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Author: Gittleman, Maury
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Child Development; Cross-national Analysis; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Motor and Social Development (MSD); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version of this paper was presented in Ann Arbor, MI, Conference on "Cross-National Comparative Research Using Panel Surveys", October 2000

In this paper, we examine the effect of income on child development, as measured by scores on cognitive, behavior, and social assessments. Children's scores on various cognitive assessments have been shown to be related to success as adults. For instance, Currie and Thomas (1999) find that children's test scores at age seven are positively related to their employment and earnings as adults - even when a rich set of controls are included in the regressions. Consequently, addressing the question of whether higher levels of financial resources help children perform better on achievement tests may inform policies that aim to help children succeed as adults...Our results indicate that the relationship between income and test scores is, in fact, stronger in the US than in Great Britain when no other characteristics of the child or her family are taken into account. However, once controls for background characteristics and the mother's ability are included, the impact of income on child outcomes is very similar in the two countries. Our estimates of the effect of income on child outcomes are in line with those from previous studies that use US data: income has a positive and significant, but small effect on child development.

Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
2. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain
Journal of Human Resources 38,2 (Spring 2003): 416-440.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1558750
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Motor and Social Development (MSD); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale)

In this paper, we examine the effect of income on child development in the United States and the United Kingdom, as measured by scores on cognitive, behavior, and social assessments. In line with previous results for the US we find that for both countries income generally has an effect on child development that is positive and significant, but whose size is small relative to other family background variables
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Does Money Matter? A Comparison of the Effect of Income on Child Development in the United States and Great Britain." Journal of Human Resources 38,2 (Spring 2003): 416-440.
3. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous examinations of the impact of maternal employment on children have usually focused on young children. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal employment and risky behavior by adolescents using the NLSY79 Young Adult Supplement. We analyze the link between mothers' employment measured early in life and during adolescence and the decisions of children to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, use marijuana, and to engage in sexual activity. Characteristics of the mother that are not measured may affect both employment and her influence on the likelihood that the child engages in risky behaviors. Further, maternal employment will be tied to decisions such as those affecting marital status or spousal employment that may also influence or be influenced by child behavior. We explore three approaches to addressing these econometric issues: (1) inclusion of a wide range of controls for maternal characteristics, (2) instrumental variables, and (3) fixed effects.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
4. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Working Paper No. 366, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2003.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/ec030030.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child?s first three years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we find little evidence that mother?s employment early in the child?s life has lasting consequences on participation in risky behaviors. Similarly, with the possible exception of drinking alcohol?our results do not indicate that maternal employment during adolescence is correlated with increased involvement in risky activities. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Atlanta, GA, May 9-11, 2002 and the Annual Congress of the European Society of Population Economics, Bilbao, Spain, June 13-15, 2002.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Working Paper No. 366, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2003.
5. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629604000542
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child's first 3 years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we do not find strong evidence that mother' s employment-whether early in the child' s life or during adolescence-affects the likelihood of participation in risky behaviors. We note as a caveat, however, that insufficient statistical precision makes it difficult, at times, to distinguish some potentially important effects from effects that are essentially equal to zero.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
6. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Pierret, Charles R.
Why Is the Rate of College Dropout So High?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During most of the twentieth century, the U.S. led the world in the percentage of its population with a college education; today, that lead has vanished. Sparked in part by the growth in the college wage premium, the proportion of high school graduates going on to post‐secondary school has been on the rise in recent decades. However, this increase in college attendance has not resulted in a proportionate rise in the number of those with four year‐degrees, because the United States has the highest dropout rate in the developed world. With a college education said to be increasingly necessary to compete in the labor market, it is important to understand why so many individuals do not achieve success in postsecondary institutions. We address this issue by examining the college attendance and completion experience of two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), that from 1979 and that from 1997. The percentage of high school completers who attend college rose by almost 30 percentage points between the NLSY79 and NLSY97 samples. The bulk of the growth is through starting college at a two‐year institution. This is the case throughout the test score and family income distributions. In contrast, the percentage of college attendees who earn a bachelor's degree six years after high school completion is unchanged between the two cohorts (at about 37 percent), with an increase for women and a decrease for men.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen, Maury Gittleman and Charles R. Pierret. "Why Is the Rate of College Dropout So High?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019.
7. Gittleman, Maury
Medicaid and Wealth: An Examination Using the NLSY79
Working Paper No. 448, Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2011.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/osmr/abstract/ec/ec110060.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Insurance, Health; Medicaid/Medicare; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Savings; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wealth

Do public insurance programs crowd out private savings? I examine the relationship between Medicaid and wealth and make a contribution to the literature on this issue in three primary ways. First, I apply the instrumental-variables approach developed by Gruber and Yelowitz (1999) to a different dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79), while at the same time examining an alternative instrument. The results turn out to differ depending on the instrument and, for one of the instruments, to be sensitive to assumptions needed to identify Medicaid’s effects. Second, using the longitudinal data in the NLSY79, I am able to observe families before and after becoming eligible for Medicaid, and use fixed-effects to control for family-specific unobservable factors that are correlated with both Medicaid eligibility and wealth accumulation. It turns out, however, that assessment of the impact of Medicaid by means of fixed effects has its limitations as well. Third, I make use of the SIPP data used by Gruber and Yelowitz themselves, and examine the sensitivity of their conclusions to omitted factors that may be related to both Medicaid eligibility and to wealth accumulation. While more robust than the results using the NLSY79, the SIPP estimates are found to depend on the sample used and on certain specification restrictions. Taken together, the results suggest caution in making inferences about the impact of Medicaid on wealth.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury. "Medicaid and Wealth: An Examination Using the NLSY79." Working Paper No. 448, Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2011.
8. Gittleman, Maury
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Pierret, Charles R.
Why Is the Rate of College Dropout so High and Why Is It Rising for Men?
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Graduates; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the NLSY79 and NLSY97, we examine changes in college completion rates and their causes. We find that college completion rates fell from one cohort to the next, with the rate for men dropping sharply, while that for women increased. Thus, any explanation for these trends must be able to account for gender differences. We will model the probability of completing college as a function of three different categories of variables: 1) student attributes; 2) characteristics of the postsecondary institutions; and 3) measures of any “mismatch” between the ability of the student and the quality of the institution. We will decompose differences over time in college completion rates into portions attributable to changes in the observed characteristics between cohorts and to changes in the coefficients. The portion attributable to changes in the observed characteristics will be further examined to assess the relative importance of student characteristics, institutional resources and mismatch.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury, Alison Aileen Aughinbaugh and Charles R. Pierret. "Why Is the Rate of College Dropout so High and Why Is It Rising for Men?" Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
9. Gittleman, Maury
Kleiner, Morris M.
Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States
Working Paper No. 19061. National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2013.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w19061
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Occupations; Unions; Wage Determination; Wage Models

Recent estimates in standard models of wage determination for both unionization and occupational licensing have shown wage effects that are similar across the two institutions. These cross-sectional estimates use specialized data sets, with small sample sizes, for the period 2006 through 2008. Our analysis examines the impact of unions and licensing coverage on wage determination using new data collected on licensing statutes that are then linked to longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2010. We develop several approaches, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, to measure the impact of these two labor market institutions on wage determination. Our estimates of the economic returns to union coverage are greater than those for licensing requirements.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury and Morris M. Kleiner. "Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States." Working Paper No. 19061. National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2013.
10. Gittleman, Maury
Kleiner, Morris M.
Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 69,1 (January 2016): 142-172.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/69/1/142
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Training; Unions; Wage Determination; Wage Effects

Recent estimates in standard models of wage determination for both unionization and occupational licensing have shown wage effects that are similar across the two institutions. These cross-sectional estimates use specialized data sets, with small sample sizes, for the period 2006 to 2008. The authors' analysis examines the impact of unions and licensing coverage on wage determination using new data collected on licensing statutes that are then linked to longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2010. They develop several approaches, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, to measure the impact of these two labor market institutions on wage determination. The estimates of the economic returns to union coverage are greater than those for licensing statutes.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury and Morris M. Kleiner. "Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 69,1 (January 2016): 142-172.