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Author: Pais, Jeremy
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Johnson, Kecia
Pais, Jeremy
South, Scott J.
Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence From Fixed-Effects Models
Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 181-208.
Also: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/v091/91.1.johnson.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Ethnic Differences; Migration; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Residential Segregation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely to differ from minorities who reside in areas with few minorities on unobserved characteristics related to economic attainment. Thus, this association may be a product of differential skills, behaviors and networks acquired during childhood or of selective migration. Applying fixed-effects models to a quarter century of panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that for Blacks and Latinos the inverse association between minority population concentration and earnings is eliminated when unobserved person-specific characteristics are controlled. The findings suggest that the negative association between Black population size and Blacks’ earnings is driven largely by the selection of high-earning Blacks into labor markets with relatively small Black populations. Most of the association between Latino population concentration and earnings is attributable to the level of Latino population concentration experienced during childhood.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Kecia, Jeremy Pais and Scott J. South. "Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence From Fixed-Effects Models." Social Forces, 91,1 (September 2012): 181-208.
2. Pais, Jeremy
Cumulative Structural Disadvantage and Racial Health Disparities: The Pathways of Childhood Socioeconomic Influence
Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1729-1753.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0330-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Workers Ability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cumulative structural disadvantage theory posits two major sources of endogenous selection in shaping racial health disparities: a race-based version of the theory anticipates a racially distinct selection process, whereas a social class-based version anticipates a racially similar process. To operationalize cumulative structural disadvantage, this study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a Latent Class Analysis that demographically profiles health impairment trajectories. This analysis is used to examine the nature of selection as it relates to racial differences in the development of health impairments that are significant enough to hinder one's ability to work. The results provide no direct support for the race-based version of cumulative structural disadvantage theory. Instead, two key findings support the social class-based version of cumulative disadvantage theory. First, the functional form of the different health trajectories are invariant for whites and blacks, suggesting more racial similarly in the developmental process than anticipated by the race-based version of the theory. The extent of the racial disparity in the prevalences across the health impairment trajectories is, however, significant and noteworthy: nearly one-third of blacks (28 %) in the United States experience some form of impairment during their prime working years compared with 18.8 % of whites. Second, racial differences in childhood background mediate this racial health disparity through the indirect pathway of occupational attainment and through the direct pathway of early-life exposure to health-adverse environments. Thus, the selection of individuals into different health trajectories, based largely on childhood socioeconomic background, helps explain racial disparities in the development of health impairments.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Cumulative Structural Disadvantage and Racial Health Disparities: The Pathways of Childhood Socioeconomic Influence." Demography 51,5 (October 2014): 1729-1753.
3. Pais, Jeremy
Disparate Trajectories of the Effects of Health on Work Participation: A Latent Class Growth Approach
Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research on racial and ethnic disparities in the area of health and work are limited by the simple way functional health trajectories are conceptualized. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this project will use a novel latent class growth analysis to capture the multifaceted connections between health and work participation that transpire over the life course. By capturing the different types of functional health trajectories, this project will improve our assessment of the extent, magnitude, and cause of the racial and ethnic disparities in health and in work participation. This study will also advance core theoretical arguments concerning how social factors at the individual and community level affect racial and ethnic health/work disparities. As a result, we will gain new knowledge about how and why health limitations unequally affect the ability of minorities and whites to participate in work.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Disparate Trajectories of the Effects of Health on Work Participation: A Latent Class Growth Approach." Presented: Denver CO, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2012.
4. Pais, Jeremy
Individual and US County Determinants of Repeat Migration: a Comparison of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics
Population, Space and Place 20,6 (August 2014): 512-527.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psp.1784/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Ethnic Differences; Migration; Migration Patterns; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contemporary internal migration trends in the US raise questions about the role of community characteristics in shaping individual-level migration propensities among different racial and ethnic groups. To examine this issue more closely, this research incorporates key county-level characteristics into a study of repeat migration. With data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged with US census data, this study found that heavily populated counties and counties with large concentrations of employment in manufacturing industries reduce the odds of primary outmigration, onward migration to other locations, and return migration to a previous county of residence. Counties with a high degree of natural amenity retain longstanding white residents. Net of individual unemployment, the county-level unemployment rate hinders primary and onward migration among whites. In support of the cultural constraints hypothesis – a hypothesis that anticipates divergent community-level effects for minority and majority group members – whites are more likely to engage in repeat migration from counties with smaller shares of non-Hispanic white population whereas blacks are more likely to engage in repeat migration from areas with larger shares of non-Hispanic white population. Whites and blacks are more likely to move out of counties with larger shares of foreign-born population. The share of neither non-Hispanic white population nor foreign-born population affects Hispanic repeat migration propensities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Individual and US County Determinants of Repeat Migration: a Comparison of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics." Population, Space and Place 20,6 (August 2014): 512-527.
5. Pais, Jeremy
Multiethnic Labor Markets and Socioeconomic Mobility: A Career Trajectory Perspective
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Albany, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Labor Market Demographics; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Modeling, Multilevel; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Social Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, high rates of immigration have once again raised important questions concerning the effect of ethnic diversity on patterns of socioeconomic mobility and levels of inequality between racial and ethnic groups. However, despite the potential effect of immigration and ethnic diversity on racial and ethnic stratification within multiethnic societies, research has yet to provide an examination of the impact of these factors on patterns of social mobility over the life course. While prior research focuses extensively on metropolitan area characteristics related to contemporaneous race and ethnic labor market disparities, the primary contribution of this research is to examine the multiethnic aspects of communities that affect the career trajectories of American workers. Applying cross-classified multilevel growth curve models to data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and U.S. Census Bureau, this research provides a comprehensive assessment of the social forces causing differential patterns of intragenerational socioeconomic mobility among race, ethnic, and gender groups in the contemporary era of mass immigration.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. Multiethnic Labor Markets and Socioeconomic Mobility: A Career Trajectory Perspective. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Albany, 2011.
6. Pais, Jeremy
Socioeconomic Background and Racial Earnings Inequality: A Propensity Score Analysis
Social Science Research 40,1 (January 2011): 37-49.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X10001328
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Economics of Minorities; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality; Socioeconomic Background; Underclass; Wage Gap

Does a racial earnings gap exist among individuals who come from similar childhood socioeconomic backgrounds? Is the racial earnings gap larger or smaller for those from higher or lower socioeconomic origins? This research addresses these questions by taking a counterfactual approach to estimating the residual racial pay gap between non-Hispanic black and white men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The findings indicate that the racial earnings gap is larger among those from lower-middle class and working class childhood backgrounds than among those from upper-middle class backgrounds, for whom the racial pay gap is indistinguishable from zero. Compared to their more advantaged counterparts, black men from lower-middle and working class backgrounds have more difficulty rising above their socioeconomic origins relative to white men from similar social class backgrounds. Racial earnings equality among those from upper-middle class backgrounds suggests that the high levels of racial inequality often observed among those with college and professional degrees may in fact reflect heterogeneous childhood socioeconomic backgrounds among the college educated--backgrounds that continue to have an effect on earnings despite individual academic achievements. [Copyright ©raci Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "Socioeconomic Background and Racial Earnings Inequality: A Propensity Score Analysis." Social Science Research 40,1 (January 2011): 37-49.
7. Pais, Jeremy
The Effects of U.S. Immigration on the Career Trajectories of Native Workers, 1979–2004
American Journal of Sociology 119,1 (July 2013): 35-74.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/671326
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Census of Population; Earnings; Immigrants; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

While earlier work primarily examines the point-in-time effects of immigration on the earnings of native workers, this article focuses more broadly on the effects of immigration on native workers’ career trajectories. Cross-classified multilevel growth-curve models are applied to 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and U.S. Census Bureau data to demonstrate how people adjust to changing local labor market conditions throughout their careers. The key findings indicate that substitution and complementary effects depend on the stage of the worker’s career. At entry into the labor market, high levels of immigration have a positive effect on the career paths of young native-born adults. However, negative contemporaneous effects to natives’ earnings tend to offset positive point-of-entry effects, a finding that suggests job competition among natives is greater in areas of high immigrant population concentration. These results raise questions about whether foreign-born workers need to be in direct competition with natives for there to be substitution effects.
Bibliography Citation
Pais, Jeremy. "The Effects of U.S. Immigration on the Career Trajectories of Native Workers, 1979–2004." American Journal of Sociology 119,1 (July 2013): 35-74.