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Source: UMI - ProQuest Digital Dissertations
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.
Disentangling Pathways of Adolescent Sexual Risk from Problem Behavior Syndrome
Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2007.
Also: http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/psych_diss/32/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Growth Curves; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Understanding the development of adolescent sexual risk behavior is complicated by the co-occurrence of sexual risk with substance use and delinquency, conceptualized as "problem behavior syndrome," with common causes and influences underlying all three problem behaviors (Jessor & Jessor, 1977). Explaining the development of sexual risk becomes even more complex given the changing patterns of adaptation and maladaptation over the course of adolescence (Sroufe & Rutter, 1984). Research also suggests that multiple pathways may forecast adolescent engagement in sexual risk behavior, underscoring the ideas of equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology (Cicchetti & Rogosh, 1996). To understand the diverse nature of sexual risk taking, researchers must identify these pathways and disentangle co-occurring problem behaviors from sexual risk. Revealing the course of sexual risk taking and the early risk and protective processes through which problem behavior develops allows researchers to identify the developmental periods that would be most amenable to intervention efforts (Rolf et al., 1990).

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), this study aimed to disentangle problem behavior syndrome by identifying the unique developmental pathways of adolescent sexual risk, alcohol use and delinquency. This study also investigated how early adolescent processes of risk and protection were associated with the growth of these risk behaviors during adolescence. Using a developmental psychopathology and resilience framework, risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15 to 24, and antecedents were measured with early adolescents ages 10 to 14 ( N = 1778). Using Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGA), joint trajectory analyses revealed five distinct adolescent risk taking groups: high sex and alcohol, moderate problem behavior, problem behavior, alcohol-only, and alcohol and delinquency experimentation. Early adolescent externalizing problems were particularly important in understanding adolescent risk group membership. The co-occurrence between sexual risk and alcohol use, the diversity of problem behavior syndrome, and potential intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A. Disentangling Pathways of Adolescent Sexual Risk from Problem Behavior Syndrome. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2007..
2. Chyi, Hau
Three Essays in Public Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Head Start; Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This first chapter examines the effects of mothers' welfare and work decisions on their children's attainments using a random effect instrumental variables (REIV) estimator. The estimator employs sibling comparisons and an instrumental variables approach to address the unobserved heterogeneity that may influence mothers' work and welfare decisions. The estimates imply that, relative to no welfare participation, participating in welfare for one to three years provides up to a 5 percentage point gain in a child's Picture Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) scores. A mother's number of years of work contributes between $3,000 and $7,000 1996 dollars to her child's labor income, but has no significant effect on the child's PIAT test scores. The second chapter develops a dynamic structural model of single mothers' work and welfare participation decisions while their children are young. This model is used to measure the effects of mothers' decisions on short run attainments of the children of NLSY 79. Using PIAT Math test scores as a measure of attainment, we find that both single mothers' work and welfare use in the first five years of their children's lives have a positive effect on children's outcomes, but this effect declines with initial ability. Furthermore, we find that the work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. The last chapter investigates the role of the 1993 EITC expansion on the decline of welfare caseloads. The joint probability of the work and welfare use decisions is estimated by a bivariate probit model. Using monthly information front the Study of Income and Program Participation, I find that the 1993 EITC expansion has at least the same effect on reducing welfare use as the welfare reform initiatives, in particular, welfare time limits. Moreover, the elasticity estimates indicate that single mothers, especially those who were not employed and dependent solely on welfare before the expansion, were more responsive to the EITC expansion than to welfare time limits. Finally, the increase in work among welfare participants is due to the relative ineffectiveness of the policies in reducing the net population of those who are on welfare and work simultaneously.
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau. Three Essays in Public Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2007.
3. Johnson, Katherine A.
Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Self-control Over Time
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Gender Differences; Household Composition; Household Structure; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although over a decade of empirical evidence suggests a causal link between low self-control and crime, very little research has focused on the prediction of self-control or on how self-control changes over time. The current project centers on the empirical testing of A General Theory of Crime (GTC - Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990) and on modeling the developmental nature of the acquisition of self-control throughout childhood and adolescence while testing for gender differences. The GTC is argued to be a general theory, capable of explaining all crime among all people. As such, self-control should be acquired in similar ways and at similar rates among both males and females. Results of the current study have implications for the generality of the GTC as well as the use of gender-neutral theories in the etiology of criminal behavior. I follow 809 young people through five waves of data (from ages 4-6 to ages 12-14) using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child and Young Adult Data (NLSY79 - Child and YA). I examine the extent to which males and females differ in the magnitude and shape of their growth in self-control over time, as well as the between-person stability of self-control. In order to do so, I employ latent growth curve analysis with multiple groups in Mplus (Muthén and Muthén 2004). Results show that there is a curvilinear relationship between self-control and time for both males and females such that individuals initially acquire self-control over time, but subsequently lose self-control after levels peak in late childhood. There is between-person stability among males and not among females, although this difference is not statistically significant. No other substantively important gender differences arose. Results are largely supportive of the theory and indicate that males and females may be more similar than they are different in terms of their within and between person change in self-control over time.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Katherine A. Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Self-control Over Time. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2007.
4. Lewis, Jamie Michelle
Maternal Influence on Adolescents' Formation of Work-family Gender Ideology: Variations by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
Master's Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Gender; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige; Women's Roles; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis investigates the influence of maternal work-family ideology and employment history on the ideology of their adolescent sons and daughters, as well as differences in the process of intergenerational transfer by gender and race/ethnicity. These questions are addressed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Children of the NLSY79. Results indicate that mothers with more egalitarian gender attitudes, especially those who support women's employment, transmit egalitarian work-family ideals to their children. Sons and daughters also develop more egalitarian work-family ideology when their mothers work in more prestigious occupations. Gender and racial differences in the process are found. Sons respond more to their mothers' behavior, whereas girls react more to maternal attitudes. In addition, maternal gender ideology is more influential for White youth than for Hispanic or African American children.
Bibliography Citation
Lewis, Jamie Michelle. Maternal Influence on Adolescents' Formation of Work-family Gender Ideology: Variations by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity. Master's Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2007.
5. Li, Jui-Chung Allen
Rethinking the Case Against Divorce
Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, May 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Factorial Survey Method / Vignette Method / Simulations; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this dissertation, I reconsider the case against divorce (1) by examining the effects of divorce on the well-being of children and adults and on the cultural beliefs concerning family migration decisions in three empirical studies, and (2) by making two methodological contributions that help unravel the several puzzles in the empirical analyses of this dissertation. In the first study, I examine children's emotional well-being, measured by behavior problems. Using panel data from the mother-child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and fixed-effects and random-trends models to control for selection on unobservables, I find that there is no effect of divorce on behavior problems for children of divorce. In the second study, I discuss methodological issues and describe a propensity score method for studying the effect of an event. I then apply this method in examining the effect of divorce on health using data from the adult sample of the NLSY79. I find that divorce has a negative effect on mental health for both divorced men and women. Divorce also has a negative effect on divorced women's physical health and general health status, but no effect on divorced men's physical health and general health status. In the third study, I develop a "computerized multivariate factorial survey" vignette method for studying the interrelated sociopsychological processes. I then apply this method in examining cultural beliefs concerning marriage prospects and family migration decisions. I probe what a convenience sample of respondents believe the probability of divorce for fictitious couples would be and what they believe the same fictitious couples would do when one spouse receives a job offer that requires moving to another city. Using simultaneous-equation models with correlated errors, I find that the respondents are more likely to believe that a fictitious couple would choose to live apart for work, if the respondents also believe that the same couple has a higher probability of divorcing within five years. I also find a gender asymmetry in respondents' beliefs, with respondents seeing a fictitious couple as more likely to take a job offer and move when the husband, rather than the wife, receives the job offer.
Bibliography Citation
Li, Jui-Chung Allen. Rethinking the Case Against Divorce. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, May 2007.
6. Pantano, Juan
Essays in Applied Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, UCLA, 2008.
Also: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/223028.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Achievement; Birth Order; Discipline; Educational Attainment; Parent-Child Interaction; Parenting Skills/Styles; School Performance; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation contains three essays that apply techniques in applied microeconomics to solve scientific puzzles and questions closely related to practical policy issues. The first essay explores the impact of early access to the birth control pill on the future crime rates of the children who are born to mothers who take advantage of this unprecedented improvement in contraceptive technology. The second essay investigates whether changing parenting strategies associated with parental reputation dynamics generate birth order effects in school performance. The last essay develops and estimates a dynamic model of human capital accumulation and criminal behavior. The estimated model is used to evaluate alternative criminal records policies and to shed light on the causal relationship between education and crime.

CHAPTER 2: Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Performance. Interest on the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation has recently reemerged. The debate about its existence seems to be settled, but identification of the main mechanisms remains somewhat elusive. While the latest research aims at rediscovering dilution theory, we advance complementary economic hypotheses regarding the causal mechanisms underlying birth order effects in education. In particular, we entertain theories of differential discipline in which those who are born later face more lenient disciplinary environments. In such contexts, the later born sibling will be likely to exert lower school effort, thus reaching lower performance levels. We provide robust empirical evidence on substantial attenuation parental restrictions for those with higher birth order (born later). We speculate this may arise a) as a result of parental reputation dynamics and/or b) because of the changing relative cost of alternative monitoring and punishment technologies available to parents as well as increasing enforcing costs that must be afforded when multiple children must be monitored at the same time.

Bibliography Citation
Pantano, Juan. Essays in Applied Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, UCLA, 2008..
7. Prante, Matthew F.
Longitudinal Analysis of Resource Competitiveness and Homelessness among Young Adults
M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Education; Employment; Homelessness; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Income; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Homelessness occurs when individual resources are not enough for the demands of a given environment. Exploring homelessness as a process of resource loss on a continuum of poverty leads to research and explanations concerning how people transition from being housed to being homeless. This study assessed the influence of age, gender, and race along with a set of eleven resource competitiveness variables on the risk of youth becoming homeless. Resource competitiveness variables were: parental income, personal income, possession of a driver's license (DL), live-in partner, parenthood, education and training, annual weeks-employed, substance abuse, and incarceration history. The data came from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). This sample was restricted to those that were homeless or unstably housed and were between the ages of 18 and 24 (n = 141). Each case was then matched by age, gender, and race to two individuals randomly selected from the remaining NLSY97 sample (n = 282). This resulted in an overall N of 423. A growth model was used to analyze the data longitudinally. Partnership, education and training, DL, annual weeks-employed, and personal income were significantly associated with experiences of homelessness and unstable housing. All were negatively related, except for age, which was positively related to incidents of homelessness and unstable housing. Comparisons across the homeless, unstably housed, and control samples showed incremental changes in nearly all the covariates in this study, in relation to changes in housing status, supporting the importance of studying homelessness as a point on a continuum of resource loss versus a discrete state of being.
Bibliography Citation
Prante, Matthew F. Longitudinal Analysis of Resource Competitiveness and Homelessness among Young Adults. M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, 2013.
8. Spence, Naomi J.
Reproductive Patterns and Women's Later Life Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, December 2006.
Also: http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08252006-121316/unrestricted/SpenceN.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Department of Sociology, Florida State University
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Depression (see also CESD); Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Course; Mortality; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility is central to the life experiences of women. As such, it has consequences for all aspects of their lives. Driven largely by contemporary trends in the timing of childbearing and family size, researchers have begun asking questions about the long-term consequences of women's reproductive patterns. This dissertation seeks to further our understanding of the relationship between women's reproductive patterns and later well-being by systematically investigating these relationships and possible mechanisms driving it. Using data collected over 35 years beginning in 1967 on a nationally representative cohort of mature women in the United States, I examine the relationship between non-normative reproductive patterns measured as 1) childlessness, 2) off-time childbearing by parity, 3) late childbearing, and 4) premarital childbearing and mortality, self-rated health, and depression.

This dissertation has three main findings. First, the effects of non-normative childbearing are different across health outcomes, although some overlap does exist. Second, more extreme deviations from normative reproductive patterns have negative consequences for later life indirectly through social, economic, and health statuses. In particular, an early initiation of childbearing coupled with high parity is associated with an elevated mortality risk and worse self-rated health through the mechanism of lower educational attainment. Mothers who delay childbearing until at least the later twenties and achieve high parity tend to be more depressed and have worse self-rated health, but these effects are mediated by other health outcomes. Finally, I find that extending childbearing into the last decade of the reproductive period can be detrimental for the well-being of mothers in terms of their self-ratings of health. However, this is also accounted for by late life health, depression in particular. The findings of this dissertation highlight the need to consider multiple dimensions of reproductive patterns because of the demonstrated differences in their effects on later well-being, as well as multiple dimensions of life course correlates and consequences of reproductive patterns and health because of the demonstrated differences in the mediation of relationships of non-normative reproductive patterns and indicators of well-being.

Bibliography Citation
Spence, Naomi J. Reproductive Patterns and Women's Later Life Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, December 2006..
9. Zhang, Zhiyong
Bayesian Analysis of Longitudinal Data Using Growth Curve Models
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, Department of Psychology, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Growth Curves; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Generally, at least two features are needed to characterize a growth process fully at any time point: the level of growth and the rate of growth. The level of growth represents the current status of a process at a given time point and can be viewed as a static measure of that process. The rate of growth represents how fast the level of the process is changing at that time point and can be viewed as a dynamic measure of the process. The widely used growth curve models usually focus on the analysis of the level of growth. However, techniques for analysis of rates of growth are still relatively rare. Because of the significance of rates of growth in understanding dynamic processes, a stronger and more versatile approach is proposed to model them by constructing growth rate models. The concepts of growth processes and current analytical techniques are first reviewed and both the simple rate of growth and the compound rate of growth are defined. Then, different models are developed to analyze rates of growth. Growth rate models are constructed to analyze simple rates of growth and random coefficient models are developed to analyze compound rates of growth. The proposed models are applied to analyze an empirical data set--the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY)--consisting of children's mathematics performance data and covariates of gender and behavioral problems (BPI).

Individual differences are found in both simple and compound rates of growth. BPI and gender have different relationship with simple rates of growth at different ages. BPI is also found to be negatively related to compound rates of growth. Finally, a systematic simulation study is conducted to validate the results from the analysis of the NLSY data and to investigate the performance of two main models, the quadratic growth rate model and the random coefficient latent difference score model. The simulation results support the validity of the results from the empirical data analysis. It is further found that the parameter estimates for both models are unbiased and the standard error estimates are consistent.

Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Zhiyong. Bayesian Analysis of Longitudinal Data Using Growth Curve Models. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, Department of Psychology, 2008.