Search Results

Author: Markowitz, Sara
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Cawley, John
Markowitz, Sara
Tauras, John
Body Weight, Cigarette Prices, Youth Access Laws and Adolescent Smoking Initiation
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Allied Social Science Association Meeting, January 2005.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0107_0800_0101.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society of Government Economists (SGE)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Variables, Instrumental; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role of body weight in smoking initiation by aolescents. We estimate discrete-time hazard models of the decision to initiate smoking using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort. We control for cigarette prices, tobacco control policies and socioeconomic factors. To avoid problems stemming from the endogeneity of body weight, we also estimate models using the method of instrumental variables.

We find clear gender differences. Lighter girls are less likely to initiate smoking, while current weight is uncorrelated with initiation among boys. Among girls, smoking initiation is insensitive to cigarette prices, but among boys smoking initiation is negatively correlated with cigarette prices. These gender-specific differences may help explain the mixed evidence of the impact of price on smoking initiation found in previous literature.
Bibliography Citation
Cawley, John, Sara Markowitz and John Tauras. "Body Weight, Cigarette Prices, Youth Access Laws and Adolescent Smoking Initiation." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Allied Social Science Association Meeting, January 2005.
2. Cawley, John
Markowitz, Sara
Tauras, John
Lighting Up and Slimming Down: The Effects of Body Weight and Cigarette Prices on Adolescent Smoking Initiation
NBER Working Paper No. 9561, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2003.
Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w9561
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Gender Differences; Weight

This paper examines the influence of body weight, body image, and cigarette prices in determining adolescent sgmoking initiation. Adolescents who desire to lose weight may initiate smoking as a method of appetite control. Such behavior may undermine the goals of tobacco control policies that seek to prevent smoking initiation. Using a nationally representative panel of adolescents, we show that smoking initiation is more likely among females who are overweight, who report trying to lose weight, or who describe themselves as overweight. In contrast, neither objective nor subjective measures of weight predict smoking initiation by males. Higher cigarette prices decrease the probability of smoking initiation among males but have no impact on female smoking initiation. These gender-specific differences may help explain the mixed and inconclusive evidence of the impact of price on smoking initiation found in previous literature.
Bibliography Citation
Cawley, John, Sara Markowitz and John Tauras. "Lighting Up and Slimming Down: The Effects of Body Weight and Cigarette Prices on Adolescent Smoking Initiation." NBER Working Paper No. 9561, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2003.
3. Cawley, John
Markowitz, Sara
Tauras, John
Obesity, Cigarette Prices, Youth Access Laws and Adolescent Smoking Initiation
Eastern Economic Journal 32,1 (Winter 2006): 149-170.
Also: http://econpapers.repec.org/article/eejeeconj/v_3a32_3ay_3a2006_3ai_3a1_3ap_3a149-170.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Journals
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Gender Differences; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Factors; State-Level Data/Policy; Variables, Instrumental; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the role of body weight in smoking initiation by adolescents. We estimate discrete-time hazard models of the decision to initiate smoking using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort. We control for cigarette prices, tobacco control policies and socioeconomic factors. To avoid problems stemming from the endogeneity of body weight, we also estimate models using the method of instrumental variables. We find clear gender differences. Lighter girls are less likely to initiate smoking, while current weight is uncorrelated with initiation among boys. Among girls, smoking initiation is insensitive to cigarette prices, but among boys smoking initiation is negatively correlated with cigarette prices. These gender-specific differences may help explain the mixed evidence of the impact of price on smoking initiation found in previous literature.
Bibliography Citation
Cawley, John, Sara Markowitz and John Tauras. "Obesity, Cigarette Prices, Youth Access Laws and Adolescent Smoking Initiation." Eastern Economic Journal 32,1 (Winter 2006): 149-170.
4. Chatterji, Pinka
Markowitz, Sara
The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Health Economics 20,5 (September 2001): 703-731.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016762960100090X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Family Studies; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Behavior; Substance Use; Variables, Instrumental

The Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is used to test for evidence of a causal relationship between maternal alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use, and children's behavior problems. Ordinary least squares (OLS) results provide strong evidence that substance use is associated with behavior problems. However, OLS estimation fails to account for unobserved factors that may be correlated with substance use and child behavior. To account for this problem, mother-child and family fixed-effects models are tested. The results suggest that maternal illicit drug use is positively associated with children's behavior problems, while alcohol use has a less consistent impact.
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka and Sara Markowitz. "The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Health Economics 20,5 (September 2001): 703-731.
5. Chatterji, Pinka
Markowitz, Sara
The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NBER Working Paper No. 7692, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2000.
Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/W7692
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Endogeneity; Family Studies; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Behavior; Substance Use; Variables, Instrumental

This study uses data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test for evidence of a causal relationship between maternal alcohol use, marijuana use and cocaine use, and children's behavior problems. Ordinary least squares results provide strong evidence that maternal substance use is associated with children's behavior problems. Models that account for the potential endogeneity of maternal substance use yield mixed results. Models estimated using instrumental variables (IV) methods are inconsistent with OLS findings. Child-specific and family-specific fixed effects models suggest that maternal alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use are associated with increases in behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka and Sara Markowitz. "The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NBER Working Paper No. 7692, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2000.
6. Goldfarb, Robert S.
Leonard, Thomas C.
Markowitz, Sara
Suranovic, Steven
Can a Rational Choice Framework Make Sense of Anorexia Nervosa?
NBER Working Paper 14838, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2009.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14838.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Height; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking; Weight

Can a rational choice modeling framework help broaden our understanding of anorexia nervosa? This question is interesting because anorexia nervosa is a serious health concern, and because of the following issue: could a rational choice approach shed useful light on a condition which appears to involve "choosing" to be ill? We present a model of weight choice and dieting applicable to anorexia nervosa, and the sometimes-associated purging behavior. We also present empirical evidence about factors possibly contributing to anorexia nervosa. We offer this analysis as a consciousness-raising way of thinking about the condition.
Bibliography Citation
Goldfarb, Robert S., Thomas C. Leonard, Sara Markowitz and Steven Suranovic. "Can a Rational Choice Framework Make Sense of Anorexia Nervosa?." NBER Working Paper 14838, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2009.
7. Grossman, Michael
Kaestner, Robert
Markowitz, Sara
Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior
NBER Working Paper No. 9216, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2002.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9216
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use; Teenagers

Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordingly, we attempt to estimate causal effects using two complementary research approaches. Our findings suggest that substance use is not causally related to teen sexual behavior, although we cannot definitely rule out that possibility.
Bibliography Citation
Grossman, Michael, Robert Kaestner and Sara Markowitz. "Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior." NBER Working Paper No. 9216, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2002.
8. Grossman, Michael
Kaestner, Robert
Markowitz, Sara
Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior
Review of Economics of the Household 2, 4 (2004): 413-441.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h3841721727h2tp5/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous studies have documented a strong correlation between substance use and teen sexual behavior, and this empirical relationship has given rise to a widespread belief that substance use causes teens to engage in risky sex. This causal link is often used by advocates to justify policies targeted at reducing substance use. Here, we argue that previous research has not produced sufficient evidence to substantiate a causal relationship between substance use and teen sexual behavior. Accordingly, we attempt to estimate causal effects using two complementary research approaches. Our findings suggest that substance use is not causally related to teen sexual behavior, although we cannot definitively rule out that possibility.
Bibliography Citation
Grossman, Michael, Robert Kaestner and Sara Markowitz. "Get High and Get Stupid: The Effect of Alcohol and Marijuana Use on Teen Sexual Behavior." Review of Economics of the Household 2, 4 (2004): 413-441.