Search Results

Author: Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Resulting in 43 citations.
1. Dunifon, Rachel
Harris, David R.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Risk-Taking; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our previous work (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones, 2007) examined whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, finding benefits for white, but not black, children. The goal of this study is to "unpack" these race differences by examining whether they are due to differences in grandparent characteristics such as education, health or age. Using data from the 1979 to 2004 waves of the NLSY mother-child file, we first examine a wide set of child outcomes (test scores, behavior, delinquency, and attitudes) to document where there are race differences in the influence of grandparent co-residence on children. We then seek to explain these race differences, using an extensive set of grandparent characteristics that could themselves differ by race. The goal is to better understand the role grandparents play in single-mother families and how and why this dynamic may differ by race.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel, David R. Harris and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Understanding Race Differences in the Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.
2. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Connections
Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, October 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Income; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Grandparents; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Social Contacts/Social Network; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role of parental social connections in accounting for subgroup differences in the influence of family structure on children. Our previous work found that white, but not black, children were negatively influenced by living in a singleparent family (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones, 2002). This paper examines whether parental social connections account for such differences in the influence of family structure on child well-being.

Using data from the 1988 to 2000 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate fixed effect models that suggest a key role for living with a grandparent in accounting for the race difference in the influence of single-parenthood on children. In contrast, visiting friends and relatives did not explain differences in the relationship between single-parenthood and child delinquency within sub-groups.

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Connections." Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, October 2003.
3. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal data from the NLSY79, this paper examines whether parental social support helps to reduce the negative impact of single-parenthood on children. Two measures of social support are used: how often a family spends time with friends or relatives, and whether a child's grandparent is living in the household. Our analyses focus on two important sub-groups of children: African-Americans and families receiving public assistance. African-Americans are an important sub-group because of the higher prevalence of single-parenthood in African-American families, and because our previous work found significant race differences in the influence of single-parenthood on children. Families receiving public assistance are examined because they are the target of public policies aimed at increasing marriage. Results suggest that the presence of grandparents in the home helps buffer the negative associations between single-parenthood and child delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Examining the Role of Parental Social Networks." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
4. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Role of Parental Social Connections
In: Fragile Families and the Marriage Agenda. L. Kowaleski-Jones and N. Wolfinger, eds., New York: Springer, 2006: 107-125
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Income; Family Structure; Family, Extended; Grandparents; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Social Contacts/Social Network; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 5: Our previous work found that single-parenthood was associated with reduced wellbeing for white, but not black, children (Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones 2002). The current paper examines whether parental social connections account for differences in the effects of family structure on child well-being. Using data from the 1979 to 2000 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, our results show a key role for living with a grandparent in accounting for race differences in the influence of single-parenthood on children. In contrast, visiting friends and relatives did not explain differences in the relationship between single-parenthood and child delinquency among African American and families receiving public assistance sub-groups.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Role of Parental Social Connections" In: Fragile Families and the Marriage Agenda. L. Kowaleski-Jones and N. Wolfinger, eds., New York: Springer, 2006: 107-125
5. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622450
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Black Family; Cognitive Ability; Family Structure; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences

This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with increased cognitive stimulation and higher reading recognition scores, compared to living with a single mother alone. For Black children, grandparent coresidence is associated with less cognitive stimulation. Thus, in some instances, living with a grandparent can benefit children, but the pattern of results differs by race. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Marriage & Family is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Journal of Marriage and Family 69,2 (May 2007): 465-481.
6. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
Also: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=50727
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Grandparents; Modeling, Random Effects; Parents, Single; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper asks two research questions: first, does living with a grandparent reduce the potential detrimental influences of single-parenthood on children? Second, does this relationship vary by race or ethnicity? We employ a random effects model using data from the NLSY79 mother-child files. Results from preliminary analyzes suggest that, for black children, grandparent co-residence is not associated with delinquency. For white children, living with a grandparent is associated with reduced delinquency, but not particularly for children living with a single mother. Future work will expand the set of outcomes examined, as well as the age group of children we study.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "The Role of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
7. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fathers, Biological; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Three main theories guide our analyses of the potential effects of family structure on children's home environment and achievement outcomes: social support, the biological imperative, and the marital imperative. Our results do not provide uniform evidence clearly supporting only one of these hypotheses. Instead, our findings lend support to a more complex set of conclusions that differ substantially by race. Taken together, we find evidence for the social support theory among whites, and some evidence of the biological imperative among white and black girls. For white girls, living with a spouse who is the biological father is especially beneficial, while for black girls living with a partner who is the biological father is most helpful. For both whites and blacks, we do not find support for the marital imperative theory, and for black boys our results suggest that cohabiting relationships may have great importance for their developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's in the House? Effects of Family Structure on Children's Home Environments and Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
8. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development
Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00470/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cohabitation; Control; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Marital Status; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Racial Differences

This study examined four questions: (1) How does family structure (specifically, single parenthood, married parent, and cohabitating parent) affect children's delinquency and math test scores? (2) Do these effects differ by race? (3) Do parenting practices mediate the links between family structure and children's outcomes? and (4) Does this mediation differ by race? Unlike some previous work in this area, the present study distinguished between the effects of single parenthood and cohabitation. Using fixed effects techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity between children in the various family structures, single parenthood was found to be associated with reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation was associated with greater delinquency among African American children, and lower math scores among European American children. No evidence was found to indicate that parenting mediated the links between family structure and children's outcomes. Finally, it was found that for African American children, measures of maternal warmth and to provision of rules had direct effects on children's delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development." Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
9. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Siblings; Temperament; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1999.
10. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Explaining Children's Heath Problems: The Effects of Poverty and Access to Health Insurance
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America, April 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Child Health; Family Income; Family Size; Health Care; Income Level; Morbidity; Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research uses a sample of exactly 1144 children between the ages of 8 and 11 in 1990 to: 1) explore the effects of deficient family income and health care insurance on children's health service utilization and morbidity; and 2) to assess the methodological concern of whether it is better to measure children's health problems as one multi-dimensional construct or as several uni-dimensional constructs. The data are drawn from the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Merged Mother-Child file. It is clear from these analyses that Medicaid health insurance conferred substantial benefits to children. The effects of private insurance coverage were not as straightforward. Rather than having strong additive effects on children's health services utilization, the effects of income adequacy are contingent on the levels of family and community stressors present in the child's life. For example, adequate income adequacy diminishes the p otential ben efits of kin support within the home, and intensifies the negative effects of both large family sizes and central city residence. These findings that income effects are contingent on levels of family and community characteristics represent a contribution to the literature because they further specify the relationship between childhood poverty and health. Finally, with the data available in this dataset, it seems clear that several uni-dimensional constructs tapping different aspects of child health represent the optimal methodological strategy.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Explaining Children's Heath Problems: The Effects of Poverty and Access to Health Insurance." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America, April 1995.
11. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Public and Private Support Systems: Evaluating the Effects of Welfare Status and Children's Participation in Head Start on Child Outcomes
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Childbearing, Adolescent; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Presence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Self-Esteem; Support Networks; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Concern and research have centered around the fate of young women who bear children during adolescence. The often disadvantaged situation in which they bear their children places their offspring in a precarious position both physically and cognitively. This subset of young women and their children typically lack the emotional and economic resources that are more likely to be available to older mothers and have a higher likelihood of raising their child without the father. This purpose of this paper is to investigate these often complex relationships. The results presented in this paper are preliminary findings from a comprehensive research effort examining the impact of public and private support systems on a variety of cognitive outcomes of children born to adolescent mothers. The sample is drawn from the Merged Mother-Child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Policies to reduce the negative effects of poverty and female household headship on child development, the impact of interaction of public and private support systems impact children are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Public and Private Support Systems: Evaluating the Effects of Welfare Status and Children's Participation in Head Start on Child Outcomes." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
12. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents
Journal of Marriage and Family 62,2 (May 2000): 449-464.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00449.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Census of Population; Children, Behavioral Development; Deviance; Family Environment; Family Income; Family Resources; Family Structure; Mobility; Neighborhood Effects; Residence; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

This research considers how community resources affect adolescent risk-taking attitudes and problem behavior. Data from the 1990 United States Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Merged Mother-Child files are merged to form a sample of 860 adolescents (aged 14-18 yrs) in 1994. Among these high-risk adolescents, selected community resources have significant associations with adolescent outcomes. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk-taking attitudes and aggressive behavior, regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. Higher quality schools, as perceived by mothers, are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and Family 62,2 (May 2000): 449-464.
13. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Census of Population; Deviance; Family Environment; Family Income; Family Resources; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Residence; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research considers how objective and perceived neighborhood quality affects adolescent problem behavior by estimating a series of multivariate models using zip code level data from the 1990 Census and data from the 1994 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) Merged Mother-Child sample. This sample includes 854 adolescents aged 14 to 18 (Child inputs from 1992, YA outputs from 1994). The results indicate that residential stability has a strong protective effect on adolescent deviant behavior and this effect persists even when family level stressors and maternal resources are considered. Living in communities with higher levels of collective affluence also negatively influences adolescent deviant behavior. Perceived characteristics also matter. Attending schools staffed by caring and skilled teachers who maintain an environment of discipline and safety has detectable effects on the student's propensity for aggressive behavior. However, the significant effects of perceived neighborhood problems on deviant adolescent behavior seem to be counteracted by positive family and especially maternal resources.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America, May 1996.
14. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Census of Population; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Demography; Deviance; Family Environment; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Residence; Risk-Taking

In this research, I consider how objective and perceived neighborhood quality affect adolescent problem behavior. I focus on four main questions: (1) Are stressful neighborhoods a cause of a family environment characterized by less maternal warmth, cognitive stimulation, and parental investment? (2) Does living in stressful neighborhoods cause adolescents to be more likely to take risks? (3) Do some neighborhoods contribute to adolescent problem behaviors by exacerbating the effects of family level stressors and inadequate maternal resources? (4) How does the adolescent's attitudinal orientation in turn influence their likelihood of engaging in problem behavior? To address these questions, I merge data from the 1990 Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Merged Mother-Child files to form a sample of 860 adolescents aged 14 to 18 in 1994. Overall, neighborhood characteristics have a limited impact on measures of family interaction. The effects where they a re present are often reduced when the adolescent's family resources are considered, and some neighborhood effects operate interactively with the adolescent's family resources. However, some neighborhood attributes have strong effects on adolescent outcomes. In particular, a clear factor that helps adolescents to stay out of trouble is living in more residentially stable communities. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk taking attitudes and aggressive behavior. One of the more compelling findings of this research is that the protective effect of residential stability persists regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. The quality of schools that adolescents attend also has strong protective effects. Higher quality schools are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. From a policy perspective, this is a particularly important finding as it counters the argument that schools cannot effectively help adolescents without substantial family support.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. Staying Out of Trouble: Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Problem Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1996.
15. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Welfare Receipt and Family Structure: Evaluating the Effects on Child Cognitive Outcomes
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Development; Cognitive Development; Family Income; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Self-Esteem; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the impact of public and private support systems on cognitive outcomes for children born to adolescent mothers. The data for this analysis were drawn from the 1979 to 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The sample consists of 1358 children who were between the ages of six and ten in 1988. The key inputs for this analysis are average family income, intensity of mother's employment, and presence of a significant other, as indicators of private support systems, and average number of survey years that the family received welfare benefits, as indicators of public support systems, over the life span of the child. The initial maternal resources on which they may draw intellectual skills and self esteem are controlled in all analyses. Overall, the findings indicate that private support systems are important in shaping the children's cognitive development but these effects are sometimes contingent on the levels of maternal resources available. These results suggest that total family income is a more important predictor of reading ability than is a history of welfare receipt. Rather than focusing on the potential-negative effects of welfare receipt on children, researchers should be investigating the ways in which adolescent mothers who rely on welfare may not have intellectual, emotional, or economic resources sufficient to ensure optimal child development. Researchers and policy analysts should also be concerned with how a lack of maternal resources may interact with available private support systems to impinge on their children's development. Update version, 1996, available from the author.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. "Welfare Receipt and Family Structure: Evaluating the Effects on Child Cognitive Outcomes." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1994.
16. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Brown, Barbara B.
Fan, Jessie X.
Smith, Ken R.
Zick, Cathleen D.
Are You What Your Mother Weighs? Evaluating the Impact of Maternal Weight Trajectories on Youth Overweight
Maternal and Child Health Journal 14,5 (September 2010): 680-686.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/t1x7867w47417875/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Characteristics; Home Environment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we investigate how three alternative measures of maternal body mass index (BMI) relate to youth overweight. We contrast the typical cross-sectional measure of maternal BMI with a longitudinal mean and a standard deviation in maternal BMI. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate logistic regressions that relate maternal BMI to the risk of a youth being overweight while controlling for other familial characteristics. Participants in this study are 918 males and 841 females who were age 16-21 and either healthy weight or overweight in 2006. To be eligible for inclusion, teens were 15 years old by December 2006. After comparing several measures of maternal weight, we find that higher mean maternal BMI measured over the life of the adolescent has the strongest relationship with the odds of youth overweight for both male and female adolescents. For boys, a one unit increase in mother's mean BMI increases the odds of being overweight by 16% (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.20) while for girls the increase in the odds of being overweight is 13% (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18). Our findings suggest that researchers should move beyond static measures of maternal weight when examining the correlates of youth BMI. Maternal weight histories offer additional insights about the youth's home environment that are associated with the risk of a youth being overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan, Ken R. Smith and Cathleen D. Zick. "Are You What Your Mother Weighs? Evaluating the Impact of Maternal Weight Trajectories on Youth Overweight." Maternal and Child Health Journal 14,5 (September 2010): 680-686.
17. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Brown, Barbara B.
Fan, Jessie X.
Smith, Ken R.
Zick, Cathleen D.
Youth Energy Balance: Evaluating Family and Economic Trajectories
Consumer Interests Annual 52 (2006): 367-368.
Also: http://www.consumerinterests.org/files/public/Jones_YouthEnergyBalanceEvaluatingFamilyandEconomicTrajectories.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Council on Consumer Interests (ACCI)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Family Background; Family Income; Health Factors; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers; Mothers, Height; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the 2004 release of Young Adult data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to explore the relationships among maternal BMI, family income, family background variables and youth overweight and healthy behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan, Ken R. Smith and Cathleen D. Zick. "Youth Energy Balance: Evaluating Family and Economic Trajectories." Consumer Interests Annual 52 (2006): 367-368.
18. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Brown, Barbara B.
Fan, Jessie X.
Zick, Cathleen D.
Youth Energy Balance: Evaluating the Impact of Family and Economic Trajectories
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Background; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we explore how family economic and energy balance history may be linked to youth overweight and development. We use the 2004 release of Young Adult data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to explore the relationships among maternal BMI, family income, family background variables and youth overweight and healthy behaviors. In our study, we exploit the longitudinal nature of the NLSY to create long-term family economic and family BMI profiles. Finally, we also track the impact of these profiles for key subgroups of youth (e.g., those youth still living at home and those who have left the parental home). Using multivariate techniques, we relate trajectories of familial BMI and economic well-being to healthy youth behaviors such as engaging in exercise and the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Results from this research afford valuable insights into complexity of family contributions to youth energy balance.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan and Cathleen D. Zick. "Youth Energy Balance: Evaluating the Impact of Family and Economic Trajectories." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
19. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Christie-Mizell, C. André
Depressed Mood and Body Weight
Youth and Society 41,4 (June 2010): 503-518.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/41/4/503.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year period symptoms of depression are only related to increases in BMI for African American females. Stepfamily arrangements and poor neighborhood quality were more related to higher body mass index among White females. With the exception of household income predicting higher weight for African American males, their models were not very predictive for either African American or White males. They interpret their results within a family stress framework. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Youth & Society is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and C. André Christie-Mizell. "Depressed Mood and Body Weight." Youth and Society 41,4 (June 2010): 503-518.
20. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Christie-Mizell, C. André
Depression and Adolescent Overweight: Exploring Race Differences
Presented: Montreal, Quebec, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Gender Differences; Neighborhood Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this paper examines the relationship between depression and overweight in adolescence. We also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Our findings indicate that over a four year period that depression is only related to increases in weight for African American females. Step-family arrangements and poor neighborhood quality were more related to weight gain among white females. With the exception of household income predicting higher weight for African American males, our models were not very predictive for either African American or white males.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and C. André Christie-Mizell. "Depression and Adolescent Overweight: Exploring Race Differences." Presented: Montreal, Quebec, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2006.
21. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children
Presented: Washington, DC, USDA/Institute for Research on Poverty Food Assistance Small Grants Conference, October 1999.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birthweight; Child Health; Hispanics; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Temperament; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effects of WIC participation on birth weight, motor and social skills, and temperament for a national sample of children. Sibling fixed effect models are used to account for potential unmeasured heterogeneity among the mothers of children in this sample. Specifically, the sample contains children born between 1990 and 1996 to women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from this study indicate that prenatal WIC participation has positive effects on infant birth weight using both OLS and fixed effect regression techniques. Fixed effect estimates also suggest that prenatal WIC participation is associated with lower scores on measures of difficult temperament.

The data is drawn from the 1996 and earlier survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a nationally representative sample of men and women. The youth cohort were 14 to 21 years of age when interviewed in 1979, making them 31 to 38 in 1996. The original sample over represented black, Hispanic, and economically disadvantaged white youth. This cohort, of whom the mothers of the children we study are members, has been interviewed every year since 1979. Beginning in 1986, interviewers administered an extensive set of assessment instruments to the children of all the female respondents. These assessments include information about cognitive, socio-emotional, and psychological aspects of the child=s development as well as about the quality of the home environment (Baker et al, 1993). These same children were interviewed again in 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, and in 1996.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Effects of Participation in Food Assistance Programs on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children." Presented: Washington, DC, USDA/Institute for Research on Poverty Food Assistance Small Grants Conference, October 1999.
22. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Effects of Participation in the WIC Food Assistance Program on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children
Discussion Paper No. 1207-00, Institute for Research on Poverty, 2000.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp120700.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Siblings; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effects of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on birth weight, motor and social skills, and temperament for a national sample of children born between 1990 and 1996 to women participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Sibling fixed effect models are used to account for persistent differences in difficult to measure characteristics of mothers that affect participation in the program. Results indicate that prenatal WIC participation has positive effects on infant birth weight. Fixed effect, but not OLS, estimates suggest that prenatal WIC participation is associated with more positive child temperament.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Effects of Participation in the WIC Food Assistance Program on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children." Discussion Paper No. 1207-00, Institute for Research on Poverty, 2000.
23. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Effects of Participation in the WIC Program on Birthweight: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Public Health 92,5 (May 2002): 799-804.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/92/5/799
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [Cl]=-0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g).

Conclusion. Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight. Copyright © 2002 Institute for Scientific Information

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Effects of Participation in the WIC Program on Birthweight: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." American Journal of Public Health 92,5 (May 2002): 799-804.
24. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Income, Family Structure, and the Dynamics of Achievement and Behavior in Middle Childhood
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America, Annual Meeting, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Divorce; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Family Resources; Family Structure; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As with equation (1), the achievement/behavior level model (equation 6a) presumes that initial age-6 achievement or behavior is a product of the accumulated amount of the financial resources available to the family; time spent in family structures between birth and age 6; and a set of fixed individual and family characteristics. All in all, the level formulation does not differ appreciably from that adopted in the now voluminous literature on achievement and behavior models based on the NLSY data. The slope (equation 6b) and acceleration (equation 6c) models focus on dynamic elements of resources and family conditions across the period of middle childhood. In line with the previous discussion, we allow for the achievement and behavior slopes between ages 6 and 12 to be affected both by conditions prior to age 6 as well as conditions and events occurring between ages 6 and 12. We hypothesize that inter-individual differences in the acceleration or deceleration in achievement and behavior scores (ma) will be influenced by income and family structure events as well. For example, the deceleration in math scores and the acceleration of behavior problems are hypothesized to increase in the case of a child whose parents undergo divorce, experience the addition of new siblings in the household, or whose family experiences a bout of poverty. These are the IncEvent and FamEvent variables in equation 6c. Even if we suspect that events affect acceleration, it is unclear what the timing of the effects would be. Since behavior problems are likely to be influenced more quickly by these kinds of changes, we expect shorter lags between events and their effects on the acceleration or deceleration of behavior than for achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Income, Family Structure, and the Dynamics of Achievement and Behavior in Middle Childhood." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America, Annual Meeting, April 1998.
25. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
The Effects of WIC on Children's Health and Development
Poverty Research News, 5,2, (March-April 2001): 6-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Siblings; Temperament; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Kowaleski-Jones and Duncan address some of the limitations of prior research by using a national sample of children and siblings born to relatively older mothers. Specifically, they compare siblings whose mothers used WIC with one sibling but not the other. In addition to birth weight, they also examine two measures of infant development: temperament and motor and social skills. Their research supports the positive findings on infant birth weight, and finds a small, positive effect on temperament, but no established link to improved motor or social skills.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "The Effects of WIC on Children's Health and Development." Poverty Research News, 5,2, (March-April 2001): 6-7.
26. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
The Structure of Achievement and Behavior across Middle Childhood
Child Development 70,4 (July-August 1999): 930-943.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00067/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; LISREL; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to describe and model developmental trajectories across middle childhood. Our sample consists of approximately 1,000 children of NLSY women who were age 6-7 in either 1986 or 1988. Assessments of PIAT math and reading scores and the mother-reported Behavior Problem Index in 1986, 1988, 1990 and 1992 provide data for middle-child trajectories of children age 6-7 in 1986. Assessments in 1988, 1990, 1992 and 1994 provide data for children age 6-7 in 1988. We use the raw-score form of these data to estimate LISREL-based models of their autoregressive structure. As with other samples, average math and reading achievement trajectories are parabolic for NLSY children, with scores increasing at a decreasing rate over this period. Average behavior-problem trajectories are flat. Behind these average shapes is extreme diversity in level, and in some cases, slopes, of individual trajectories, and a pronounced tendency for above average changes between two adjacent assessments to be followed by opposite-signed changes in the subsequent period. Estimates from our structural models showed great heterogeneity in the average level of achievement and behavior for all three outcomes and heterogeneous slopes for reading scores as well. Boys but not girls were found to have heterogeneous slopes for math and behavior problems, while girls but not boys showed a significantly higher degree of persistence if "shocked" off of their expected trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "The Structure of Achievement and Behavior across Middle Childhood." Child Development 70,4 (July-August 1999): 930-943.
27. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes
Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Poverty Research and Training Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, September 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earlier version presented: Albuquerque, New Mexico, Biannual Meeting.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured mother- and child-specific characteristics, and measure responses to these family changes before, during and after the events. We find that the effect of a new sibling on changes in the emotional support provided to children varies depending on when the event occurs, with births in the future associated with increased emotional support, and births in the present associated with decreased support. Additionally, we find that, after controlling for unmeasured variables, divorce does not have an adverse effect on the home environments of boys and girls; in fact, a divorce occurring in a previous time period is associated with greater emotional support provided to girls.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes." Working Paper, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Poverty Research and Training Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, September 2000.
28. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes
Journal of Family Issues 25,1 (January 2004): 3-28.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/25/1/3.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Child Development; Divorce; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured mother- and child-specific characteristics and measure responses to these family changes before, during, and after the events. We find that an impending birth is associated with increased emotional support provided to children, whereas concurrent births are associated with decreased support. Additionally, we find that, after controlling for unmeasured variables, divorce does not have an adverse effect on the home environments of boys and girls; in fact, a divorce occurring in a previous time period is associated with a modest increase in emotional support provided to girls. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes." Journal of Family Issues 25,1 (January 2004): 3-28.
29. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Dunifon, Rachel
Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes
Youth and Society 38,1 (September 2006): 110-130.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/1/110
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cohabitation; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Divorce; Family Structure; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Single; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file, this article examines the relationship between living in four different family structures on key measures of youth well-being, studied separately by race. The authors also examine whether contextual factors mediate these associations. For Black youth, we find no effects of family structure on youth well-being; however, community context measures are associated with youth outcomes. For White youth, single parenthood and cohabitation are associated with poorer youth outcomes; however, in some cases, these associations are mediated with the inclusion of the community context measures. [Specifically, we used data on mothers and their 14 to 19-year-old teens from the 1994, 1996, and 1998 youth supplements. All years of information for a given teen were pooled in a stacked, person–year dataset.][ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Rachel Dunifon. "Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes." Youth and Society 38,1 (September 2006): 110-130.
30. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Adolescent Risk Taking: Do Youth Learn with Experience?
Working Paper, revised presentation, New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Control; Parenthood; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this research, we investigate the extent to which early sexual activity, the use of contraception and early parenthood may be linked with a range of proximate attitudes and behaviors, controlling for a wide range of family and maternal priors. The data we use are from the 1979-1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the linked 1994 young adult data file. Our sample includes about 900 youth, mostly between the ages of 14 and 18 as of the 1994 survey date. Using a partial correlation approach, we find that youth who are inclined towards risk taking are more likely to be sexually active but only girls perhaps give thought to the implications by showing some awareness of a risk in their contracepting behavior. Additionally, there is fairly persuasive and systematic evidence that for girls only, early sex, not using contraception and indeed, having a child are indeed in various ways linked with depression, having low self esteem, and having little sense of control.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Adolescent Risk Taking: Do Youth Learn with Experience?" Working Paper, revised presentation, New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1996.
31. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Comparing Across a Decade
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Attitudes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Depression (see also CESD); Deviance; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Runaways; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this research, we compare adolescents from 1994 and 2004 to investigate the extent to which early sexual activity, and early parenthood may be linked with a range of proximate attitudes and behavior. Our particular focus is on exploring whether or not there are distinctive differences in these associations across gender and period. The data we use are from the 1979-2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the linked 2004 Young Adult data file. Our sample includes 860 youth between the ages of 14 and 18 in 1994 and 1934 youth between the same ages in 2004.

Using a partial correlation approach, we explore differences in the correlates of sexual activity initiation and early parenthood between 1994 and 2004. We find that youth who are inclined towards risk taking are more likely to be sexually active. Additionally, there is fairly systematic evidence that for girls only, early sex and having a child are in various ways linked with depression, having low self-esteem, and having little sense of control over their lives. The results for young men are less consistent, in several instances suggesting substantially different motivations for sexual activity between the genders.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Comparing Across a Decade." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2007.
32. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Early Sex and Early Childbearing: Risk Taking and Learning the Hard Way
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Gender Differences; Grandmothers; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Early Sex and Early Childbearing: Risk Taking and Learning the Hard Way." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1996.
33. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Family and Youth Behavioral and Social-Psychological Antecedents of Adolescent Smoking Among High Risk Youth
Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Deviance; Family Background; Family Environment; Family Influences; Family Studies; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior; Psychological Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Also: Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, September 1996.

In this work, we use a large national data set to explore how longer term socio-economic family and maternal as well as psychological antecedents predict both contemporary as well as longer term smoking behavior for a large sample of relatively high risk American youth. There are essentially two linked components to this research. First, we consider the relevance of longer term socio-economic and demographic prior characteristics as predictors of longer and shorter term smoking behavior. Then, controlling for this full range of priors, we explore issues which are of some interest, particularly to developmental and child psychologists; are there causal connections between childhood hyperactivity and adolescent smoking or is the often found connection spurious, in that it really reflects a likelihood that both hyperactivity and smoking behavior are intimately linked with other dimensions of child and adolescent behaviors? Additionally, to what extent does youthful smoking have an intergenerational connection independent of all the other potentially spurious factors which we are able to measure? The availability of long term maternal, family and behavioral trajectories for the NLSY youth and their families permit us to partially untangle competing hypotheses.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Family and Youth Behavioral and Social-Psychological Antecedents of Adolescent Smoking Among High Risk Youth." Presented: Washington, DC, Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, March 1997.
34. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Sex, Contraception and Childbearing Among High-Risk Youth: Do Different Factors Influence Males and Females?
Family Planning Perspectives 30,4 (July-August 1998): 163-169.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991677
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Attitudes; Childbearing, Adolescent; Contraception; Control; Deviance; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Mothers; Mothers, Behavior; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Runaways; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Context: The likelihood that adolescents will engage in sexual activity, use contraceptives or become parents is influenced by a range of attitudes and behaviors. These factors may differ for males and females. Methods: Data on female respondents to the 1979-1992 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the linked 1994 young adult data file on their children provided background information on 959 adolescents who had been born to young mothers. Partial correlation analysis was used to examine the factors related to sexual behavior, contraceptive use and childbirth, controlling for maternal and familial characteristics, in this relatively disadvantaged sample.

Results: Youth who are inclined toward risk-taking and those who have run away from home are more likely than others to be sexually active. For young women, having intercourse at an early age, not using contraceptives and having a child are linked with depression, low self-esteem and little sense of control over their lives. The results for young men are less consistent and often in the opposite direction. Young people who have become parents evidence greater maturity than their childless peers; women are less likely to consume alcohol or to spend time with friends who drink and men are more likely to participate in socially productive work. Conclusions: Although sexual behavior is tied to risk taking in both adolescent males and females some noticeable psychological differences are evidenced early. Behaviorally, there is room for optimism in that young parents appear to adopt more mature traits.

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Frank L. Mott. "Sex, Contraception and Childbearing Among High-Risk Youth: Do Different Factors Influence Males and Females?" Family Planning Perspectives 30,4 (July-August 1998): 163-169.
35. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Impact of Social Stressors on Academic and Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Mothers and Children
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Maternal Employment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "Impact of Social Stressors on Academic and Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY Mothers and Children." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
36. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
Parental Investment and Early Adolescent Behavior Problems: Evidence from NLSY Mothers and Children
Presented: Indianapolis, IN, Symposium on Social Capital and Child Development at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meetings, April 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Cognitive Development; Family Structure; Family Studies; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In describing social capital as a critical element in the formation of human capital, James Coleman calls attention to features of relationships between actors that help these relationships to serve as resources for individuals and groups. While Coleman emphasizes social capital in neighborhoods and community patterns, family relations themselves may be more or less organized to support family members' goals and actions. Coleman (1988) argues that such family social capital-as embodied in relations that are stable and dependable, marked by high frequency of interaction, and characterized by homogeneity of values and norms--is a resource enabling individuals to accomplish goals. In particular, parental efforts to develop positive bonds with their children--via support for cognitive development, warm interaction, and joint participation in activities--and to foster shared norms--via explicit discussion of parental expectations and inclusion of the child in rulemaking--should d ecrease their children's vulnerability to behavior problems and deviance. But such family social capital is not equally distributed among families. Given the importance of parent-child relationships for children's outcomes, we argue that it is critical to understand the social determinants of family interaction patterns, as well as to investigate how variations in the quality and character of relations among parents and children help to shape the behavioral choices that adolescent children make.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "Parental Investment and Early Adolescent Behavior Problems: Evidence from NLSY Mothers and Children." Presented: Indianapolis, IN, Symposium on Social Capital and Child Development at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meetings, April 1995.
37. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Mott, Frank L.
The Intergenerational Costs of Parental Social Stressors: Academic & Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence for Children of Young Mothers
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,1 (March 1997): 72-86.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2955362
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Academic Development; Cognitive Development; Family Environment; Family Influences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Occupational Prestige; Parental Influences; Social Environment; Social Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Social stressors embedded in parents' occupational and family roles have been shown to have effects on family interaction and the cognitive and emotional development of young children. Here we consider whether these patterns also hold for children in early adolescence. We study 1158 10-14-year-old children born to the early childbearers among the female respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. We find that both poor quality of parental employment and low quality of mothers' relationships with their partners have adverse effects on the cognitive stimulation and maternal warmth children receive; living in informal unions is also associated with poorer parent-child interaction. These family interaction patterns in turn both buffer the effects of stressful family conditions and shape academic and behavior outcomes directly. Some work and family conditions interact in their effects: in particular, single mothering has less adverse effects on cognitive stimulation and behavior problems when mothers are employed in occupations providing higher complexity.The effects of current conditions are diminished but seldom eliminated when we control for possible selection effects by utilizing data from earlier waves to control for earlier levels of child problems. These findings suggest that current parental social stressors continue to have consequences for both academic and behavioral outcomes during early adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Frank L. Mott. "The Intergenerational Costs of Parental Social Stressors: Academic & Social Difficulties in Early Adolescence for Children of Young Mothers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38,1 (March 1997): 72-86.
38. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources
Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Fathers, Presence; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Explores how work & family circumstances shape young children's emotional well-being & behavior, & the extent to which parental resources buffer against adverse effects, using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth for a synthetic cohort of 2,343 children ages 6-7, who were born 1979 & 1986. Results suggest 3 aspects of current work & family circumstances are associated with lower levels of children's behavior problems: (1) the presence of the child's father in the family, (2) the mother being employed, & (3) among employed mothers, the mother working in an occupation that offers greater complexity. Maternal resources also matter: mothers with higher self-esteem, lower levels of youthful deviance, & who had avoided smoking during pregnancy had children with lower levels of behavior problems. These resources had directed effects on behavior problems when current work & family circumstances were controlled, & indirect effects through their impact s on curr ent work & family circumstances. Mothers' cognitive resources had no direct effects, but higher education helped to buffer the effects of presence/absence of the child's father. Higher cognitive resources were also associated with better current work & family circumstances. It is concluded that mothers' resources & their current work & family circumstances affect children's well-being; these effects persist despite stringent controls & are predominantly additive in form. From a policy perspective, these results suggest that improvements in current work & family circumstances can enhance children's well-being, even for children whose mothers have poorer emotional & cognitive resources. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Frank L. Mott, Susan Marie Jekielek and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Children's Behavior Problems: Effects of Current Conditions and Maternal Resources." Presented: New York, NY, American Sociological Association, August 1996.
39. Mott, Frank L.
Fondell, Michelle M.
Hu, Paul N.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population
Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135957
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Demography; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among non-Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity but only when a child's friends attend the same church. (Full text available online from EBSCO.)
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu, Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent Population ." Family Planning Perspectives 28,1 (January-February 1996): 13-18.
40. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Gender Variations in the Associations Between Father's Absence from the Home and Children's Behavior: Sensitivity to Life Cycle Stage
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Life Cycle Research; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research uses the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its complementary child assessment data to explore the shorter and longer term implications of a father's absence for the behavior of national sample of white children who are nine to eleven years of age in 1990. A particular focus of the research is to explore gender variations in the effects of father's absence on the behavior of this sample of about 500 children. The results suggest that (1) there is systematic evidence of strong associations between a fathers absence and a child's behavior in the shorter and longer run, with particular strong effects in the years immediately following the fathers departure. (2) More modest effects are found for girls than for boys. In this regard, there is no evidence of behavioral deterioration among girls compared to boys in the later childhood period -- either for children whose father has been absent for a lengthy time period or for children whose father left in the later childhood period.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Gender Variations in the Associations Between Father's Absence from the Home and Children's Behavior: Sensitivity to Life Cycle Stage." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994.
41. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?
Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353665
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Parental Influences; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

A study was conducted to examine the shorter and longer implications of a father's absence from the home for the behavior of a national sample of 482 white children aged 9-11 years in 1990, focusing in particular on gender differences in these longer and shorter term effects. Findings indicate that more modest effects of a father's absence are found for girls than are for boys, although the gender variations typically are not statistically significant. In addition, contrary to expectations, this modest behavioral gender difference appears for both externalization and internalization subscores. Furthermore, boys and girls seem to react similarly and negatively to the presence of a new man in the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does a Child's Gender Make a Difference?" Journal of Marriage and Family 59,1 (February 1997): 103-118.
42. Mott, Frank L.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does Child Gender Make a Difference?
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

This research uses data from the 1979 through 1990 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and its complementary child assessment data to explore the shorter and longer implications of a father's absence from the home.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Paternal Absence and Child Behavior: Does Child Gender Make a Difference?" Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1996.
43. Shaff, Kimberly Anne
Wolfinger, Nicholas H.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Smith, Ken R.
Family Structure Transitions and Child Achievement
Sociological Spectrum 28,6 (November 2008): 681-704.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02732170802342966
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Formation; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Marriage; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Income; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

This article uses prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to investigate how children in divorced and never-married-mother families vary in reading and math achievement after parental remarriage. These are compared to children who remain in never-married, divorced, and continuously married families. Results based on growth curve modeling indicate that children remaining in single-parent families resulting from divorce or nonmarital births have lower achievement scores than children from married families. Maternal education and income account for all of the adverse effects of family structure on reading achievement, while maternal education, income, and children's home environment can explain the negative relationship between single parenting and math scores. We conclude that parental remarriage may have more benefits for children than previous studies have suggested. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Shaff, Kimberly Anne, Nicholas H. Wolfinger, Lori Kowaleski-Jones and Ken R. Smith. "Family Structure Transitions and Child Achievement." Sociological Spectrum 28,6 (November 2008): 681-704.