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Source: The RAND Corporation
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Does Head Start Make a Difference?
Working Paper No. 94-05, Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation, February 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Disadvantaged, Economically; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Head Start; Health Care; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Data are used to investigate the effects of participation in Head Start on a range of child outcomes. In order to control for selection into the program. comparisons are drawn between siblings and also between the relative benefits associated with attending Head Start, on one hand, and other preschools, on the other. Both whites and African-Americans experience initial gains in test scores as a result of participation in Head Start. But, among African-Americans, the gains are quickly lost whereas, for whites, the gains persist well into adulthood. Result may indicate that Head Start significantly reduces the probability that a white child will repeat a grade, but has no effect on grade repetition among African-American children.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Does Head Start Make a Difference?" Working Paper No. 94-05, Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation, February 1994.
2. Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Klerman, Jacob Alex
Waite, Linda J.
Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth
Report N-3392-DOL/NICHD, The RAND Corporation, 1992.
Also: http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?N-3392
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Women; Work History

Labor supply by pregnant women and recent mothers has expanded rapidly in the last quarter century, and particularly in the last 10 years. The greatest increase in the workforce has been among mothers of the youngest children. This paper uses NLSY data and hazard models to examine how long women worked during their first pregnancy, when they returned to work, the determinants of each of these durations, and their correlation. The authors find strong own wage effects, weak income effects, and some evidence of a time trend.

This Note develops and tests a model of labor supply behavior near the birth of a first child. The model postulates that changes in labor supply are related to changes in a woman's reservation wage, since the market wage she is offered is assumed constant over the period. The reservation wage rises over the course of the pregnancy. After the delivery, the presence of an infant raises the value of the mother's time in the home. Thus, labor supply is hypothesized to relate to market wages as well as to factors that influence home productivity. The measures of home productivity include education, marital status, and family income other than the wife's earnings. The authors test this model on data for the 1980s, a time when major changes in labor force behavior occurred. The results support the hypothesis that women with higher wages are more likely to work both during pregnancy and after giving birth. Women with fewer sources of other family income are also more likely to work.

Bibliography Citation
Leibowitz, Arleen A., Jacob Alex Klerman and Linda J. Waite. "Women's Employment During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth." Report N-3392-DOL/NICHD, The RAND Corporation, 1992.
3. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Parcel, Toby L.
Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions
Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Child Health; Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Background; Family Influences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Parental Influences; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem

This paper extends research on determinants of children's home environments by evaluating effects of the occupational conditions that mothers and fathers experience on the home environments they provide and examining stability and change in home environments as a function of stability and change in occupational and family conditions. It utilizes the 1986 and 1988 mother-child supplements to the NLSY, selects the 781 married mothers with children aged three-to-six in 1986, and estimates multivariate regression of 1986 and 1988 child home environments, and change over time, as a function of earlier occupational and family conditions, parents' background and education, initial maternal resources, and intervening occupational and family changes. The findings document strong effects of parental cognitive and psychological resources on children's home environments. They also underscore the importance of both parents' occupational experiences, and of occupational and family change s on parents' abilities to provide adequate home environments.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. and Toby L. Parcel. "Social Sources of Stability and Change in Children's Home Environments: Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions." Presented: Santa Monica, CA, Economic and Demographic Aspects of Intergenerational Relations, The RAND Corporation, 1992.