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Author: Griliches, Zvi
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Bound, John
Griliches, Zvi
Hall, Bronwyn H.
Brothers and Sisters in the Family and the Labor Market
NBER Working Paper No. 1476, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W1476
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Brothers; Family Influences; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Pairs (also see Siblings); Schooling; Siblings; Sisters; Wages

This paper investigates the relationship between earnings, schooling, and ability for young men and women who entered the labor force during the late 1960s and 1970s. The emphasis is on controlling for both observed and unobserved family characteristics, extending a framework developed earlier by Chamberlain and Griliches (1975) to the analysis of mixed-sex pairs of siblings. Using the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, which drew much of the sample from the same households, the authors were able to construct a sample containing roughly 1,500 sibling pairs. For several reasons, particularly the need to have data on two siblings from the same family, only one-third of these pairs had complete data; this fact led the authors to develop new methods of estimating factor models, which combine the data for several "unbalanced" covariance matrices. The authors' use the data on different kinds of sibling pairs (male-male, male-female, female-female) together with these new methods to investigate the question of whether family background, ability, or IQ are the same thing for males and females, in the sense that they lead to similar consequences for success in schooling and in the market place. With a simple two-factor model to explain wages, schooling, and IQ scores, the authors were able to test whether these factors are the same across siblings of different sexes and whether the loadings on the two factors are similar. The conclusion is that the unobservable factors appear to be the same and play the same role in explaining the IQ and schooling of these siblings, while there remains evidence of differences once they enter the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Bound, John, Zvi Griliches and Bronwyn H. Hall. "Brothers and Sisters in the Family and the Labor Market." NBER Working Paper No. 1476, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.
2. Chamberlain, Gary
Griliches, Zvi
More on Brothers
In: Kinometrics: Determinants of Socio-Economic Success Within/Between Families. P. Taubman, ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland Publishing, 1977.
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Brothers; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Income; I.Q.; Occupational Aspirations; Pairs (also see Siblings); Schooling; Siblings

The major focus of this study is on estimating the income-schooling relationship in the presence of an unobserved ability variable. The main results are the negligible ability coefficient and the substantial schooling coefficient in the earnings equation. The authors expect the ability coefficient to increase as the sample ages. On the whole, they feel that the results from the expectation data are better indicators of the eventual peak schooling and ability effects.
Bibliography Citation
Chamberlain, Gary and Zvi Griliches. "More on Brothers" In: Kinometrics: Determinants of Socio-Economic Success Within/Between Families. P. Taubman, ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland Publishing, 1977.
3. Griliches, Zvi
Earnings of Very Young Men
In: Income Distribution and Economic Inequality. Z. Griliches, et al., eds. New York, NY: Wiley and Sons, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Influences; I.Q.; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study replicates the author's earlier (1976) results on newer data from the NLS of Young Men, discusses the distribution of earnings as opposed to wage rates, and outlines a model for the analysis of time series on individuals. The effect of schooling on wage rates is far stronger than is the effect of IQ, and this difference is even stronger when the effects of these two variables on earnings are considered. Only half of the observed variance in completed schooling is explained by family background and IQ, so other forces affecting schooling remain to be identified. In the late 1960s, young black men were completing more schooling than white of similar background and ability.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Earnings of Very Young Men" In: Income Distribution and Economic Inequality. Z. Griliches, et al., eds. New York, NY: Wiley and Sons, 1978
4. Griliches, Zvi
Estimating the Returns to Schooling: Some Econometric Problems
Econometrica 45,1 (January 1977): 1-22.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1913285
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Department of Economics, Northwestern University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study surveys various econometric issues that arise in estimating a relationship between the logarithm of earnings, schooling, and other variables and focuses on the problem of "ability" as an omitted variable. The paper shows that in optimizing models the "ability bias" need not be positive. Using recent analyses from the NLS of Young Men, when schooling is treated symmetrically, is allowed to be subject to errors of measurement, and is correlated with the disturbance term, the usual conclusion of a significantly positive "ability bias" in the estimated schooling coefficients is not supported and possibly even reversed.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Estimating the Returns to Schooling: Some Econometric Problems." Econometrica 45,1 (January 1977): 1-22.
5. Griliches, Zvi
Expectations, Realizations, and the Aging of Young Men
Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 1-21.
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Job Aspirations; Work History

This paper exploits the fact that educational and occupational expectations were asked in the NLS, and that by 1975 a significant fraction of this cohort had actually reached the point at which the success of their forecasts could be evaluated ex post. It was hoped that this work would indicate how good are such expectations and what they can tell us about the unmeasured aspects of the individuals. Unfortunately, the following data and sample design problems were encountered: (1) the sample turned out to be smaller than originally expected; and (2) the educational expectations question was asked only of those still in school, about one-third of the total. The major findings of this study are: (1) the quality of such expectations is not impressive.The R2 between expected and actual schooling (for those with valid expectations) was 0.47 and between expected occupation in 1966 and actual in 1975 less than 0.25; (2) even though unimpressive as far as accuracy of forecasting is concerned, these expectations were close to being rational, in the sense that it is difficult to improve on them by using variables that were known to the respondents as of 1966; and (3) constructing an alternative occupational scale and reweighting the observations made little difference to the results.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Expectations, Realizations, and the Aging of Young Men." Research in Labor Economics 3 (1980): 1-21. .
6. Griliches, Zvi
Schooling Interruption, Work While in School and the Returns from Schooling
Scandinavian Journal of Economics (1980): 291-303
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; I.Q.; Part-Time Work; Schooling

Recent suggestions for expanding the work experiences of school age youth make sense only if such experiences are in fact valuable or can be had at little real cost. These issues are explored using data form the NLS of Young Men, focusing on the effects of school interruption and of work while in school on subsequent wage rates. While the interpretation of the results is clouded by self-selection problems, there is no evidence in the data that interruptions or work while in school lead to any negative effects. Expanding work opportunities for the young is unlikely to detract from their future academic and economic achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Schooling Interruption, Work While in School and the Returns from Schooling." Scandinavian Journal of Economics (1980): 291-303.
7. Griliches, Zvi
Sibling Models and Data in Economics: Beginnings of a Survey
Journal of Political Economy 87,5, part 2 (October 1979): S37-S64.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1829908
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Family Influences; Family Resources; I.Q.; Pairs (also see Siblings); Schooling; Siblings

This paper reviews a number of recent studies of the income-schooling-ability nexus using sibling data and discusses the problem of identification in such studies. Special emphasis is placed on the role of errors in variables, concluding that modest error levels can account for much of the observed difference between total and within-family estimates of returns to schooling. It also suggests that the family may not contribute as much to the transmission of inequality as is commonly thought, since it is a force for equality within (among siblings).
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Sibling Models and Data in Economics: Beginnings of a Survey." Journal of Political Economy 87,5, part 2 (October 1979): S37-S64.
8. Griliches, Zvi
Wages of Very Young Men
Journal of Political Economy 84,4 (August 1976): S69-S86.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1831103
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Family Background; I.Q.; Schooling; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wages, Young Men; Work Knowledge

The purpose of this paper is to replicate the results of an earlier study of "Education, Income, and Ability" (Griliches and Mason 1972) on a new set of data, the NLS of Young Men, focusing on the estimation of economic returns to school in the presence of individual differences in ability, errors in variables in the ability measures and the endogeneity of the schooling variable. The major conclusions are: (1) the treatment of "experience" matters. Using estimated experience instead of age changes the relative size of the estimated "ability bias"; (2) this bias is quite small, on the order of .01; (3) the contribution of the ability measures to the fit of the equation is miniscule; (4) family background variables are not significant on top of the schooling and ability variables, and (5) allowing for the endogeneity of schooling raises its coefficient significantly. There is no evidence of a "net" ability bias when the estimation method treats schooling and experience symmetrically with test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi. "Wages of Very Young Men." Journal of Political Economy 84,4 (August 1976): S69-S86.
9. Griliches, Zvi
Hall, Bronwyn H.
Hausman, Jerry A.
Missing Data and Self-Selection in Large Panels
Annales de l'INSEE 30-31 (April-September 1978): 137-176.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20075289
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques)
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two problems which occur in analyzing large panels of cross section data are considered: missing data and self- selection. In the case of randomly missing data, using only the complete data subsample results in unbiased but inefficient estimates. We demonstrate that in large panels the efficiency gains from using efficient methods are likely to be quite small. For non-random missing data, we present a methodology which corrects for the bias which occurs if only the complete data subsample is used. Lastly, we formulate and estimate a model where the missing data arises from self-selection in the decision to remain in school. Using the NLS of Young Men, we find that accounting for self-selection increases the estimated returns to schooling by 50%.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi, Bronwyn H. Hall and Jerry A. Hausman. "Missing Data and Self-Selection in Large Panels." Annales de l'INSEE 30-31 (April-September 1978): 137-176.
10. Griliches, Zvi
Yatchew, Adonis
Sample Selection Bias and Endogeneity in the Estimation of a Wage Equation: An Alternative Specification
Annales de l'INSEE 43 (July-September 1981): 35-46.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20076419
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Schooling; Wage Equations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper re-estimates a model previously estimated by Griliches, Hall, and Hausman in order to determine the effects of introducing additional information. The model contains a wage equation, together with two equations that determine the observed level of schooling. Schooling appears endogenously in the wage equation. Furthermore, account is taken of the sample selection problem that arises because some members of the sample are still in school, so that their wage and desired schooling levels are not observed. The results correspond closely to those previously obtained by Griliches, Hall, and Hausman.
Bibliography Citation
Griliches, Zvi and Adonis Yatchew. "Sample Selection Bias and Endogeneity in the Estimation of a Wage Equation: An Alternative Specification." Annales de l'INSEE 43 (July-September 1981): 35-46.