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Source: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Adams, Arvil Van
Mangum, Garth L.
Lingering Crisis Of Youth Unemployment
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Earnings; Educational Attainment; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment, Youth; Vietnam War; Vocational Training

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this reassessment of the youth unemployment problem, the authors have sought to establish the dimensions of youth unemployment and its underlying causes and consequences, to determine the priorities that should be attached to the problem, and to suggest policies that would lead to its solution. Among the most significant findings are: (1) joblessness among out-of-school teenage youth carries with it a "hangover" effect. Those who have unfavorable early labor market experiences are less likely than others to have favorable subsequent experiences, education and other background characteristics held constant; and (2) education and training have a significant positive effect upon the employment and earnings of youth by race and sex.
Bibliography Citation
Adams, Arvil Van and Garth L. Mangum. Lingering Crisis Of Youth Unemployment. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1978.
2. Barron, John M.
Berger, Mark Charles
Black, Dan A.
On-the-Job Training
Kalamazoo MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1997.
Also: http://www.upjohninst.org/publications/titles/ojt.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Skills; Training, Employee; Training, On-the-Job; Transfers, Skill

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

From the Introduction: ...Researchers now widely accept that there are two key aspects of training. First, there is the recognition that on-the-job training is an important example of an "investment" in human capital. Like any investment, there are initial costs. For on-the-job training, these costs include the time devoted by the worker and co-workers to learning skills that increase productivity plus the costs of any equipment and material required to teach these skills. Like any investment, the returns to these expenditures occur in future periods. For on-the-job training, these future returns are measured by the increased productivity of the worker during subsequent periods of employment. The second key aspect of on-the-job training is the distinction between "general" and "specific" on-the-job training, a distinction emphasized by Becker in his early works. While all training increases the productivity of the worker at the firm providing the training, general training also increases the productivity of the worker at firms other than the one providing the training. For example, a secretary who learns the use of a standard work-processing program or a doctor who interns at a specific hospital both receive general training, as these skills are transferable to other workplaces. On the other hand, specific on-the-job training increases the productivity of the worker at the firm providing the training, but not at other firms. Resources spent orienting new employees to the practices of their new employer, or teaching employees how to contribute to a unique assembly process or work team, are examples of specific training.
Bibliography Citation
Barron, John M., Mark Charles Berger and Dan A. Black. On-the-Job Training. Kalamazoo MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1997..
3. Borus, Michael E.
Youth and the Labor Market: Analyses from the National Longitudinal Survey
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1984
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Family Background; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the first three surveys (1979, 1980, 1981) of the NLSY are analyzed. Chapters focus on employment-related questions as the youth make the school-to-work transition: changes in employment patterns of black and white young men, educational choices, public and private school differences, economic returns to vocational education, time-use behavior, and the relationship between delinquency and employment. Major findings are that hard-core unemployed youth tended to be older than others, more likely to have participated in training, to be married, to have children, and to live in a central city of an SMSA where there is a high unemployment rate. Jobs tended to be sex-stereotyped, with young women in clerical, service, and sales. A comparison of data from the NLS young men's cohort shows that black employment declined over the 1970s, apparently due to lengthy joblessness among a growing subsample of the black population, whereas the slight decline among whites appears to be due to higher job turnover. Poverty and unemployment increase the probability of dropping out of school, and pregnancy is the major cause for young women. Comparisons between private and public schools show that enrollment in a college preparatory curriculum, not the type of school, is crucial in determining achievement scores. Males and dropouts were more likely to engage in illegal activities: race and poverty status do not correlate significantly with illegal behavior.

Contents
1. Introduction and Summary, by Michael E. Borus
2. A Description of Employed and Unemployed Youth in 1981, by Michael E. Borus
3. Changes Over the 1970s in the Employment Patterns of Black and White Young Men, by Tom K. Pollard
4. Choices in Education, by Michael E. Borus and Susan A. Carpenter
5. Quantity of Learning and Quality of Life for Public and Private High School Youth, by William R. Morgan
6. The Economic Value of Academic and Vocational Training Acquired in High School, by Russell W. Rumberger and Thomas N. Daymont
7. The Time-Use Behavior of Young Adults, by Ronald D'Amico
8. Delinquency and Employment, by Joan E. Crowley

Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E. Youth and the Labor Market: Analyses from the National Longitudinal Survey. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1984.
4. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings and Well-Being After Welfare
In: Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform. S. Danziger, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1999.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 6, Maria Cancian and her colleagues review evidence from several data sources about the post-welfare work effort and the economic well-being of former recipients. Although most former recipients can find some work, most cannot get and keep full-time, year-round work. In their analysis of pre-TANF data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, in each of the five years after exit, about two-thirds worked. However, in any of these years, only about one-sixth to about one-quarter worked full-time, full-year. The samewas true in the post-TANF Wisconsin administrative data they analyze; during the first year after leaving the rolls, about two-thirds of leavers worked. They also found that most former recipients (at least in the first few years) will earn relatively low wages, between $6.50 and $7.50 per hour. This is not surprising, given that welfare recipients have low skills and that the real wages of less-skilled workers have fallen dramatically over the past quarter century and have not increased much during the current economic boom.

This finding about the wage prospects of less-skilled workers is not new. It was the motivation for the proposal of the first Clinton administration "to make work pay and end welfare as we know it." This suggests that former welfare recipients will continue to need government income supplements if they are to support their family at incomes above the poverty line. The expanded Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has a very important role here, as does post-welfare access to subsidized child care, health care, and food stamps. As the Cancian et al. chapter cautions, "Even consistent work may not suffice for self-support if wages are low . . . The relatively modest growth in wages for this sample is inconsistent with the suggestion that even if former welfare recipients start in low-paying jobs, they will soon move on to jobs that pay wages that can support a family above the poverty line." The good new s in Wisconsin for the sample of families that had left the welfare rolls is that twice as many of them were above the poverty line relative to those remaining on the rolls. Yet, only 27 percent of those who left cash assistance and did not return escaped poverty, and only about one-third of all leavers obtained the income level they received just before they left welfare.

An additional caveat is in order. The first wave of data from a panel study of welfare recipients being conducted at the University of Michigan 2 shows that women remaining on welfare have characteristics, not evaluated in most studies of recipients, that make their labor market prospects more problematic than those of all single mothers and even those of recipients who have already left the rolls. The study examined 14 potential barriers to employment, including major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, maternal health, child health, labor market skills, perceived experiences of discrimination, and several standard human capital measures. It found that about 75 percent of single mothers who received cash welfare in February 1997 and had zero or one of these barriers were working in Fall 1997, whereas only about 40 percent of those with four or more barriers were working. As welfare caseloads continue to decline, this suggests that the recipients who remain will be the least employable.

Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings and Well-Being After Welfare" In: Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform. S. Danziger, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1999.
5. Cebi, Merve
Employer-Provided Health Insurance and Labor Supply of Married Women
Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 11-171, Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute, March 11, 2011.
Also: http://research.upjohn.org/up_workingpapers/171/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Employment; Insurance, Health; Labor Supply; Marriage; Wages; Wages, Women; Wives, Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This work presents new evidence on the effect of husbands’ health insurance on wives’ labor supply. Previous cross-sectional studies have estimated a significant negative effect of spousal coverage on wives’ labor supply. However, these estimates potentially suffer from bias due to the simultaneity of wives’ labor supply and the health insurance status of their husbands. This paper attempts to obtain consistent estimates by using several panel data methods. In particular, the likely correlation between unobserved personal characteristics of husbands and wives – such as preferences for work – and potential joint job choice decisions can be controlled by using panel data on intact marriages. The findings, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey, suggest that the negative effect of spousal coverage on labor supply found in cross-sections results mainly from spousal sorting and selection. Once unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for, a relatively smaller estimated effect of spousal coverage on wives’ labor supply remains.
Bibliography Citation
Cebi, Merve. "Employer-Provided Health Insurance and Labor Supply of Married Women." Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 11-171, Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute, March 11, 2011.
6. Hershbein, Brad
Worker Signals among New College Graduates: The Role of Selectivity and GPA
Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 13-190, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, January 2013.
Also: http://research.upjohn.org/up_workingpapers/190/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Characteristics; College Graduates; Earnings; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; High School and Beyond (HSB); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72); Project Talent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies have found a large earnings premium to attending a more selective college, but the mechanisms underlying this premium have received little attention and remain unclear. In order to shed light on this question, I develop a multidimensional signaling model relying on college grades and selectivity that rationalizes students' choices of effort and firms' wage-setting behavior. The model is then used to produce predictions of how the interaction of the signals should be related to wages, namely that the return on college GPA should fall the more selective the institution attended. Using five data sets that span the early 1960s through the late 2000s, I show that the data support the predictions of the signaling model, with support growing stronger over time as college sorting by ability has increased. The findings imply that return to college selectivity depends on GPA, something previously not recognized in the literature, and they can rationalize why employers learn more quickly about college graduates' productivity than less educated workers'.
Bibliography Citation
Hershbein, Brad. "Worker Signals among New College Graduates: The Role of Selectivity and GPA." Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 13-190, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, January 2013.
7. Jones, Ethel B.
Determinants of Female Reentrant Unemployment
Report, Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Occupations, Female; Unemployment; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This work questions the typical assumption that a woman's reentrance into the labor force is automatically accompanied by a spell of unemployment. The probability of reentrance and unemployment jointly happening is estimated and personal and labor market characteristics that lead to unemployment upon reentry are identified. The probability of unemployment upon reentry is estimated to be one-third. The reentrants more likely to experience unemployment are women of less education and less work experience, migrants, persons without young children, blacks, and those not identified with a particular type of work activity as indicated by occupational certification. The findings suggest both that simple policy prescriptions are not feasible and that continuation of the rise in labor force participation of women may not increase female unemployment rates.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Ethel B. "Determinants of Female Reentrant Unemployment." Report, Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1983.
8. Morgan, William R.
Quantity of Learning and Quality of Life for Public and Private High School Youth
In: Youth and the Labor Market. M.E. Borus, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute, 1984: pp. 111-156
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Education; High School Students

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morgan, William R. "Quantity of Learning and Quality of Life for Public and Private High School Youth" In: Youth and the Labor Market. M.E. Borus, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute, 1984: pp. 111-156
9. O'Neill, Dave M.
O'Neill, June E.
Lessons for Welfare Reform: An Analysis of the AFDC Caseload and Past Welfare-to-Work Programs
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Benefits; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Income; Labor Force Participation; Welfare; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using CPS and NLSY data, O'Neill and O'Neill explore patterns of welfare use, and focus on the duration of welfare participation both in single episode and multiple spells. Here they also examine correlates of short-term and long-term participation. Using personal characteristics as their criteria, the authors identify the population groups most likely to encounter problems with the newly-imposed time limits on benefits. They also identify factors associated with work experience, earnings and incomes of those who exited welfare, and potential market earnings of those who remain on welfare.
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, Dave M. and June E. O'Neill. Lessons for Welfare Reform: An Analysis of the AFDC Caseload and Past Welfare-to-Work Programs. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1997.
10. Parnes, Herbert S.
Unemployment Experience of Individuals Over a Decade
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Employment; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Large proportions of individuals with labor force exposure experience some unemployment over a ten-year period: majorities of young men and women and three or four out of ten of the older groups. In the NLS unemployment is very unevenly distributed within each of the cohorts: ten percent of the unemployed who had the longest cumulative durations accounted for between 35 and 40 percent of all the unemployment that occurred during the decade under review. When those with no unemployment are also considered, the five percent of all individuals with the most unemployment accounted for over one-half of all unemployment among the older men and between 29 and 45 percent in the other three cohorts. Unemployment means not only the lost earnings attributable directly to the periods of enforced idleness, but leads also to long term reductions in earning capacity, especially among the younger men and women. Multivariate analysis reveals that the characteristics that bear the strongest and most consistent relationship with the incidence and/or duration of unemployment are educational attainment, occupational and industrial affiliation, interfirm mobility, and length of service in the job held at the beginning of the decade. These factors account for only small proportions--10 to 25 percent--of the total variation in unemployment experience. A substantial amount of unemployment experience appears to result either from being in the wrong place at the wrong time, or from personality characteristics that generally go unmeasured. The extreme concentration of unemployment among relatively small proportions of labor market participants is cause for concern, in view of the evidence that unemployment produces a long term deterioration in earning capacity. On the brighter side, the temporal distribution of chronic unemployment is similar to that of total unemployment and both are responsive to variations in general economic conditions which tends to dispel the most pessimistic interpretations of structural unemployment. On the theoretical level, the findings make suspect modern neoclassical interpretations based on search theory, according to which all unemployment is really voluntary.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. Unemployment Experience of Individuals Over a Decade. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1982.
11. Raelin, Joseph A.
Building a Career: The Effect of Initial Job Experiences and Related Work Attitudes on Later Employment
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Job Aspirations; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This investigation of the long term effects of early work experiences develops a causal model of early youth careers in order to examine the relationship between different work characteristics, job satisfaction, aspirations, and later wages. Findings include: (1) the quality of entry jobs and initial career attitudes are determined by background factors, particularly education; (2) later occupational status is affected primarily by prior work experience and attitudes; (3) young women face enormous barriers to achieving wage parity with young men and they experience sex discrimination throughout their careers. The author presents nine public policy recommendations based on these and other findings. Included among them is the recommendation that young people should be encouraged to hold the highest possible career aspirations since there is no disutility to exaggerated aspirations and since strong aspirations also help youth improve their disadvantaged positions.
Bibliography Citation
Raelin, Joseph A. Building a Career: The Effect of Initial Job Experiences and Related Work Attitudes on Later Employment. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1980.
12. Schwartz, Jeremy
The Job Search Intensity Supply Curve: How Labor Market Conditions Affect Job Search Effort
Working Paper 14-215, Upjohn Institute Working Papers, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014. http://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1232&context=up_workingpapers
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Job Search; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Supply; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the Great Recession of 2007, unemployment reached nearly 10 percent and the ratio of unemployment to open positions (as measured by the Help Wanted OnLine Index) more than tripled. The weak labor market prompted an unprecedented extension in the length of time in which a claimant can collect unemployment insurance (UI) to 99 weeks, at an expense to date of $226.4 billion. While many claim that extending UI during a recession will reduce search intensity, the effect of weak labor market conditions on search remains a mystery. As a result, policymakers are in the dark as to whether UI extensions reduce already low search effort during recessions or perhaps decrease excessive search, which causes congestion in the labor market. At the same time, modelers of the labor market have little empirical justification for their assumptions on how search intensity changes over the business cycle. This paper develops a search model where the impact of macro labor market conditions on a worker’s search effort depends on whether these two factors are substitutes or complements in the job search process. Parameter estimates of the structural model using a sample of unemployment spells from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 indicate that macro labor market conditions and individual search effort are complements and move together over the business cycle. The estimation also reveals that more risk-averse and less wealthy individuals exhibit less search effort.
Bibliography Citation
Schwartz, Jeremy. "The Job Search Intensity Supply Curve: How Labor Market Conditions Affect Job Search Effort." Working Paper 14-215, Upjohn Institute Working Papers, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014. http://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1232&context=up_workingpapers.
13. Tienda, Marta
Hotz, V. Joseph
Ahituv, Avner
Frost, Michelle Bellessa
Employment and Wage Prospects of Black, White, and Hispanic Women
In: Human Resource Economics and Public Policy: Essays in Honor of Vernon M. Briggs, Jr. C.J. Whalen, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2010: 129-160
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Endogeneity; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups; Geocoded Data; Hispanic Studies; Human Capital; Life Cycle Research; Minorities; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Schooling; Transition, School to Work; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter addresses several questions about young women's employment and wage prospects in the context of the school-to-work transition.
Bibliography Citation
Tienda, Marta, V. Joseph Hotz, Avner Ahituv and Michelle Bellessa Frost. "Employment and Wage Prospects of Black, White, and Hispanic Women" In: Human Resource Economics and Public Policy: Essays in Honor of Vernon M. Briggs, Jr. C.J. Whalen, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2010: 129-160