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Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Strauss, Richard S.
Pollack, Harold
Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998
Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.
Also: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/286/22/2845.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Income; Obesity; Racial Differences; Regions; Residence; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Overweight is the most common health problem facing US children. Data for adults suggest that overweight prevalence has increased by more than 50% in the last 10 years. Data for children also suggest that the prevalence of overweight continues to increase rapidly.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent changes in the prevalence of overweight within a nationally representative sample of children.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective cohort study conducted from 1986 to 1998 among 8270 children aged 4 to 12 years (24 174 growth points were analyzed).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of overweight children, defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex, and prevalence of overweight and at-risk children, defined as BMI greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. The roles of race/ethnicity, sex, income, and region of residence were also examined.

RESULTS: Between 1986 and 1998, overweight increased significantly and steadily among African American (P<.001), Hispanic (P<.001), and white (P =.03) children. By 1998, overweight prevalence increased to 21.5% among African Americans, 21.8% among Hispanics, and 12.3% among non-Hispanic whites. In addition, overweight children were heavier in 1998 compared with 1986 (P<.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, overweight increased fastest among minorities and southerners, creating large demographic differences in the prevalence of childhood overweight by 1998. The number of children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile increased significantly from 1986 to 1998 among African American and Hispanic children (P<.001 for both) and nonsignificantly among white children (P =.77).

CONCLUSIONS: Childhood overweight continues to increase rapidly in the United States, particularly among African Americans and Hispanics. Culturally competent treatment strategies as well as other policy interventions are required to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating patterns among children.

Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. and Harold Pollack. "Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998." Journal of the American Medical Association 286,22 (December 2001): 2845-2848.
2. Van Cleave, Jeanne
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Perrin, James M.
Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions Among Children and Youth
Journal of the American Medical Association 303,7 (February 2010): 623-630.
Also: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/303/7/623
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Asthma; Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Children, Illness; Cohort Effects; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Illnesses; Life Course; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Context: Rates of obesity and other childhood chronic conditions have increased over recent decades. Patterns of how conditions change over time have not been widely examined.

Objective: To evaluate change in prevalence of obesity and other chronic conditions in US children, including incidence, remission, and prevalence.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Cohort (1988-2006) of 3 nationally representative cohorts of children. Children were aged 2 through 8 years at the beginning of each study period, and cohorts were followed up for 6 years, from 1988 to 1994 (cohort 1, n=2337), 1994 to 2000 (cohort 2, n=1759), and 2000 to 2006 (n=905).

Main Outcome Measures: Parent report of a child having a health condition that limited activities or schooling or required medicine, special equipment, or specialized health services and that lasted at least 12 months. Obesity was defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age. Chronic conditions were grouped into 4 categories: obesity, asthma, other physical conditions, and behavior/learning problems.

Results: The end-study prevalence of any chronic health condition was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.2%-14.5%) for cohort 1 in 1994, 25.1% (95% CI, 22.7%-27.6%) for cohort 2 in 2000, and 26.6% (95% CI, 23.5%-29.9%) for cohort 3 in2006. There was substantial turnover in chronic conditions: 7.4% (95% CI, 6.5%-8.3%) of participants in all cohorts had a chronic condition at the beginning of the study that persisted to the end, 9.3% (95% CI, 8.3%-10.3%) reported conditions at the beginning that resolved within 6 years, and 13.4% (95% CI, 12.3%-14.6%) had new conditions that arose during the 6-year study period. The prevalence of having a chronic condition during any part of the 6-year study period was highest for cohort 3 (51.5%; 95% CI, 47.3%-55.0%), and there were higher rates among male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42), Hispanic (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.67), and black (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.35-1.90) youth.

Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic conditions among children and youth increased from 1988 to 2006. However, presence of these conditions was dynamic over each 6-year cohort.

Bibliography Citation
Van Cleave, Jeanne, Steven L. Gortmaker and James M. Perrin. "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions Among Children and Youth." Journal of the American Medical Association 303,7 (February 2010): 623-630.