americans than among Whites. Approximately half of these social class differences in vocabulary growth rates can be attributed to the differential family linguistic instruction provided by mothers of varying social classes. These early language instruction differences are quite consequential for later cognitive and school performance. By age five and above, vocabulary growth rates are relatively similar across social classes. This suggests that attendance in kindergarten and the higher school grades has an equalizing effect as children from a lower social strata are exposed to teacher and peer social interaction and school instruction. Implications are drawn for our understanding of the causal mechanisms underlying social reproduction and interventions and policies to reduce it.

Bibliography Citation
Farkas, George and Kurt Beron. "Family Linguistic Culture and Social Reproduction: Verbal Skill from Parent to Child in the Preschool and School Years." Working Paper 01-05, Population Research Institute, March 2001.
3. Handcock, Mark S.
Morris, Martina
Bernhardt, Annette
Trends in Earnings Dispersion in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey
Working Paper 98-14, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, April 1998.
Also: http://athens.pop.psu.edu/allen/WPapersSer.cfm?series=1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wage Differentials; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an unpublished but widely cited paper, Gottschalk and Moffitt (1997) benchmark earnings trends from 1979-88 in three major longitudinal data sets -- the Michigan Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID) the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSB) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) -- against the CPS. They find that the NLSY has both significantly lower variance in reported annual earnings, and a negative trend in variance over time. As this stands in sharp contrast to the primary "stylized fact" of increasing earnings variance during the 80's, the findings raise serious questions about the validity of the NLSY for research on recent trends in inequality. In this paper we update the Gottschalk and Moffitt comparison of the NLSY and CPS through 1994 and use additional analyses to locate the sources of, and potential explanations for, the discrepancy between the two data sets. We find no significant difference in the trend in earnings dispersion among full-time, full-year workers between the two surveys. The discrepancy reported by Gottschalk and Moffitt appears to be due to the lower mean and greater variance in reported earnings among those who work part-time and/or part-year in the CPS. This suggests the problem stems from underreported earnings in the CPS, rather than errors in the NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Handcock, Mark S., Martina Morris and Annette Bernhardt. "Trends in Earnings Dispersion in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey." Working Paper 98-14, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, April 1998.
4. Hayward, Mark D.
Gorman, Bridget K.
Robinson, Kristen Noelle
Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality
Working Paper 01-04, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, March 2001.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/general/pubs/working_papers/psu-pri/wp0104.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Children; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Rural/Urban Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented at Population Association of America Annual Meetings, Washington, DC 2001.

Our study contributes to understanding the basic associations between childhood circumstances and adult health in several ways. First, we take advantage of a nationally representative survey of American men aged 45-59 years in 1966 -- the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). These men are followed for a 24-year period, providing us with biographical information on socioeconomic achievement processes, lifestyle behaviors, and the timing and primary cause of death. Second, the survey contains measures of childhood circumstances that encompass theoretically important social origins of adult mortality -- the family of origin's socioeconomic circumstances, family status, residence in rural and urban communities, and nativity of both the respondent and his parents. The richness of information about both childhood and adulthood provides a sound base to examine the nature of the associations between childhood circumstances, adult circumstances, and adult mortality. To this end, we examine whether childhood circumstances have long-term associations with adult mortality, net of adult socioeconomic achievement and lifestyle. We also investigate the possible over-estimation of effects of adult socioeconomic factors in mortality research for which information on childhood circumstances was not available.

Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Bridget K. Gorman and Kristen Noelle Robinson. "Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early Life Social Conditions on Men's Mortality." Working Paper 01-04, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, March 2001.
5. Manning, Wendy D.
Implications of Cohabitation for Children's Well-Being
Presented: University Park, PA, National Symposium "Just Living Together: Implications of Cohabitation for Children, Families and Social Policy", October 2000.
Also: http://www.pop.psu.edu/events/manningpaper.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Divorce; Economic Well-Being; Family Formation; Fathers, Absence; Marital Status; Marriage; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Parental Marital Status; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper is divided into four sections. I begin with a basic discussion of the trends in cohabitation as a family living arrangement for children. Next I discuss why cohabitation may influence child outcomes. Then I review findings from empirical research that specifically focuses on the effect of cohabitation on children's social and economic well-being. Finally, I present limitations and challenges for future work on the effects of cohabitation on children.
Bibliography Citation
Manning, Wendy D. "Implications of Cohabitation for Children's Well-Being." Presented: University Park, PA, National Symposium "Just Living Together: Implications of Cohabitation for Children, Families and Social Policy", October 2000.
6. Morris, Martina
Bernhardt, Annette
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc A.
The Transition to Work in the Post-Industrial Labor Market
Working Paper 98-12, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, August 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Education; Employment, Intermittent; Mobility, Job; Re-employment; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Meetings, August 1998

American workers have witnessed striking changes in their jobs and wages during the last three decades. It is no longer simply a matter of growing income inequality, but increasingly deeper changes that go to the root of what it means to have a job and to build a career. Young workers are pessimistic about their chances for upward mobility and education no longer seems a guarantee of success. Workplaces are being restructured, creating anxiety about being laid-off and downsized. The recovery of the 1990s did not prove the cure-all that other recoveries have in the past, and disadvantaged groups in particular are being left behind. There is a growing sense that Americans are working under new rules. The very character of the American employment relationship appears to be changing - in how the workplace is organized, in how workers are matched with jobs, and in how wages and the terms of employment are set. This paper reports on a subset of findings from a larger study of the changes in job and wage mobility over the past 30 years. In this study, we compare two cohorts of young white men, from the National Longitudinal Surveys. The original cohort entered the labor market in the late 1960s at the tail of the economic boom, and was followed through the 70s decade. The recent cohort entered the labor market in the early 1980s after the onset of economic restructuring, and was followed through the early 90s. We observe both cohorts for a full 16 years, at exactly the same ages - respondents are in their late teens and early 20s at the start of the survey, and are in their mid-30s by the end. We can therefore compare the progress of the two cohorts during the initial stages of their careers, but under different economic conditions. It is during this period that workers make the transition from school to work, and lay the groundwork for an eventual long-term relationship wi th an employer. The key finding reported in this paper is that the transition to the labor market has become longer and more volatile. Young workers who do not go on to college are more likely to be intermittently unemployed and to rely on part-time jobs for a greater number of years. This is especially marked among high school dropouts. Those who do go on to college are more likely to work while enrolled and to significantly draw out the period of enrollment. For both groups, it takes longer to find a full-year job than it has in the past. The recent cohort is also less likely to make a single, clean transition to the labor market. Instead, these young workers are more likely to move back and forth between work, unemployment, enrollment, and non-participation. Workers at all levels of education have experienced this greater volatility, but it has been most pronounced among those with less education. There is noticeably more shifting between industries in the recent cohort, at all ages. Some of this is driven by deindustrialization and the shift to service industries, but not all of it. The greater volatility on these dimensions has taken its toll on the work experience that young workers accumulate. Average work experience is similar across the two cohorts. But there is considerably more variability in the amount of work experience that the recent cohort has accumulated, and this holds true across all education groups. Findings from the larger study indicate that this contributes to greater inequality in wages and wage growth for this cohort, trends that are likely to persist over their life course.

Bibliography Citation
Morris, Martina, Annette Bernhardt, Mark S. Handcock and Marc A. Scott. "The Transition to Work in the Post-Industrial Labor Market." Working Paper 98-12, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, August 1998.
7. Morris, Martina
Bernhardt, Annette
Handcock, Mark S.
Scott, Marc A.
Wage Inequality and Labor Market Segmentation: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study Cohorts
Working Paper 98-07, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, April 1998.
Also: ftp://ftp.pop.psu.edu/papers/psu-pri/wp9807.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Education; Job Training; Job Turnover; Labor Market Segmentation; Marriage; Unions; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we take up the question of whether there has been a secular rise in job instability among young workers over the past three decades. We compare two NLS cohorts of young white men - the first cohort entering the labor market in the late 60s and throughout the 70s, and the second during the 80s and early 90s. Using longitudinal data on work history and schooling, we find a significant increase in the rate of job changing across the two cohorts. Some of the increase is explained by the trend toward lower marriage rates and longer transitions into the labor market. The economy's shift toward the service sector has also played an important role, although declines in stability have occurred in traditionally unionized industries as well. Together, these factors explain about one-half of the cohort difference. The overall rise in instability has resulted in shorter median tenures. While greater job instability and shorter tenures are not necessarily a bad thing - job changing can be beneficial to wage growth early in the career - we find that young workers in recent years have failed to capture the all-important wage gains that were associated with job changing in the past. This deterioration in wage gains has been felt largely by less educated workers, but inequality in these gains has also increased, for all education groups. In combination, our findings suggest declines in the long-term economic welfare of recent entrants into the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Morris, Martina, Annette Bernhardt, Mark S. Handcock and Marc A. Scott. "Wage Inequality and Labor Market Segmentation: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study Cohorts." Working Paper 98-07, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, April 1998.
8. Warner, David F.
Hayward, Mark D.
A Life Course Model of Race Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions
Working Paper, Population Research Center and Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, August 2003.
Also: http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/course/occupational_envHealth/bamick/home/TPSH%20Seminar%20Series%20Materials/Hayward%20December%202003/warner&hayward_jhsbsubmission.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Childhood; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing on the life course perspective, we examine the childhood social and economic origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we use nested hazard models to evaluate the mechanisms by which childhood and adult conditions differentiate the life chances of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that childhood (social) conditions explain a substantial part of the race gap in men's mortality, operating indirectly through adult socioeconomic achievement. Lifestyle factors do not explain the race gap in men's all-cause mortality, although childhood conditions predict adult lifestyle behaviors. While omitting childhood conditions in modeling race disparities in mortality does not substantially alter the contributions of adult socioeconomic conditions, ignoring the role of childhood conditions is problematic for public policy given our results.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, David F. and Mark D. Hayward. "A Life Course Model of Race Disparities in Men's Mortality: The Role of Childhood Social Conditions." Working Paper, Population Research Center and Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, August 2003.