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Source: JAI Press
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Flinn, Christopher Jay
Heckman, James J.
Models for the Analysis of Labor Force Dynamics
In: Advances in Econometrics 1. R. Basemann and G. Rhodes, eds., Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavioral Differences; Heterogeneity; Job Search; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Labor Turnover; Markov chain / Markov model; Work Histories

This article presents new econometric methods for the empirical analysis of individual labor market histories. The techniques developed here extend previous work on continuous time models in four ways: (1) a structural economic interpretation of these models is presented; (2) time varying explanatory variables are introduced into the analysis in a general way; (3) unobserved heterogeneity components are permitted to be correlated across spells; and (4) a flexible model of duration dependence is presented that accommodates many previous models as a special case and that permits tests among competing specifications within a unified framework. In addition, longer range types of state dependence can be introduced into the model and their empirical importance tested. Two sets of empirical results are presented. The first set is an analysis of employment and nonemployment data using both regression and maximum likelihood procedures. Standard regression methods are shown to perform rather poorly and to produce estimates wildly at variance with the estimates from our maximum likelihood procedure. The maximum likelihood estimates are more in accord with a priori theoretical notions. A major conclusion of this analysis is that the discrete time Markov model widely used in labor market analysis is inconsistent with the data. The second set of empirical results is a test of the hypothesis that "unemployment" and "out of the labor force" are behaviorally different labor market states. Contrary to recent claims, the authors find that they are separate states for the sample of young men utilized.
Bibliography Citation
Flinn, Christopher Jay and James J. Heckman. "Models for the Analysis of Labor Force Dynamics" In: Advances in Econometrics 1. R. Basemann and G. Rhodes, eds., Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1982
2. Gustman, Alan L.
Steinmeier, Thomas L.
Employer Provided Pension Data in the NLS Mature Women's Survey and in the Health and Retirement Study
In: Worker Well-Being, Research in Labor Economics, Volume 19. S.W. Polachek, ed. New York, NY: JAI Press, 2000: pp. 215-252
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Benefits; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement; Wealth

Compared pension wealth and accruals created by employer-provided pension plans between men and women and between respondents of 2 national surveys. The National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLS-MW) is a panel study of women who were aged 30-44 in 1967. The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a panel study of households with at least one member who was aged 51-61 in 1992. Thus, both surveys include populations that have recently retired, or are about to. Detailed pension plan descriptions were collected from employers in both studies. These data suggest that men hold pensions that are much more valuable than the pensions held by women and that these differences are largely explained by differences in earnings. Benefit earnings ratios were actually higher for women than men, reflecting the longer life expectancy of women. Women's pensions increased in value more rapidly than men's, because women had lower tenure. Pension values for covered respondents were similar between the 2 surveys; however, pension accrual profiles differed. Among all the differences between the surveys, the most important difference is that pension coverage was lower in the NLS-MW than in the HRS. As a result, pension wealth was lower in the NLS-MW. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 2002 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Gustman, Alan L. and Thomas L. Steinmeier. "Employer Provided Pension Data in the NLS Mature Women's Survey and in the Health and Retirement Study" In: Worker Well-Being, Research in Labor Economics, Volume 19. S.W. Polachek, ed. New York, NY: JAI Press, 2000: pp. 215-252
3. Hardy, Melissa A.
Occupational Structure and Retirement
In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle: Volume 1, Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 111-146
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement

The research literature on retirement has generally identified OASI and pension benefits as the major "pull" factors and mandatory retirement and health limitations as the major "push" factors determining retirement behavior. Descriptive data analyses of older workers suggested occupational differences in retirement determinants, and retirement studies that incorporated some form of occupational distinction into the analysis indicated some variation in retirement behavior. The research reported in this chapter was undertaken with the aim of developing systematic evidence relevant to this issue. Information from the NLS of Older Men, from 1973, 1976 and 1978 was analyzed in order to examine determinants of retirement with respect to the question of variations by occupational category. A retirement model that included health limitations, compulsory retirement, second pension coverage, Duncan's index of socioeconomic status, education, job tenure, wage, and age-eligibility variables was estimated by means of a logistic regression procedure within occupational groups. Occupational differences in retirement patterns primarily involved the pension-related variables; however, the similarity in the patterns of effects suggested that, once retirement-age differences were controlled, the variables that influenced retirement behavior were fairly consistent across occupational category.
Bibliography Citation
Hardy, Melissa A. "Occupational Structure and Retirement" In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle: Volume 1, Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 111-146
4. Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Variation in Selected Forms of Leisure Activity Among Elderly Males
In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 1: Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 223-242
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Leisure; Occupational Status; Retirement; Time Use

Based on 1978 data collected from the Older Men's cohort, this study uses both tabular and multivariate analysis to explore factors associated with variations in patterns of leisure time activity of retired and nonretired members of the sample. Six forms of leisure activity are covered: exercise, reading, hobbies, home maintenance, visiting, and volunteer work. Systematic relationships are found between the extent of leisure time activity and other characteristics of the men. As would be expected, retired men devote more time than nonretired men to the specified activities. Health, occupational level, and family income all bear positive relationships to the pursuit of leisure time activity. The fact that occupational level and family income have independent effects suggests that the type of work men do is related to leisure pursuits not only through income but through the character of interests associated with different occupational levels.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Lawrence L. Less. "Variation in Selected Forms of Leisure Activity Among Elderly Males" In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 1: Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 223-242
5. Stern, Steven
Todd, Petra E.
Test of Lazear's Mandatory Retirement Model
In: Worker Well-Being, Research in Labor Economics, Volume 19. S.W. Polachek, ed. New York, NY: JAI Press, 2000: pp. 253-273
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Modeling, Mixed Effects; Retirement

Discusses several testable implications of Lazear's (1979) model of mandatory retirement and assesses whether they are consistent with data from a national survey. Two hypotheses are tested, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Men (NLS): mandatory retirement programs should include pension programs as part of the plan and they should be efficient; and workers subject to mandatory retirement should be no more likely to retire early than workers not subject to mandatory retirement. The NLS data set contains observations on 5,020 men aged 45-59 in 1966, who were followed from 1966 until 1983 with interviews conducted approximately every other year. Empirical evidence on the first hypothesis indicates a high positive correlation between the existence of pension plans and mandatory retirement programs, possibly lending support to this prediction of Lazear's model. However, data limitations precluded determining whether existing pension programs were efficient. In examining the second hypothesis, an econometric model for retirement behavior was estimated and used to contrast results for workers who were and were not subject to mandatory retirement programs. Results indicate that workers subject to mandatory retirement are more likely to retire early than those who are not, even at ages well before the mandatory retirement age. This evidence rejects an important prediction of Lazear's model and suggests that it does not capture the whole story in explaining the mandatory retirement phenomenon. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 2002 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Stern, Steven and Petra E. Todd. "Test of Lazear's Mandatory Retirement Model" In: Worker Well-Being, Research in Labor Economics, Volume 19. S.W. Polachek, ed. New York, NY: JAI Press, 2000: pp. 253-273
6. Studer, Marlena M.
Nonparental Child Care Environments: Differences in Preschool Cognitive Skills by Type of Care
In: Sociological Studies of Child Development, Volume 5. P. Adler and P. Adler, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Amongst 274 NLSY preschool children currently using child care, this study finds that parental resources, maternal work patterns, and the type of child care arrangements account for significant variation in preschoolers' cognitive abilities. In a multivariate model, holding parental resources and maternal work patterns constant, family home care was found to be related to more favorable cognitive outcomes while in-home care was associated with less favorable cognitive outcomes as compared to center care. In addition, family income and moderate hours of maternal work (1 to 39 as compared to no work or 40 to 60 hours/week), were positively associated with preschoolers' language skills.
Bibliography Citation
Studer, Marlena M. "Nonparental Child Care Environments: Differences in Preschool Cognitive Skills by Type of Care" In: Sociological Studies of Child Development, Volume 5. P. Adler and P. Adler, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992
7. Studer, Marlena M.
Quality of Center Care and Preschool Cognitive Outcomes: Differences by Family Income
In: Sociological Studies of Child Development, Volume 5. P. Adler and P. Adler, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

This study examines quality of care in child care centers and its relationship to receptive language skills within a national (NLSY) sample of 95 preschoolers. As hypothesized, quality of care (measured by group size and provider-child ratio), does not account for significant differences in preschoolers' cognitive abilities. However, a significant interaction is found to exist between quality of care, family income, and cognitive skills. In particular, preschoolers from low-income families are likely to have more favorable receptive language skills when placed in higher as compared to lower quality care, while no consistent relationship is found for children from other income groups. Family income and moderate hours of maternal work (1 to 39 as compared to no work or 40 to 60 hours/week), were positively associated with preschoolers' language skills.
Bibliography Citation
Studer, Marlena M. "Quality of Center Care and Preschool Cognitive Outcomes: Differences by Family Income" In: Sociological Studies of Child Development, Volume 5. P. Adler and P. Adler, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992
8. Tuma, Nancy Brandon
Michael, Robert T.
A Comparison of Statistical Models for Life Course Analysis with an Application to First Marriage
In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 2, Family Relations in Life Course Perspective. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986: pp. 107-146
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Family Background; Life Course; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This paper addresses the question: "How similar are results pertaining to the effects of family background on early marriage when five different statistical models are used to analyze the data?" Data from the NLSY are used in this study of first marriage rates up to age 22 using three proportional hazard models--a Gompertz model, a Cox model, and a time period analog to the Cox model--as well as two additional commonly used models, a logistic and a linear probability model. These statistical models are fit to a relatively large sample (N=2468) of white women and to a relatively small sample (N= 223) of Hispanic women. An identical set of covariates is used for the comparison. Using several tests of goodness-of-fit, all five models capture the general age pattern of early entry into marriage reasonably well, with the proportional rate models closest to the Kaplan-Meier estimates for the whole sample. Regarding the estimates of the effects of covariates, all five models yield quite similar estimates when evaluated at sample means, but of course the linear probability model's estimate deviates substantially from the others at levels far from the means. Although the data demands and complexity of estimation is greater with the proportional rate models, they appear to be the preferred model in terms of their fit with the data. In our comparisons between the two static models, the linear probability model is substantially inferior to the logistic model.
Bibliography Citation
Tuma, Nancy Brandon and Robert T. Michael. "A Comparison of Statistical Models for Life Course Analysis with an Application to First Marriage" In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 2, Family Relations in Life Course Perspective. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986: pp. 107-146