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Author: Alvarado, Steven Elias
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Criminal Justice Contact in Adulthood: Heterogeneous Effects by Timing of Exposure
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Criminal Justice System; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Residential segregation and mass incarceration are key components of contemporary inequality. This paper examines the association between early exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in youth and incarceration in adulthood. Restricted and geocoded panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort allows for the analysis of 26 years (14 waves) of neighborhood effects across the life-course. These data parallel the prison boom span multiple members and generations of the family. Sibling fixed effects analyses suggest that exposure to neighborhood disadvantage early in life increases 1) the odds of developing problematic behaviors in childhood and adolescence and 2) the odds of criminal conviction and being incarcerated as an adult, net of observed and unobserved adjustments. The results also align with developmental theory in that exposure to neighborhood conditions during adolescence is more salient than exposure during early childhood. Alternative specifications of neighborhood disadvantage and cousin fixed effects models reinforce the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Criminal Justice Contact in Adulthood: Heterogeneous Effects by Timing of Exposure." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
2. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage Effects on Joblessness and Income in Adulthood
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Geocoded Data; Income; Kinship; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Siblings; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Wilson's (1987) seminal contribution to the study of residential inequality focused heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort – data that has never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects – to examine whether childhood and adolescent neighborhood disadvantage affects adult (ages 19-41) economic outcomes. Sibling fixed effects models suggest that youth neighborhood disadvantage increases joblessness and reduces income in adulthood, net of observed and unobserved adjustments, and that childhood exposure is more salient than adolescent exposure. Moreover, these results persist deep into adulthood and are robust to alternative specifications of neighborhood disadvantage. Adjusting for the legacy of disadvantage that cascades from grandparents to grandchildren through cousin fixed effects further reinforces the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage Effects on Joblessness and Income in Adulthood." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
3. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development
Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/94/4/1847/2461910/Delayed-Disadvantage-Neighborhood-Context-and#42282700
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Life Course; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Neighborhood effects scholarship suggests that neighborhoods may impart different effects across the early life-course because children's interactions with neighborhood actors and institutions evolve across the stages of child development. This paper expands our understanding of neighborhood effects on cognitive and non-cognitive development across childhood and early adolescence by capitalizing on thirteen waves of restricted and never-before-used longitudinal data from the NLSY Child and Young Adult (1986-2010) sample. The findings from within-child fixed-effects interaction models suggest that while younger children are immune to neighborhood effects on their cognitive development, older children consistently suffer a steep penalty for growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods. This neighborhood disadvantage penalty persists among older children despite alternative age constructs. Further, the results are robust to various adjustments for observed and unobserved sources of bias, model specifications, and also manifest as cumulative and lagged effects.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Delayed Disadvantage: Neighborhood Context and Child Development." Social Forces 94,4 (June 2016): 1847-1877.
4. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Stratification research has recently begun to investigate neighborhood effects on math and reading achievement. However, this paper is the first to quantitatively investigate neighborhood effects on achievement outcomes for movers and stayers separately. Those who stay experience gradual change in their neighborhoods over time while moving can involve many observed and unobserved shocks. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth provides a fresh sample with which to compare findings from other, very often used, data such as the PSID. Person fixed effects models estimate effects that are unbiased due to time-invariant unobserved characteristics of children and parents. They also account for changes in neighborhood conditions (and effects) as children mature. The findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage and affluence both affect achievement scores. When placed in the context of realistic shifts in neighborhood conditions for youth over time, these effects are much more modest than previous findings for extreme changes in neighborhood conditions. Implications for policies that move families to new neighborhoods and those that revitalize neighborhoods around tenured families over time are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Movers versus Stayers: Neighborhood Effects on Achievement Scores." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
5. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandchildren; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical examinations of how residential inequality compounds over multiple generations to impact health outcomes are rare. This project investigates the association between the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood disadvantage and adult obesity for grandchildren. Restricted tract-level data from the NLSY allow for the first empirical investigation into how exposure to multiple generations of neighborhood disadvantage is associated adult obesity of grandchildren. On the one hand, the results suggest that there is no impact on grandchildren's adult obesity for parents' childhood exposure to neighborhood disadvantage if those parents were able to ascend to non-disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood. On the other hand, grandchildren's adult obesity increases if parents lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods in adulthood after not growing up in disadvantaged neighborhoods in childhood. This analysis contributes to a more robust understanding of the role that neighborhoods play in the persistence of health inequality across multiple generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Multiple Generations of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Obesity Among Grandchildren." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
6. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Neighborhood Disadvantage and Obesity across Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Children and Young Adults Cohort (1986-2010)
Social Science Research 57 (May 2016): 80-98.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16000296
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Children, Poverty; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Logit; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity

Previous research suggests that youth who grow up in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods face higher odds of becoming obese. Neighborhood effects scholars, meanwhile, have suggested that contextual influences may increase in strength as children age. This is the first study to examine whether developmental epochs moderate the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on obesity over time. I use thirteen waves of new restricted and geo-coded data on children ages 2 - 18 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults. Bivariate and pooled logistic regression results suggest that neighborhood disadvantage has a stronger impact on adolescents' likelihood of becoming obese. Fixed effects models reveal that after adjusting for observed and unobserved confounders, adolescents continue to face higher odds of becoming obese due to the conditions associated with living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, as research on adults suggests, girls experience larger impacts of neighborhood disadvantage than boys.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Neighborhood Disadvantage and Obesity across Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Children and Young Adults Cohort (1986-2010)." Social Science Research 57 (May 2016): 80-98.
7. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Place Meets Race: Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in the Association Between Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Discrimination; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores how race and neighborhoods explain incarceration in tandem. I use 26 years of panel data that span the prison boom in the U.S. from two cohorts of the NLSY (1979 and Children and Young Adults) to study whether the association between childhood neighborhood disadvantage and adult incarceration varies by race. Stratified and full factorial sibling fixed effects interaction models suggest that neighborhood disadvantage early in life increases the odds of incarceration in adulthood for whites and Latinos, but not for blacks, net of observed and unobserved adjustments. Blacks from disadvantaged socioeconomic neighborhood contexts appear equally likely to be incarcerated as blacks from more advantaged neighborhoods. Rather than neighborhood context, discrimination in policing, surveillance, and other prejudicial policies across the life-course are likely to have greater impact on incarceration for blacks in the U.S. compared to the socioeconomic conditions of where they grew up.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "Place Meets Race: Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in the Association Between Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Incarceration." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
8. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effects of neighborhood context on math and reading scores for youth who experience exogenous neighborhood change around them over time. Seldom-used restricted panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1986 – 2008) is used to estimate person fixed effects models that account for unobserved time-invariant characteristics of children and families. Black and Latino youth are found to reside amidst more disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout adolescence than Whites. Further, disparities in neighborhood quality are rigid as children mature. Fixed-effects models demonstrate that neighborhood poverty is a consistent detrimental force for achievement across racial and ethnic groups. Gentrification, however, is an inconsistent predictor of increased achievement across these groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Educational Achievement." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
9. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity among Youth
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses geo-coded data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and fixed-effects to estimate neighborhood effects on obesity for youth ages 2 - 18 between 1986 and 2008. This study contributes an analysis of movers and stayers, an accounting of neighborhood change over time, and an accounting of the effects of moving to affluence and gentrification. Among urban Blacks and Latinos, gentrification did not affect obesity while unemployment increased their odds of being obese. Among POOR and urban Black youth, moving to more affluent neighborhoods decreased the odds of being obese, but this effect waned over time. Meanwhile, POOR and urban Latinos did not benefit from either affluence or gentrification. Policies that move poor and urban minorities to more affluent neighborhoods and those that economically revitalize neighborhoods around them over time should enhance the resources and services available to these severely disadvantaged sub-populations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity among Youth." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
10. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity and Educational Achievement among Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Outcomes; Geocoded Data; Hispanic Studies; Mobility, Residential; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation investigates the effect of neighborhood social context on obesity and educational achievement among youth. I use restricted geo-coded panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) between 1986 and 2008 and a within-child fixed effects approach to identify causal effects for movers and stayers separately. The fixed effects approach takes advantage of repeated measures of independent and dependent variables in order to eliminate bias that is due to time-invariant unobserved characteristics of children and families.

Among the general sample of youth, the results suggest that long-term exposure to neighborhood unemployment increases the odds of being obese while moving to affluence decreases the odds of being obese. Among Black youth, long-term exposure to neighborhood unemployment also increases the odds of being obese while Latino youth were sensitive only to a more recent exposure to neighborhood unemployment.

Among the general sample of youth, gentrification increases achievement scores. Among poor and urban Black children and poor and urban Latino children, exposure to neighborhood unemployment and neighborhood poverty generally reduces achievement scores. Moreover, the negative effects of neighborhood unemployment and neighborhood poverty are stronger among disadvantaged youth compared to the general sample of youth. Surprisingly, Black neighbors increase the achievement scores of poor and urban minority youth while neighborhood unemployment increases achievement among poor and urban Latinos. Among poor and urban minority youth, gentrification has no effect on achievement scores while moving severely disadvantaged Latinos to affluence decreases their achievement scores.

Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. The Effect of Neighborhood Context on Obesity and Educational Achievement among Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, 2011.
11. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Impact of Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage on Adult Joblessness and Income
Social Science Research 70 (February 2018): 1-17.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X17302855#sec3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Family Characteristics; Geocoded Data; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Siblings; Unemployment

Research on residential inequality focuses heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Yet, empirical evidence on whether youth neighborhoods have a lasting impact on adult economic outcomes at the national level is scarce. Further, we know little about how youth neighborhood effects on adult economic outcomes manifest. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY, Children and Young Adults cohort -- data that have never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects -- to examine whether youth neighborhood disadvantage impacts adult economic outcomes through sensitive years in childhood, teen socialization, duration effects, or cumulative effects. Sibling fixed effects models that net out unobserved effects of shared family characteristics suggest that youth neighborhood disadvantage increases joblessness and reduces income in adulthood. However, the timing of exposure across developmental stages of youth does not appear to act as a significant moderator while sustained exposure yields pernicious effects on adult economic outcomes. Moreover, these results are robust to alternative variable specifications and cousin fixed effects that net out potentially unobserved confounders, such as the inheritance of neighborhood disadvantage across three generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Impact of Childhood Neighborhood Disadvantage on Adult Joblessness and Income." Social Science Research 70 (February 2018): 1-17.
12. Alvarado, Steven Elias
The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison
Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Hispanics; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research into the ‘Latino epidemiological paradox’ has found that compared to similar socioeconomic native groups, first generation Latino immigrants exhibit advantages in health status measured in a variety of ways. These researchers focus on cross-sectional data to paint a picture of immigrants’ health status at one point in time – either early or very late in life. Other researchers have begun to look at the evolution of health status among the first generation and have found that the initial health advantages of this bourgeoning group erode fairly quickly upon entry to the U.S. Following such a trajectory in the literature on immigrant health, this paper measures the effect of generational status (first/second generation versus third generation) on the odds of having a child of low birth weight among the children and grandchildren of immigrants. The main hypothesis I test is that the children and grandchildren of immigrants will have increasingly higher odds of having a low birth weight child compared to their parents across racial/ethnic groups. I use 25 years worth of data from the NLSY to run logistic regression analysis and find that generational status indeed does increase the odds that later generations of Latinas living in the U.S. will have a child of low birth weight compared to earlier generations. The finding that low birth weight risk increases over generations is paradoxical in that Latinos migrate to the U.S. in order to better their lives–yet, living in the U.S. results in declines in health.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias. "The Latino Health Paradox: A Cross-Generational Comparison." Presented: New York NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2007.
13. Alvarado, Steven Elias
Cooperstock, Alexandra
The Multigenerational Transmission of Neighborhood Disadvantage
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood; Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood disadvantage. Restricted tract-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort and from the Child and Young Adult cohort allow for an empirical investigation into how multiple generations of neighborhood disadvantage affects neighborhood diadvantage in adulthood. In addition to multivariate regression models, the kinship structure of these data allows for cousin fixed effects models that control for unobserved confounders operating at the extended family level. Preliminary findings demonstrate that exposure to neighborhood disadvantage in parent's childhood and in grandchildren's childhood increases grandchildren's chances of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood in adulthood. Moreover, the results indirectly suggest that neighborhoods may impact inequality across four generations of a family by limiting the childhood context of opportunity of great-grandchildren. This analysis contributes to a more robust understanding of the role that neighborhoods play in the persistence of inequality across multiple generations.
Bibliography Citation
Alvarado, Steven Elias and Alexandra Cooperstock. "The Multigenerational Transmission of Neighborhood Disadvantage." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.