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Author: Grunow, Daniela
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden
Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Event History; German Life History Study; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also presented: Florence, Italy, RC28 Spring Meeting on "Social Stratification and Insiders/Outsiders: Cross-national Comparisons within and between Continents", May 2008.
Also presented: New Haven, CT, CIQLE Inaugural Conference "Generating Social Inequalities", May 2007.

This paper focuses on three countries with distinct policies towards the dilemma of combining motherhood with an employment career: the United States, Germany and Sweden. We investigate how the parental leave policies in these countries work with regard to (a) fostering mother's labor market attachment; (b) securing mother's status as labor market insiders during employment interruption; and (c) buffering the negative career consequences resulting from mothers' time out. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the German Life History Study, and the Swedish Level of Living Survey, we analyze how different types of welfare states produce and institutionalize different patterns of return to the labor market after childbirth and how these structures stratify the subsequent career trajectories of women. Using event-history techniques we first explore how long women in the different institutional contexts interrupt employment after the birth of a child. Second, we examine what their career prospects upon return are: Do mothers on leave retain their status as labor market insiders and return to a job similar to the one they had before, or are they more likely to become outsiders and experience a downward occupational move? What role do individual characteristics and institutional context play in this process? Finally, we assess whether the time women spend away from work after child birth affects their subsequent careers. We find that the timing of return and the consequences for the occupational career are highly dependent on the policy structure these careers are embedded in. In the U.S. – promoting a 'primary earner strategy' – three quarters of all women are back at work only six months after the birth of the first child. In Sweden – the country with an 'earner carer strategy' – three quarters are back after five years, and in Germany – with its 'primary caregiver strategy' – not even after eight years. Parental leave policies seem to impact the timing of reentry, rather than the type of reentry: In all three countries most mothers return to a job with a prestige level comparable to their previous position. These women also tend to interrupt for shorter periods than their peer compatriots, as the majority returns to their previous job. Across countries we find a 'memory effect' of previous time out, though: In the U.S., with few women taking parental leave, we identify a career punishment in terms of a higher downward mobility risk, also for short times out. In Germany, where the legal parental leave period is long and mother's time out the norm, we find a negative linear relationship between time out and women's return to their previous occupational position; the longer the time out, the greater the risk to change to a new job, be it associated with an upward or downward move. In Sweden with a policy allowing shorter but financially compensated parental leaves, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in 'woman friendly' Sweden, mothers are better off if they return sooner rather than later to the labor market.

Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mother's Time Out? A Comparison Between the United States, Germany and Sweden." Presented: Boston, MA, ASA Annual Meeting, August 2008.
2. Aisenbrey, Silke
Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States
Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sof/summary/v088/88.2.aisenbrey.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Childbearing; Cross-national Analysis; Economics of Gender; German Life History Study; Germany, German; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Sweden, Swedish; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers’ time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short timeout periods; long time-out periods increase the risk of a downward move and reduce the chances of an upward move. In Germany, long time-out periods destabilize the career and, the longer the leave, the greater the risk of either an upward or downward move. In Sweden, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in “woman-friendly” Sweden, women’s career prospects are better if they return to paid work sooner rather than later.
Bibliography Citation
Aisenbrey, Silke, Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow. "Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out - A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States." Social Forces 88,2 (December 2009): 573-606.
3. Evertsson, Marie
Grunow, Daniela
Aisenbrey, Silke
Work Interruptions and Young Women’s Career Prospects in Germany, Sweden and the US
Work, Employment and Society 30,2 (April 2016): 291-308.
Also: http://wes.sagepub.com/content/30/2/291
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Employment, Intermittent; German Life History Study; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Mobility, Occupational; Swedish Level of Living Survey; Unemployment; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article assesses the impact of discontinuous work histories on young women's occupational mobility in Germany, Sweden and the US. Women with continuous work histories are compared with those with gaps due to family leave, unemployment, or other reasons. The German Life History Study, the Swedish Level of Living Survey and the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to estimate Cox regression models of the transition rate to downward or upward occupational mobility. The results indicate that US women face increased downward mobility with increasing duration of both family leave and unemployment. German women with unemployment experience are also more likely to encounter downward mobility, but no such relationship is found for family leave. In Sweden, family leave experience reduces the chances of upward mobility. Results question the human capital approach, according to which skills should deteriorate at the same rate independent of the reason for the leave.
Bibliography Citation
Evertsson, Marie, Daniela Grunow and Silke Aisenbrey. "Work Interruptions and Young Women’s Career Prospects in Germany, Sweden and the US." Work, Employment and Society 30,2 (April 2016): 291-308.
4. Fasang, Anette
Aisenbrey, Silke
Grunow, Daniela
The Interplay of Family Formation and Early Work Careers in Germany and the United States
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Family Formation; German Life History Study; Maternal Employment; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do men and women combine work and family in different welfare state contexts? In comparison to Germany, the US labor market has low employment security and low occupational boundaries. At the same time, Germany classifies as a single breadwinner welfare state, whereas the US is a dual-earner / dual-career welfare state that generally provides better options for women combine work and family. We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the German Life History Study (GLHS) to study work-family trajectories of men and women in these two institutional contexts. Results from multichannel sequence analysis show distinct work-family patterns for men and women that can be related to occupational status.
Bibliography Citation
Fasang, Anette, Silke Aisenbrey and Daniela Grunow. "The Interplay of Family Formation and Early Work Careers in Germany and the United States." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
5. Grunow, Daniela
Aisenbrey, Silke
Economic Instability and Mothers' Employment: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S.
Advances in Life Course Research 29 (September 2016): 5-15.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260815000544
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Cross-national Analysis; German Life History Study; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Occupational Choice; Unemployment Rate

Do economic fluctuations change the labour market attachment of mothers? How is the reentry process into the labour market after childbirth dependent on the country context women live in? Are these processes affected by occupational status? We address these questions using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth and the German Life History Study. Event history analyses demonstrate that in Germany and the United States, mothers who work in high occupational status jobs before birth return more quickly to their jobs and are less likely to interrupt their careers. During legally protected leave periods, mothers return at higher rates, exemplifying that family leaves strengthen mothers' labour force attachment. Economic fluctuations mediate this latter finding, with different consequences in each country. In the United States, mothers tend to return to their jobs faster when unemployment is high. In Germany, mothers on family leave tend to return to their jobs later when unemployment is high. The cross-national comparison shows how similar market forces create distinct responses in balancing work and care.
Bibliography Citation
Grunow, Daniela and Silke Aisenbrey. "Economic Instability and Mothers' Employment: A Comparison of Germany and the U.S." Advances in Life Course Research 29 (September 2016): 5-15.
6. Grunow, Daniela
Hofmeister, Heather
Buchholz, Sandra
Late 20th-Century Persistence and Decline of the Female Homemaker in Germany and the United States
International Sociology 21,1 (January 2006): 101-131.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=19936018
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Cross-national Analysis; Event History; Exits; Gender Differences; German Life History Study; Germany, German; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Maternal Employment; Re-employment; Transitional Programs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The article compares changes in West German and American women's mid-career job exits and re-entries and introduces an innovative event-history model to compare mobility across three decades using 1940s and 1950s birth cohorts from the German Life History Study and the US National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women. Processes by which transitions through parenthood and marriage impact women's labour market participation vary by country and cohort, evidence that changing gender relations, norms and institutions provide unique options and restrictions for women's family and career trajectories. Homemaking is in decline in both countries, but event-history models show that this decline is due to different life course dynamics in each country: women's job attachment has increased throughout the family cycle in the US, while German women still exit the labour market, but at motherhood rather than marriage, and for shorter durations. Employment interruptions have become more penalizing for women in both countries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Grunow, Daniela, Heather Hofmeister and Sandra Buchholz. "Late 20th-Century Persistence and Decline of the Female Homemaker in Germany and the United States." International Sociology 21,1 (January 2006): 101-131.