Search Results

Author: Hao, Lingxin
Resulting in 36 citations.
1. Hao, Lingxin
A Dynamic Perspective of Intergenerational Mobility
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research has shown commonality and inertia of intergenerational mobility. A logical expectation is that both macro factors and micro dynamics differ to produce a common mobility matrix. This paper attempts to unpack the black box of intergenerational mobility between parent and child generations through examining the dynamics of parental investment and cognitive and socio-emotional trajectories over childhood for three cohorts of children. We add advances from biological and social sciences to the existing human capital theory. We draw empirical data from the main file and the matched mother-child file of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79). We use latent class regression to estimate unobserved mother’s innate ability and growth mixture models to analyze trajectories of parental investment and child development. Findings of this study will deepen our understanding of intergenerational mobility matrix, which may be similar despite that the macro conditions and micro dynamics during childhood may differ.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "A Dynamic Perspective of Intergenerational Mobility." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
2. Hao, Lingxin
Developmental Problems of Children Aged 6-11 in Mother-Only Families: The Effect of Welfare and Kin Support
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Support Networks; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examined the effect of welfare and kin support on children in conjunction with the effect of poverty and single motherhood using the children of the NLSY. Standard assessments of home environment, behavior problems, cognitive and socioemotional development were used to measure developmental problems in middle childhood. AFDC was considered as a form of welfare assistance and kin coresidence as a form of kin support. Findings include: (1) poverty effect was the most adverse among all; (2) single motherhood produced a similar effect as the poverty effect, but when poverty levels were held constant, the single motherhood effect persisted only in home environment; (3) support status overlapped with poverty status and single mother status to a great degree; (4) different types of support made great differences in outcomes for children; kin coresidence usually yielded similar developmental outcomes as receiving no support whereas AFDC recipiency yielded much lower levels of outcomes for children; (5) the promoting effect of kin support and adverse effect of AFDC were particularly strong within mother-only families: kin coresidence not only enhanced the home environment and cognitive development to the mean level but also reduced behavior problems down below the average level; and (6) socioemotional development in middle childhood appeared not to be affected by poverty, single motherhood, and support status.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Developmental Problems of Children Aged 6-11 in Mother-Only Families: The Effect of Welfare and Kin Support." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
3. Hao, Lingxin
Early Parental Investment and Child Development Trajectories
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Development; Home Environment; Parental Investments; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental investment has been narrowly conceptualized as investment in formal education. Despite the recent attention to the productivity of early education, most research fails to consider early biological and social interactions. This paper seeks to fill in these conceptual and empirical gaps. Drawing advances from biological and social sciences we formulate an augmented child development framework that takes into account early biological and social environments from pre- and postnatal care, breastfeeding, infant care, to home environment of cognitive stimulation and emotional support. The empirical data are drawn from Children of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling is used to test the derived hypotheses. To enable causal inferences our models control for unobserved mother heterogeneity and child heterogeneity. Findings of this study advance our understanding of the enduring effect of early parental investment on children's developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Early Parental Investment and Child Development Trajectories." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
4. Hao, Lingxin
How Does a Single Mother Choose Kin and Welfare Support?
Social Science Research 24,1 (March 1995): 1-27.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X85710010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Family Structure; Marital Status; Modeling; Parents, Single; Wage Rates; Welfare

In view of the increasing number of female-headed families and the importance of external support for them from private and public sources, a one-decision model is proposed to examine the determinants of kin and welfare support. Data on single mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reveal: (1) greater kin economic resources substitute for public aid, (2) intact parents discourage their daughters' participation in aid, (3) government aid crowds out kin contributions to their daughters and grandchildren, (4) higher wage rates of single mothers and larger amount of child support promote leaving welfare programs, and (5) single mothers with higher income resources still demand kin support. 5 Tables, 1 Appendix, 50 References. Adapted with permission from Academic Press. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Also: Rand Repritnt, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/e-getabbydoc.pl?RP-425

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "How Does a Single Mother Choose Kin and Welfare Support?" Social Science Research 24,1 (March 1995): 1-27.
5. Hao, Lingxin
Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Birth Outcomes; Control; Coresidence; Educational Attainment; Fertility; High School; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marital Status; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Residence; Support Networks; Welfare; Women

Using person-year data from seven waves of the NLSY, this research focuses on the causes and consequences of kin support in conjunction with public support. The dissertation addresses three primary research questions: (1) What is the relationship between kin support and welfare assistance? (2) What determines kin support? and (3) What impacts do the two support systems have on life course behaviors such as fertility/marriage, high school outcomes, and labor force participation of young women? The author concludes that kin support can play an important role in an individual's life. Four findings are noted: (1) parents' control through support in the form of coresidence and income support reduces the likelihood of out-of-wedlock birth, dropping out of school, and non-participation in the labor force; (2) although kin support and public support are not generally substitutes, AFDC benefits do reduce the likelihood of coresidence for blacks; (3) parents do not compensate daughters who experienced an out-of-wedlock birth but control daughters' behaviors to prevent undesirable events; and (4) increases in AFDC benefits encourage women to choose an out-of-wedlock birth over marriage for both black and white women and encourage non-participation in the labor market for black women only.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1990.
6. Hao, Lingxin
Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers
New York, NY: Garland Publishing Inc, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Garland Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Infants; Marital Status; Parents, Single; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. Kin Support, Welfare, and Out-of-Wedlock Mothers. New York, NY: Garland Publishing Inc, 1994.
7. Hao, Lingxin
Nested Heterogeneity and Difference in Differences
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, August 1999.
Also: http://www.soc.jhu.edu/people/hao/nest1all.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Methods/Methodology; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version was presented at the ASA Methodology Section, Winter Meetings, Durham, NC, March 1999.

Many social phenomena are observed repeatedly for an individual or unit nested within a contextual level. The problem of modeling unobserved unit heterogeneity, which is nested in unobserved context heterogeneity, is referred to as a nested heterogeneity problem. To address this problem, this article develops a systematic method, where the problem is formally specified and issues such as correct model specifications, appropriate estimators, tests and recovery of each level of heterogeneity, and assessment of the relative importance of each level of hetergeneity are discussed. We proceed from a simple case where there exists no context-specific and unit-specific observed variables to a more inclusive case with both context-specific and unit-specific variables. We then extend the nested heterogeneity model to allow the context-specific variables to vary across time, where we develop a new estimator using the difference-in-differences method. We illustrate our methods using an empirical example of child and family heterogeneity in a study of children's behavior problems.

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Nested Heterogeneity and Difference in Differences." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, August 1999.
8. Hao, Lingxin
Poverty, Public Assistance and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families
Working Paper DRU-1093-NICHD, RAND, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Family Background; Head Start; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

This paper examines the effects of poverty, public assistance, and family structure on school-age children's home environment and developmental outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The central question of this study is whether public support negatively affects school-age children's developmental outcomes thereby contributing to the intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency. The results show that long duration and late timing of poverty have a detrimental effect on home environment and child developmental outcomes. Long duration of public assistance disturbs reading ability for children of intact families only. Late timing of public assistance actually enhances the cognitive and emotional environment, with a greater effect on emotional environment for single-mother families. Long duration and late timing of single motherhood are detrimental to the emotional environment. Taken together, the findings of this paper suggest that the process of intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency during school-age years is primarily due to poverty and single motherhood rather than the duration and timing of public assistance.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Poverty, Public Assistance and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families." Working Paper DRU-1093-NICHD, RAND, 1995.
9. Hao, Lingxin
Poverty, Public Assistance, and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 181-205.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e257251542801515/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Development; Family Background; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Motherhood; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

Examined the effects of poverty, public assistance and family structure on school-age children's home environment and developmental outcomes. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, based on a sample of 12,686 Ss (14-21 yr. old) was used. Results show that long duration and late timing of poverty had a detrimental effect on home environment and child developmental outcomes. Long duration of public assistance disturbed reading ability for Ss of intact families. Late timing of public assistance enhanced the cognitive and emotional environment and had a greater effect on the emotional environment for single mother families. Long duration and late timing of single motherhood were detrimental to the emotional environment. Thus, the process of intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency during school age years is attributable to poverty and single motherhood rather than the duration and timing of public assistance. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Assn., all rights reserved)

Also: Rand Reprint, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/ordi/getabbydoc.pl?doc=RP-489

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Poverty, Public Assistance, and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 181-205.
10. Hao, Lingxin
Using a Multinomial Logit Specification to Model Two Interdependent Processes with an Empirical Application
Sociological Methods & Research 26,1 (August 1997): 80-117.
Also: http://smr.sagepub.com/content/26/1/80.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Fertility; Methods/Methodology; Modeling; Modeling, Logit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theories in sociology and other social sciences often postulate causal relationships. Yamaguchi advanced a model for the interdependence of two discrete-time, discrete-state endogenous processes. The Yamaguchi model is introduced with a discussion of its advantages over conventional methods and a comparison with recently developed relevant models. To overcome the obstacle that existing statisitcal software cannot directly estimate the Yamaguchi model, the author has developed a method that converts estimated parameters from standard multinomial logit estimation into parameters of the Yamaguchi model using standard statistical software and a simple programming of linear transformation. The method is simple and straightforward and thus merits application to an analysis of interdependence with panel data. This article also provides a detailed empirical example to illustrate an application of the method.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Using a Multinomial Logit Specification to Model Two Interdependent Processes with an Empirical Application." Sociological Methods & Research 26,1 (August 1997): 80-117.
11. Hao, Lingxin
Young Women's Entry Into and Exit from the Labor Market: The Effect of Governmental and Familial Support
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Influences; Family Resources; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Role Models; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines labor market entry and exit dynamics among young women and seeks to determine whether kin support and the welfare system influence young women's work differentially. Based on the socialization theory and an economic model of female labor force participation, three hypotheses are generated and tested: a Role Model Hypothesis, an Income Effect Hypothesis, and a Price-of-Time Hypothesis. Using 5,201 black and white women from seven waves of the NLSY (1979-85) in a discrete-time hazard analysis, this paper confirms that: (1) mother's education and AFDC status influence daughter's job entry more than work continuity and for whites more than blacks; (2) among the three alternative income sources--parental income, husband's income, and AFDC benefits--AFDC benefits discourage labor force participation (income effect) for black women only; and (3) kin support in forms of coresidence and financial support promotes job entry for both blacks and whites, and work continuity for whites only (price effect). These findings point to the promoting effect of familial support in contrast to the preventing effect of governmental support on women's labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Young Women's Entry Into and Exit from the Labor Market: The Effect of Governmental and Familial Support." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
12. Hao, Lingxin
Astone, Nan Marie
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23,4 (Autumn 2004): 697-721.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.20043/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Employment, Youth; High School; High School Dropouts; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic joint model of adolescents' school enrollment and formal employment, separating state welfare policies from non-welfare state policies, state labor market conditions, and unobserved state characteristics. Longitudinal data from the NLSY97 on adolescents aged 14 to 18 and various state data sources over the period 1994-1999 support the competing labor market effect but not the signaling effect. In particular, lower-income dropouts suffer more severely from fewer labor market opportunities when state welfare policies are more stringent, which indicates that welfare reform may compromise work opportunities for lower-income dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Nan Marie Astone and Andrew J. Cherlin. "Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23,4 (Autumn 2004): 697-721.
13. Hao, Lingxin
Brinton, Mary C.
Kin Support and Productive Activities Among Single Mothers
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, University of Iowa
Keyword(s): Mothers; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Mary C. Brinton. "Kin Support and Productive Activities Among Single Mothers." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1996.
14. Hao, Lingxin
Brinton, Mary C.
Productive Activities and Support Systems of Single Mothers
American Journal of Sociology 102,5 (March 1997): 1305-1344.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/231085
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Coresidence; Education; Employment; Family Background; Human Capital; Local Labor Market; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Modeling; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; School Completion; Training

Young single mothers' human capital development and labor market participation are important issues of public policy concern in the United States. This article uses a dynamic approach to model the determinants of single mothers' entry into and exit from productive activities. Using 14 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the article shows that kin coresidence facilitates young single mothers' entry into productive activities but does not play a significant role in sustaining participation. Women's individual trainability, the local labor market conditions, child support, and d some family background factors all play a role. The results also demonstrate the insignificance of race and never-married versus ever-married status. (Copyright by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Mary C. Brinton. "Productive Activities and Support Systems of Single Mothers." American Journal of Sociology 102,5 (March 1997): 1305-1344.
15. Hao, Lingxin
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Astone, Nan Marie
Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies
Working Paper, Labor Market and Employment, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University, June 2001.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/Hao_Astone_Cherlin.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Drug Use; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Geocoded Data; High School Dropouts; Human Capital; Labor Market Demographics; Life Course; Neighborhood Effects; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Transition, Welfare to Work; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study hypothesizes that stringent state welfare policies may promote enrollment and reduce employment through four mechanisms taking place in the larger society, the local labor market and the family, particularly for adolescents from low-income families. We conduct a rigorous and robust analysis using a dynamic model and separating out the welfare policies from nonwelfare state policies, youth-specific state labor market conditions, and unobserved state characteristics and period effects. Using longitudinal data from the NLSY97, we have tested the welfare policy effects over a period across welfare waivers and welfare reform (1994-1999) for adolescents aged 14-18. We find that welfare reform may change the behavior of teenage students by encouraging full engagement in schooling and reducing employment while in school. If focusing entirely on schooling is the best way for low-income youth to build human capital, these possible effects of welfare reform could be beneficial. However, if low-income youth obtain "soft skills" from a formal job and if "soft skills" turn out to be decisive for low-income youth's economic future, these welfare policy effects could be harmful. In addition, stringent state welfare policies appear to have a detrimental effect on teenage dropouts from low-income families.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Andrew J. Cherlin and Nan Marie Astone. "Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies." Working Paper, Labor Market and Employment, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University, June 2001.
16. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
NBER Working Paper No. W7670, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2000.
Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/W7670
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Models; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Siblings; Teenagers; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Parental

In this paper, we examine the empirical implications of reputation formation using a game-theoretic model of intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in repeated two-stage games in which daughters' decision to have a child as a teenager and the willingness of parents to continue to house and support their daughters given their decisions. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982) on reputation in repeated games, we show that parents have, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize teenage (and typically out-of-wedlock) childbearing of older daughters, in order to get the younger daughters to avoid teenage childbearing. The two key empirical implications of this model is that the likelihood of teenage childbearing and parental transfers to a daughter who had a teen birth will decrease with the number of the daughter's sisters at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), exploiting the availability of repeated observations on young women (daughters) and of observations on multiple daughters (sisters) available in this data. Controlling for daughter- and family-specific fixed effects, we find evidence of differential parental financial transfer responses to teenage childbearing by the number of the daughter's sisters and brothers at risk.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." NBER Working Paper No. W7670, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2000.
17. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
JCPR Working Paper 167, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 2000.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/Family_Games_3-28-00_Draft.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Models; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the empirical implications of reputation formation using a game-theoretic model of intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in repeated two-stage games in which daughters' decision to have a child as a teenager and the willingness of parents to continue to house and support their daughters given their decisions. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982) on reputation in repeated games, we show that parents have, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize teenage (and typically out-of-wedlock) childbearing of older daughters, in order to get the younger daughters to avoid teenage childbearing. The two key empirical implications of this model is that the likelihood of teenage childbearing and parental transfers to a daughter who had a teen birth will decrease with the number of the daughter's sisters at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), exploiting the availability of repeated observations on young women (daughters) and of observations on multiple daughters (sisters) available in this data. Controlling for daughter- and family-specific fixed effects, we find evidence of differential parental financial transfer responses to teenage childbearing by the number of the daughter's sisters and brothers at risk.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." JCPR Working Paper 167, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 2000.
18. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
CCPR-05-00, On-Line Working Paper Series, California Center for Population Research, University of California - Los Angeles, November 2000.
Also: http://www.ccpr.ucla.edu/ccprwpseries/ccpr_005_00.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: California Center for Population Research (CCPR)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Models; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Siblings; Sisters; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the empirical implications of reputation formation using a game-theoretic model of intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in repeated two-stage games in which daughters' decision to have a child as a teenager and the willingness of parents to continue to house and support their daughters given their decisions. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982) on reputation in repeated games, we show that parents have, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize teenage (and typically out-of-wedlock) childbearing of older daughters, in order to get the younger daughters to avoid teenage childbearing. The two key empirical implications of this model is that the likelihood of teenage childbearing and parental transfers to a daughter who had a teen birth will decrease with the number of the daughter's sisters at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), exploiting the availability of repeated observations on young women (daughters) and of observations on multiple daughters (sisters) available in this data. Controlling for daughter- and family-specific fixed effects, we find evidence of differential parental financial transfer responses to teenage childbearing by the number of the daughter's sisters and brothers at risk.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." CCPR-05-00, On-Line Working Paper Series, California Center for Population Research, University of California - Los Angeles, November 2000.
19. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviors, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, January 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Resources; School Dropouts; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines reputation formation in intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in a repeated two-stage game in which adolescents decide whether to give a teen birth or drop out of high school, and given adolescent decisions, the parent decides whether to house and support his children beyond age 18. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982), we show that the parent has, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize older children for their teenage risky behaviors in order to dissuade the younger children from the same risky behaviors. The model generates two empirical implications: the likelihood of teen risky behaviors and parental transfers to a child who engaged in teen risky behaviors will decrease with the number of remaining children at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79). Exploiting the availability of repeated observations on individual respondents and of observations on multiple siblings, we find evidence in favor of both predictions.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviors, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, January 2005.
20. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviors, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
NBER Working Paper No. 11872, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w11872.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Childbearing, Adolescent; Demography; Family Models; Family Studies; High School Dropouts; Siblings

This paper examines reputation formation in intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in a repeated two-stage game in which adolescents decide whether to give a teen birth or drop out of high school, and given adolescent decisions, the parent decides whether to house and support his children beyond age 18. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982), we show that the parent has, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize older children for their teenage risky behaviors in order to dissuade the younger children from the same risky behaviors. The model generates two empirical implications: the likelihood of teen risky behaviors and parental transfers to a child who engaged in teen risky behaviors will decrease with the number of remaining children at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79). Exploiting the availability of repeated observations on individual respondents and of observations on multiple siblings, we find evidence in favor of both predictions.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviors, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." NBER Working Paper No. 11872, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
21. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviour, Parental Reputation and Strategic Transfers
Economic Journal 118,528 (April 2008): 515-555.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2008.02132.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Royal Economic Society (RES)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Resources; Risk-Taking; School Dropouts; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines parental reputation formation in intra-familial interactions. In a repeated two stage game, children decide whether to drop out of high school or daughters decide whether to have births as teens and parents then decide whether to provide support to their children beyond age 18. Drawing on Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982), we show that, under certain conditions, parents have the incentive to penalise older children for their adolescent risk-taking behaviour in order to dissuade their younger children from such behaviour when reaching adolescence. We find evidence in favour of this parental reputation model.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Parents and Adolescents Play: Risky Behaviour, Parental Reputation and Strategic Transfers." Economic Journal 118,528 (April 2008): 515-555.
22. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games That Families Play: Parental Reputation, Transfers and Teen Childbearing
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Studies; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers a model of a two-stage non-cooperative game. In this game, daughters decide whether to have an early birth and parents decide whether to provide or withhold resources (transfers) to them, but there is conflict between parents and daughters over teenage childbearing. Using data from the NLSY, we show that parents have an incentive to act strategically by differentially treating the childbearing behavior of older versus young daughters in an attempt to prevent teenage childbearing of younger daughters. The number of remaining younger daughters who are under 19 when parents make decision of transfer reduces the probability of transfers to the daughter in question, conditional on the teenage childbearing status of that daughter. We also show that such a relationship is weaker for black families than white families.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games That Families Play: Parental Reputation, Transfers and Teen Childbearing." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March 1999.
23. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Pantano, Juan
Parental Learning and Teenagers' Risky Behavior
Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well documented that teenagers engage in risky behaviors at high rates. Usually these behaviors occur without parental consent and teens invest resources to preclude parents from knowing whether and to what extent they engage in such behaviors. This may give rise to parental incentives to learn about their children by paying close attention to observable "signals" of the underlying risky behavior. Moreover, parents can set up parenting rules which are contingent upon the realization of these signals in an effort to control the behavior of their children. We explore a game theoretic model of parent-child interactions and propose an empirical strategy to identify the equilibrium reaction functions that determine teenagers' risky behavior and parenting rules. In preliminary work, we estimate approximations to these reaction functions using data on teens' risky behavior and stringency of parental rules from the National Longitudinal Survey - Young Adults (NLS-YA).
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz, Ginger Zhe Jin and Juan Pantano. "Parental Learning and Teenagers' Risky Behavior." Presented: Detroit, MI, Population Association of America Meetings, April-May 2009.
24. Hao, Lingxin
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Public Policies, Private Support and Single Mothers' Schooling, Work, and Child Care
Working Paper DRU-853-NICHD, RAND, October 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: RAND
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Care; Education; Fertility; Maternal Employment; Welfare

This paper examines whether low-cost child care that is tied to single mothers' productive activities increases the likelihood of their schooling and work. Child care opportunities open to single mothers include coresident kin and certain public programs, e.g., subsidized child care places, AFDC earned income disregards for child care expenses, and child care tax credits for mothers who are attending school or working. Also examined in this paper is whether public programs are substitutes for kin support in affecting unmarried mothers' schooling, work, and for enrolled or working women, child care type. Findings include: (1) public policies tied to single mothers' performance can stimulate their schooling and work, while those that are not tied to performance can deter productive activities; (2) living with kin increases schooling and work among unmarried mothers; (3) public programs tend not to substitute for kin support, in particular, not to reduce kin's incentives to care for children.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Public Policies, Private Support and Single Mothers' Schooling, Work, and Child Care." Working Paper DRU-853-NICHD, RAND, October 1994.
25. Hao, Lingxin
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Role of Child Care in Employment and School Enrollment of Unmarried Mothers
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, University of Iowa
Keyword(s): Child Care; Employment; Mothers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Role of Child Care in Employment and School Enrollment of Unmarried Mothers." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1996.
26. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Family Dynamics Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems
Working Paper No. 7, Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences, University of Washington, April 2000.
Also: http://www.csss.washington.edu/Papers/wp7.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childbearing, Adolescent; Children, Poverty; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Parents, Single; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Punishment, Corporal; Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, Toronto, Canada, August 1997. This article examines mothers' life course changes and parent-child interactions in models of children's behavior problems. We use an integrated framework that uses social capital theories to conceptualize parents' investments in their children, life course perspectives to conceptualize the timing of mothers' life course transitions, and child development research to specify the effects of parenting practices on children's behavior problems. Our models examine the timing and duration of mothers' poverty, single motherhood, welfare, employment, and kin coresidence through early and middle childhood. They also specify parent-child interactions as a reciprocal outcome of parenting and children's behavior. To estimate the models, we use data on mothers and children from the NLSY. To control for unobserved family heterogeneity and reciprocal causation, we estimate fixed-effects sibling models with lagged endogenous predictors and instrumental variables. These models make strong demands on the data, but provide strong tests of relationships. Using this strategy, we find several robust relationships. Child behavior problems are shaped by poverty and kin coresidence in early and middle childhood, and by parents use of physical punishment.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. "Family Dynamics Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems." Working Paper No. 7, Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences, University of Washington, April 2000.
27. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Family Dynamics Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems
Social Science Research, 35,2 (June 2006): 500-524.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X04001024
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childbearing, Adolescent; Children, Poverty; Endogeneity; Family Structure; Grandparents; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Parents, Single; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Punishment, Corporal; Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

This article draws upon theories of the life course and child development to examine how structural changes in the family and parenting practices affect child behavior problems in middle childhood. Our analysis improves upon prior research by simultaneously examining the effects of poverty, single-motherhood, welfare, and kin co-residence, distinguishing between early and current exposure to changes of these family conditions, and controlling for unobserved, preexisting family differences. We estimate fixed-effects sibling models using the matched mother–child data of NLSY79. We find two robust relationships: child behavior problems are shaped by early childhood poverty, which is not mediated by current parenting nor contaminated by family selection, and mothers' use of physical punishment, which is not contaminated by family selection. The findings support the early childhood exposure hypothesis applied to poverty, a parenting hypothesis applied to mother's physical punishment, and a family selection hypothesis applied to positive parenting, father's time, and cultural activities.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. "Family Dynamics Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems." Social Science Research, 35,2 (June 2006): 500-524.
28. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Family Social Capital Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems
Working Paper No. 99-6, Center for the Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, March 1999.
Also: http://www.csde.washington.edu/csde/wps/99-6.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childbearing, Adolescent; Children, Poverty; Coresidence; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Punishment, Corporal; Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, Toronto, Canada, August 1997. This article uses the concept of family social capital to conceptualize mothers' life course changes and parent-child interactions in models of children's behavior problems. To investigate structural relations generating social resources, we examine families' internal closure and embeddedness in society. We take a life course view and focus on the timing and duration of mothers' poverty, single motherhood, welfare, employment, and kin coresidence through early and middle childhood. Drawing on the child psychology and social capital literatures, we specify a model of parent-child interactions as a reciprocal outcome between parenting and children's behavior. To control for unobserved family heterogeneity and reciprocal causation, we estimate fixed-effects sibling models with lagged endogenous predictors and instrumental variables. Using data on mothers and children from the NLSY, we find that child behavior problems are shaped by poverty in early and middle childhood, as well as parents' use of physical punishment.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. "Family Social Capital Through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems." Working Paper No. 99-6, Center for the Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, March 1999.
29. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Family Social Capital through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems
CSDE Working Paper No. 99-06, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, March 1999.
Also: http://csde.washington.edu/downloads/99-6.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version of this paper entitled "Teenage Childbearing, Social Capital, and Sibling Behavior Problems" was presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, Toronto, Canada, August 1997. This article uses the concept of family social capital to conceptualize mothers' life course changes and parent-child interactions in models of children's behavior problems. To investigate structural relations generating social resources, we examine families' internal closure and embeddedness in society. We take a life course view and focus on the timing and duration of mothers' poverty, single motherhood, welfare, employment, and kin coresidence through early and middle childhood. Drawing on the child psychology and social capital literatures, we specify a model of parent-child interactions as a reciprocal outcome between parenting and children's behavior. To control for unobserved family heterogeneity and reciprocal causation, we estimate fixed-effects sibling models with lagged endogenous predictors and instrumental variables. Using data on mothers and children from the NLSY, we find that child behavior problems are shaped by poverty in early and middle childhood, as well as parents' use of physical punishment.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Ross L. Matsueda. "Family Social Capital through Childhood: A Sibling Model of Behavior Problems." CSDE Working Paper No. 99-06, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, March 1999.
30. Hao, Lingxin
Matsueda, Ross L.
Zhao, Yang
Children's Behavior Problems and Family Social Capital: A Dynamic Analysis of Siblings
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Preschool; Family Background; Family Structure; Family Studies; Heterogeneity; Modeling; Siblings; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effect of family social capital on child behavior problems, such as aggression, hyperactivity, temperament, and depression, for pre-adolescent school children (ages 9-14). Using the concept of family social family, we conceptualize the child developmental process as a dynamic and reciprocal one whereby child behaviors influences how the parents interact with the child, which, in turn, influences child behaviors. Our analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), including 16 waves of youth data and 4 waves of child data, to estimate a multi-equation dynamic model. We establish a sample that consists of multiple siblings per family and multiple observations per sibling. Such a sample permits an effective separation of unobserved heterogeneity from state dependence by controlling for two levels of unobserved heterogeneity, one being unique to the family, the other being unique to the individual child. The effective control of these two levels of unobserved heterogeneity rigorously improves the precision of estimates and hypotheses testing.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Ross L. Matsueda and Yang Zhao. "Children's Behavior Problems and Family Social Capital: A Dynamic Analysis of Siblings." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
31. Hao, Lingxin
Xiu, Guihua
Pathways to High School Graduation: Dynamic Modeling-Based Microsimulation of School Enrollment and Youth Employment
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper proposes a new approach to examining the pathways through school enrollment and youth employment to high school graduation, with a substantive focus on the effects of state welfare policies. Our approach represents an advancement in the demography of schooling. Based on dynamic models of multiple discrete states, multi-state life tables, and microsimulation, our approach makes several extensions. First, it produces microdata-based prediction rather than aggregate-based prediction. Second, it provides the size of the effect of key explanatory variables on the population patterns, net of other covariates, with inferential statistics such as confidence intervals. Third, it predicts the differential timing effects of key explanatory variables. Drawing on three waves of the most recent longitudinal data on adolescents, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), the study models and simulates the pathways to high school graduation from age 14 to age 19. It also simulates these pathways using CPS 1994-2000 data.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin and Guihua Xiu. "Pathways to High School Graduation: Dynamic Modeling-Based Microsimulation of School Enrollment and Youth Employment." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2002.
32. Hogan, Dennis P.
Hao, Lingxin
Parish, William L.
Race, Kin Networks, and Assistance to Mother-headed Families
Social Forces 68,3 (March 1990): 797-812.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579354
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Marital Status; Mothers; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Sons; Support Networks

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using NLSY data on black and white American mothers who are single or currently married in 1984, the research investigates issues relating to kin networks, childcare, and financial support to families. The analysis confirms that black mothers have better access to kin and are more likely to coreside with kin than white mothers, the childcare they use more often is provided by kinfolk and is free, and they more often receive half or more of their income from someone other than their husband. Most of the differences in childcare and economic support are attributable to the greater proportion of blacks who are single and to their better kin access. There is no evidence that blacks are more responsive than whites to the needs of single mothers. The persistent black advantage in support network involvement is due to the greater likelihood that they coreside with adult kin and use free childcare rather than to any black advantage in financial support. But almost one third of single black mothers were not involved in support networks, and the network support was insufficient to provide adequate childcare for many mothers who were involved.
Bibliography Citation
Hogan, Dennis P., Lingxin Hao and William L. Parish. "Race, Kin Networks, and Assistance to Mother-headed Families." Social Forces 68,3 (March 1990): 797-812.
33. Marcell, Arik
Van Eck, Kathryn
Thakkar, Madhuli Y.
Matson, Pamela
Hao, Lingxin
Latent Class Models For Adolescents' Routine Care Use: Evidence For Differences In Care Use By Sex And Cohort Starting In Childhood From A U.S. Panel
Journal of Adolescent Health 64,2,Supplement (February 2019): S18-19.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X1830510X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Health Care; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis

This study's goal was to describe prospective patterns of RCU (routine care use) from childhood through adolescence stratified by sex.
Bibliography Citation
Marcell, Arik, Kathryn Van Eck, Madhuli Y. Thakkar, Pamela Matson and Lingxin Hao. "Latent Class Models For Adolescents' Routine Care Use: Evidence For Differences In Care Use By Sex And Cohort Starting In Childhood From A U.S. Panel." Journal of Adolescent Health 64,2,Supplement (February 2019): S18-19.
34. Matsueda, Ross L.
Hao, Lingxin
A Sibling Model of Teenage Childbearing and Child Outcomes
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Matsueda, Ross L. and Lingxin Hao. "A Sibling Model of Teenage Childbearing and Child Outcomes." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001.
35. Parish, William L.
Hao, Lingxin
Hogan, Dennis P.
Family Support Networks, Welfare, and Work Among Young Mothers
Journal of Marriage and Family 53,1 (February 1991): 203-215.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353144
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Child Care; Coresidence; Divorce; Family Studies; Financial Assistance; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Welfare

Examines the impact of assistance offered by kin networks on young mothers, their labor market participation, & income support in the form of welfare, drawing on National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Behavior, Youth Survey data from 1,787 black & white mothers ages 19-26 with at least one coresident child in 1984. It is found that kin networks extending beyond the nuclear family improve the quality of life for some young mothers by offering child care & financial assistance. Black mothers receive more child care, but less income, assistance from kin than do white mothers. For both blacks & whites, income & child care support from kin diminishes as mothers enter their early 20s & establish households separate from their parents. Findings also suggest that nearby working kin, but not kin-provided child care, increase mother's labor market work. 4 Tables, 2 Figures, 47 References. S. Davies-Netzley (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Parish, William L., Lingxin Hao and Dennis P. Hogan. "Family Support Networks, Welfare, and Work Among Young Mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family 53,1 (February 1991): 203-215.
36. Thakkar, Madhuli Y.
Hao, Lingxin
Marcell, Arik
Adolescents' and Young Adults' Routine Care Use: The Role of Their Mothers' Care Use Behaviors
Journal of Adolescent Health published online (9 October 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.07.009.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X18302982
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers, Health; Parental Influences

Purpose: Little is known whether mothers' own care use is differentially associated with their adolescents' routine care use by gender. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether mothers' healthcare use prospectively predicts their adolescents' routine care use stratified by gender, after controlling for predisposing (child's age, race/ethnicity, region of residence, urbanicity, and mother's age at child's birth), enabling (mother's education, adolescent and mother health insurance), and need (child health status) factors.

Methods: In 2018, a prospective analysis was conducted using data from 5,040 adolescents aged 9-24 and their mothers who completed the two-generation National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 2006 (first interview) and 2008 (second interview). Findings include percentages and adjusted odds ratios of the factors that predict adolescents' self-report of routine care use in the past year measured at the second interview.

Results: In 2008, over half of participants reported a routine doctor visit during the prior 12 months and this varied by gender; more females (68.7%) had a visit than males (53.5%). Factors that independently predicted a greater odds of adolescents' routine doctor visits included mothers with routine doctor visits at both interviews or the second interview only, and adolescents' health insurance and past routine visit, regardless of gender. Males aged 18-20 and 21-24 years had lower odds of having a routine doctor visit than males aged 9-11 years.

Bibliography Citation
Thakkar, Madhuli Y., Lingxin Hao and Arik Marcell. "Adolescents' and Young Adults' Routine Care Use: The Role of Their Mothers' Care Use Behaviors." Journal of Adolescent Health published online (9 October 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.07.009.