Search Results

Author: Han, Euna
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Gilleskie, Donna B.
Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Disentangling the Contemporaneous and Dynamic Effects of Human and Health Capital on Wages over the Life Cycle
NBER Working Paper No. 22430, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2016.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w22430
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Human Capital; Life Cycle Research; Wage Determination; Wages, Women; Weight

In this study we quantify the life-cycle effects of human and health capital on the wage distribution of females, with a focus on health measured by body mass. We use NLSY79 data on women followed annually up to twenty years during the time of their lives when average annual weight gain is greatest. We allow body mass to explain variation in wages contemporaneously conditional on observed measures of human capital and productivity histories (namely, education, employment experience, marital status, and family size) and dynamically over the life cycle through its impact on the endogenous histories of behaviors that determine wages. We find significant differences in the contemporaneous effect and the dynamic effect of body mass on wages, both across females of different races and over the distribution of wages.
Bibliography Citation
Gilleskie, Donna B., Euna Han and Edward C. Norton. "Disentangling the Contemporaneous and Dynamic Effects of Human and Health Capital on Wages over the Life Cycle." NBER Working Paper No. 22430, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2016.
2. Gilleskie, Donna B.
Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Disentangling the Contemporaneous and Dynamic Effects of Human and Health Capital on Wages over the Life Cycle
Review of Economic Dynamics 25 (April 2017): 350-383.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1094202517300418
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Economic Dynamics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Human Capital; Life Cycle Research; Wage Levels; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We quantify the life-cycle effects of human and health capital on the wage distribution of women, with a focus on health capital measured by body mass. We use NLSY79 data on women followed annually up to twenty years during the time of their lives when average annual weight gain is greatest. We measure the wage impact of current body mass (i.e., the contemporaneous or direct effect) while controlling for observed measures of human capital (namely, educational attainment, employment experience, marital status tenure, and family size) and the impacts of an evolving body mass (i.e., the dynamic or indirect effects) on the endogenous histories of behaviors that produce these human capital stocks. We find significant differences in the contemporaneous and dynamic effects of body mass on wages by age, by race, and by wage level.
Bibliography Citation
Gilleskie, Donna B., Euna Han and Edward C. Norton. "Disentangling the Contemporaneous and Dynamic Effects of Human and Health Capital on Wages over the Life Cycle." Review of Economic Dynamics 25 (April 2017): 350-383.
3. Gilleskie, Donna B.
Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Untangling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Mass Dynamics on Earnings
Presented: Toronto, Ontario, 8th World Congress on Health Economics, July 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: International Health Economics Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Earnings; Modeling, Random Effects; Obesity; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we aim to assess the effect of body mass on earnings. It has been shown that the body mass of white females is negatively correlated with wages (Cawley, 2004). We argue that this observed correlation may capture the influence of body mass on life-cycle decisions such as educational attainment, work experience, marital status, and fertility, which, in turn, determine wages. Similarly, these behaviors may impact body mass over the life cycle. Admittedly, body mass may still have an observed direct impact on wages if weight affects productivity on the job (which, in most data sets, is immeasurable) or if discrimination (also immeasurable) exists. To disentangle these direct and indirect effects we propose to model wages of individuals while jointly explaining accumulation of education and work experience, the decisions to work, to marry, and to have children, and the evolution of body mass over time. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY, 1979 cohort) and construct a research sample of individuals who are followed annually from the ages of 18-26 in 1983 through the ages of 37-45 in 2002. Because we model many individual decisions and outcomes e.g., education, employment, marriage, children, wages, and body mass) that are potentially correlated through unobserved permanent and time-varying individual characteristics, we use an estimation framework that simultaneously explains variation in the multiple behaviors by variation in both observed and unobserved factors. We model the unobserved factors using a discrete non-linear random effects method that does not require us to make assumptions about the distribution of these unobservables. Rather than simply recover the effect of body mass on the average wage, we estimate the density of wages conditional on observable and unobservable variables using the conditional density estimation technique.
Bibliography Citation
Gilleskie, Donna B., Euna Han and Edward C. Norton. "Untangling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Mass Dynamics on Earnings." Presented: Toronto, Ontario, 8th World Congress on Health Economics, July 2011.
4. Han, Euna
The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), First Annual Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
Also: http://healtheconomics.us/conference/2006/abstracts/06/06/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Discrimination; Endogeneity; Health Care; Hispanics; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rationale: Previous research suggests that obesity has potentially important effects on labor market outcomes. Obese people may be discriminated against by consumers or employers due to their distaste for obese people. Employers also may not want to hire obese people due to higher expected healthcare costs if the employers provide health insurance to their employees. These may result in lower wages, low likelihood of being employed and the sorting of obese people into jobs where slimness is not rewarded.

Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the effect of obesity on wages. Although other studies have linked obesity to wages, the validity of their estimation results remains questionable due to potential weaknesses in the strategies employed to control for the endogeneity of obesity. I identified the effect of obesity on wages with exogenous state-level variation in multiple variables. The over-identification of obesity with exogenous instruments will provide valid parameter estimates if the identification is supported.

Methodology: This study employed an amplified dataset based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). NLSY79 provides ongoing panel information with a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women who were 14 to 22 years old when first surveyed in 1979. I have augmented the publicly available data by obtaining confidential geographic information for individuals.

Body-mass index (BMI) was used to measure the extent of obesity. Wages were assessed separately by gender as a function of BMI splines and interactions of BMI splines with two race dummies (non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic).

This study used two-stage estimation techniques to identify the effect of obesity on wages in conjunction with individual fixed effects model. I specified an overidentified first-stage equation using exogenous state-level variation to instrument individual obesity. Instruments for obesity included the following state-level variables: cigarette prices, per capita number of restaurants, per capita number of food stores, fast-food price, cost of alcoholic drinks (inclusive of beer, wine, liquor), and cost of food.

A Heckman selection model was used to control for the selection into the labor force with the following state-level identifying instruments: unemployment rate, number of business establishments, and number of Social Security Program beneficiaries.

Results: Specification tests support the exclusion of the instruments from the main equation and the strength of the instruments in the first-stage equation. Preliminary study results indicate that an increase in BMI after being overweight has a negative effect on wage earnings for both males and females, even after adjusting for selection into the labor force.

Conclusion: The results will support the understanding of the economic cost of obesity to an individual that arise from sources other than adverse health effects. This spillover effect will increase the total cost of obesity to both individuals and society as a whole. The negative effect of obesity on labor market outcomes could raise further attention to the epidemic of obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna. "The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), First Annual Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
5. Han, Euna
The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006.
Also: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_effect_of_obesity_on_labor_market_ou.html?id=Tj9q6ggw64cC
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Gender Differences; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Wage Determination

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation investigates the effect of obesity on labor market outcomes. Obesity is important for labor market outcomes. Obese people may be discriminated against by consumers or employers due to their distaste for obese people. Employers also may not want to hire obese people due to the expected health cost if the employers provide health insurance to their employees. Because of those consumers' and employers' distaste for obese people or because of these different costs, being obese may result in poor labor market outcomes in terms of wages and/or the likelihood of being employed, as well as sorting of obese people into jobs where slimness is not rewarded. This study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). The NLSY79 provides panel information for a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women who were 14 to 22 years old when first surveyed in 1979. The sample was followed for 14 years. Labor market outcomes were measured by (1) the probability of employment, and (2) the probability of holding occupations where slimness potentially rewards hourly wages. Weight was measured by Body Mass Index (BMI). All results were assessed separately by gender as a function of BMI splines and other controls. The endogeneity of BMI was controlled in a two-stage instrumental variable estimation model with over-identifying exogenous individual and state-level instruments, controlling for individual fixed effects. The Heckman selection model was used to control for the selection into the labor force, with the state-level identifying instruments of the nonemployment rate, the number of business establishments, and the number of Social Security Program beneficiaries. Results show that gaining weight adversely affects labor market outcomes for women, but the effect is mixed for men overall. The size and direction of the effects vary by gender, age groups, and type of occupations. Findings from this investigation could help our understanding of the economic cost of obesity to an individual beside its adverse effect on health. The spillover effect of obesity will increase the total cost of obesity to both individuals and society as a whole.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna. The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006..
6. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages
Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X11000803
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Obesity; Occupational Choice; Wages

Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Body Weight on Adult Wages." Economics and Human Biology 9,4 (December 2011): 381-392.
7. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages
NBER Working Paper No. 15027, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2009.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15027.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Teenagers; Wage Effects; Wages; Weight

Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, we show that education is the main pathway for the indirect BMI wage penalty. The total BMI wage penalty is underestimated by 18% for women without including those indirect effects. Whereas for men there is no statistically significant direct BMI wage penalty, we do observe a small indirect wage penalty through education.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages." NBER Working Paper No. 15027, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2009.
8. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Powell, Lisa M.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages
Presented: Chicago, IL, Academy Health Annual Research Meeting, June 28-30, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: AcademyHealth
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Education; Occupational Choice; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research Objective: This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. In addition to the direct effect of BMI in the late teenage years between age 16 and 20 on long-term wages in the early thirties, late teen BMI is hypothesized to also affect wages in the early thirties indirectly through its effect on education and occupation choice in the early thirties.

Study Design: We present an empirical model that predicts wages as a function of BMI (the direct effect), education and occupation choice (indirect effects of BMI), and other factors. The effect of a unit change in late teen BMI on the logarithm of wages in the early career stage is the full derivative of the logarithm of wages in the early career with respect to late teen BMI, taking into account the indirect effect of late teen BMI through education and occupation choice in the early career. To calculate the indirect effects, we estimate the effect of late teen BMI on the stock of education accumulated by the time an individual reaches their early 30s using OLS. We specify education in the early thirties as a function of late teen BMI and other factors in the early thirties. We then estimate reduced form models of the effect of late teen BMI on occupation choice among white-collar, service, sales, managerial or professional specialty jobs, and blue-collar jobs (based on Census occupational codes), and choice of jobs requiring social interactions with colleagues or customers (based on the Dictionary of Occupation Titles).

Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Lisa M. Powell. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages." Presented: Chicago, IL, Academy Health Annual Research Meeting, June 28-30, 2009.
9. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Stearns, Sally C.
Weight and Wages: Fat Versus Lean Paychecks
Health Economics 18,5 (May 2009): 535-548.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120846690/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Discrimination, Body weight; Economics of Discrimination; Obesity; Occupations; Racial Differences; Wage Effects; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past empirical work has shown a negative relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and wages in most cases. We improve on this work by allowing the marginal effect of non-linear BMI groups to vary by gender, age, and type of interpersonal relationships required in each occupation. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1982-1998). We find that the often-reported negative relationship between the BMI and wages is larger in occupations requiring interpersonal skills with presumably more social interactions. Also, the wage penalty increases as the respondents get older beyond their mid-twenties. We show that being overweight and obese penalizes the probability of employment across all race-gender subgroups except black women and men. Our results for the obesity-wage association can be explained by either consumers or employers having distaste for obese workers. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Sally C. Stearns. "Weight and Wages: Fat Versus Lean Paychecks." Health Economics 18,5 (May 2009): 535-548.
10. Powell, Lisa M.
Han, Euna
Chaloupka, Frank J.
Economic Contextual Factors, Food Consumption, and Obesity among U.S. Adolescents
The Journal of Nutrition 140,6 (June 2010): 1175-1180.
Also: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/140/6/1175.full?sid=460e971c-932f-4e86-87d2-2cb4ea418844
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Society for Nutritional Sciences
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Taxes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adolescents have poor dietary behaviors and high overweight prevalence. Economic contextual factors such as food prices and food store and restaurant availability are hypothesized and increasingly being explored empirically as contributors to the obesity epidemic. Evidence showed that healthful compared with less healthful foods increasingly cost more and that fast food restaurants are increasingly available. In addition, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities have been documented in access to food outlets, particularly chain supermarkets, and such disparities have been shown to be increasing recently. Empirical evidence based on nationally representative U.S. adolescent data revealed that lower fruit and vegetable prices, higher fast food prices, and greater supermarket availability were related to higher fruit and vegetable consumption and lower BMI, in particular for BMI among teens who are overweight or at risk for overweight and who are low- to middle-socioeconomic status. The availability of fast food restaurants was not associated with youth BMI. Overall, this research implies that pricing interventions of taxes on energy-dense foods such as fast food and/or subsidies to healthful foods such as fruits and vegetables and policy efforts to improve access to supermarkets may help to improve adolescent weight outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M., Euna Han and Frank J. Chaloupka. "Economic Contextual Factors, Food Consumption, and Obesity among U.S. Adolescents." The Journal of Nutrition 140,6 (June 2010): 1175-1180.