Search Results

Source: Gender and Society
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Budig, Michelle Jean
Gender, Self-Employment, and Earnings The Interlocking Structures of Family and Professional Status
Gender and Society 20,6 (December 2006): 725-753.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/20/6/725.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Child Care; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Mobility, Labor Market; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Prestige; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 to 1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author explores how gender, family, and class alter the impact of self-employment on earnings. Fixed-effect regression results show that while self-employment positively influences men's earnings, not all women similarly benefit. Professionals receive the same self-employment earnings premium, regardless of gender. However, self-employment in nonprofessional occupations negatively affects women's earnings, with wives and mothers incurring the greatest penalties. The high concentration of nonprofessional self-employed women in child care accounts for much of these penalties. Results are robust despite inclusion of controls for human capital and labor supply, job characteristics, occupational and industrial gender segregation, and demographic characteristics. The compensating differentials argument, that women with greater family responsibilities trade earnings for the family-friendly aspects of self-employment, is discussed in light of these findings. While this argument may explain women's returns to nonprofessional self-employment, it is less persuasive for interpreting women's returns to professional self-employment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean. "Gender, Self-Employment, and Earnings The Interlocking Structures of Family and Professional Status." Gender and Society 20,6 (December 2006): 725-753.
2. Cotter, David A.
Hermsen, Joan M.
Vanneman, Reeve
Women's Work and Working Women: The Demand for Female Labor
Gender & Society 15,3 (June 2001): 429-452.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/15/3/429.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Employment; Gender; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The demand for female labor is a central explanatory component of macrostructural theories of gender stratification. This study analyzes how the structural demand for female labor affects gender differences in labor force participation. The authors develop a measure of the gendered demand for labor by indexing the degree to which the occupational structure is skewed toward usually male or female occupations. Using census data from 1910 through 1990 and National Longitudinal Sample of Youth (NLSY) data from 261 contemporary U.S. labor markets, the authors show that the gender difference in labor force participation covaries across time and space with this measure of the demand for female labor.
Bibliography Citation
Cotter, David A., Joan M. Hermsen and Reeve Vanneman. "Women's Work and Working Women: The Demand for Female Labor." Gender & Society 15,3 (June 2001): 429-452.
3. Dwyer, Rachel E.
Hodson, Randy
McCloud, Laura
Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College
Gender and Society 27,1 (February 2013): 30-55.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/27/1/30.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Gender Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.
Bibliography Citation
Dwyer, Rachel E., Randy Hodson and Laura McCloud. "Gender, Debt, and Dropping Out of College." Gender and Society 27,1 (February 2013): 30-55.
4. Glass, Jennifer L.
Job Quits and Job Changes: The Effects of young Women's Work Conditions and Family Factors
Gender and Society 2,2 (June 1988): 228-240.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/2/2/228.abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Exits; Family Constraints; Family Influences; Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Labor force exits are conceptualized as a parallel option to employer changes in the gender-specific opportunity structure for employed young women, and it is hypothesized that the same working conditions should predict both. In addition, it is hypothesized that family characteristics (including pregnancy and the presence of preschool children) rather than working conditions should differentiate between job changers and job leavers. Logit analyses of data on a random subsample from the 1970-1980 Young Women's Panel of the NLS (sample = 2,740) indicate that employment conditions do affect decisions to change jobs or exit the labor force in similar ways. However, household factors affect labor force exits more strongly than they do job changes: pregnant women are more likely to leave the labor force, though improved job conditions and existing preschool children (implying prior experience with substitute care) enhance their likelihood of remaining continuously employed. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. "Job Quits and Job Changes: The Effects of young Women's Work Conditions and Family Factors." Gender and Society 2,2 (June 1988): 228-240.
5. Glauber, Rebecca
Race and Gender in Families and at Work:The Fatherhood Wage Premium
Gender and Society 22,1 (February 2008): 8-30.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/22/1/8.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Ethnic Differences; Family Formation; Fatherhood; Gender; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Racial Differences; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the intersections of gender anti race on fathers' labor market outcomes. Fixed-effects models reveal that for married whites and Latinos, the birth of a child is associated with an increase in hourly wages, annual earnings, and annual time spent at work. For married Black men, the birth of a child is associated with a smaller increase in hourly wages and annual earnings but not associated with an increase in annual time spent at work. Furthermore, married Black men do not experience an increase in hourly wages or work hours because of a reduction in their wives' work hours. In contrast, married whites and Latinos earn more when their wives work less. These findings imply that gendered workplace and family experiences differ among fathers and that not all men benefit from specific family formations in exactly the same way. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Gender & Society is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Glauber, Rebecca. "Race and Gender in Families and at Work:The Fatherhood Wage Premium." Gender and Society 22,1 (February 2008): 8-30.
6. Hodges, Melissa J.
Budig, Michelle Jean
Who Gets the Daddy Bonus?: Organizational Hegemonic Masculinity and the Impact of Fatherhood on Earnings
Gender and Society 24,6 (December 2010): 717-745.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/24/6/717.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Earnings, Husbands; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Studies; Fatherhood; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1979-2006 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we investigate how the earnings bonus for fatherhood varies by characteristics associated with hegemonic masculinity in the American workplace: heterosexual marital status, professional/managerial status, educational attainment, skill demands of jobs, and race/ethnicity. We find the earnings bonus for fatherhood persists after controlling for an array of differences, including human capital, labor supply, family structure, and wives' employment status. Moreover, consistent with predictions from the theory of hegemonic masculinity within bureaucratic organizations, the fatherhood bonus is significantly larger for men with other markers of workplace hegemonic masculinity. Men who are white, married, in households with a traditional gender division of labor, college graduates, professional/managerial workers and whose jobs emphasize cognitive skills and deemphasize physical strength receive the largest fatherhood earnings bonuses. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]

Copyright of Gender & Society is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Hodges, Melissa J. and Michelle Jean Budig. "Who Gets the Daddy Bonus?: Organizational Hegemonic Masculinity and the Impact of Fatherhood on Earnings." Gender and Society 24,6 (December 2010): 717-745.
7. Kmec, Julie A.
McDonald, Steve
Trimble, Lindsey B.
Making Gender Fit and "Correcting" Gender Misfits: Sex Segregated Employment and the Nonsearch Process
Gender and Society 24,2 (April 2010): 213-236.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/24/2/213.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Rewards; Job Search; Occupational Segregation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article highlights the extent to which finding a job without actively searching ("nonsearching") sustains workplace sex segregation. We suspect that unsolicited information from job informants that prompts fortuitous job changes is susceptible to bias about gender "fit" and segregates workers. Results from analyses of 1,119 respondents to the 1996 and 1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are generally consistent with this expectation. Gender "misfits"--individuals employed in gender-atypical work groups--are more likely to move into gender-typical work groups than neutral ones. Women misfits are more likely to move into male-dominated than neutral work groups without a job search, but they join mostly desegregated occupations and receive lower job rewards than men misfits who change jobs without searching. We conclude that the nonsearch process serves as an important mechanism that sustains sex segregation and workplace inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Kmec, Julie A., Steve McDonald and Lindsey B. Trimble. "Making Gender Fit and "Correcting" Gender Misfits: Sex Segregated Employment and the Nonsearch Process." Gender and Society 24,2 (April 2010): 213-236.
8. Penner, Andrew M.
Saperstein, Aliya
Engendering Racial Perceptions: An Intersectional Analysis of How Social Status Shapes Race
Gender and Society 27,3 (June 2013): 319-344.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/27/3/319.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Stratification

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intersectionality emphasizes that race, class, and gender distinctions are inextricably intertwined, but fully interrogating the co-constitution of these axes of stratification has proven difficult to implement in large-scale quantitative analyses. We address this gap by exploring gender differences in how social status shapes race in the United States. Building on previous research showing that changes in the racial classifications of others are influenced by social status, we use longitudinal data to examine how differences in social class position might affect racial classification differently for women and men. In doing so, we provide further support for the claim that race, class, and gender are not independent axes of stratification; rather they intersect, creating dynamic feedback loops that maintain the complex structure of social inequality in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Penner, Andrew M. and Aliya Saperstein. "Engendering Racial Perceptions: An Intersectional Analysis of How Social Status Shapes Race." Gender and Society 27,3 (June 2013): 319-344.
9. Reid, Lori Lynn
Occupational Segregation, Human Capital, and Motherhood: Black Women's Higher Exit Rates from Full-time Employment
Gender and Society 16,5 (October 2002): 728-747.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/16/5/728
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Employment; Event History; Exits; Family Characteristics; Human Capital; Layoffs; Modeling; Motherhood; Occupational Segregation; Quits; Racial Differences; Racial Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines the reasons that young Black and white women leave fulltime employment. I focus on full-time employment because I am interested in the reasons that young Black and white women have differential access to work as a labor market resource, and full-time employment typically offers greater payoffs in terms of income and benefits than part-time employment. I also focus on explaining young Black women's higher exit rates from full-time employment. As the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data indicate, young Black women are no less likely to enter full-time employment than young white women. However, they exit full-time employment at higher rates. Black women's rate of exiting full-time employment is 38 percent higher than that of white women (a risk ratio of 1.38, significant at a p value of less than .001).

Based on data from the NLSY, I use event history analysis to estimate the rate at which young women exit full-time employment for seven reasons: layoffs, plant closings, temporary/seasonal work, firings, the completion of a job program, quitting for pregnancy/family reasons, and quitting for other reasons. My analyses indicate whether Black women are at a significantly higher risk of exiting full-time employment than are white women for each of these reasons. A variety of factors drawn from different theoretical models are tested to determine whether they explain racial differences in exit rates for each reason. Below, I review the literature on labor market inequalities to suggest factors that affect employment after individuals are hired. The literature suggests that structural features, discrimination, individual characteristics, and family characteristics are important factors that may affect employment exits.

Bibliography Citation
Reid, Lori Lynn. "Occupational Segregation, Human Capital, and Motherhood: Black Women's Higher Exit Rates from Full-time Employment." Gender and Society 16,5 (October 2002): 728-747.
10. Rich, Lauren M.
Kim, Sun-Bin
Patterns of Later Life Education Among Teenage Mothers
Gender and Society 13,6 (December 1999): 798-817.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/13/6/798.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Education; Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the phenomenon of later life education among women who first give birth as teenagers. The analysis first considers patterns of educational attainment through the middle 30s for all women, disaggregated by age at first birth. This allows for an examination of the amount of education received by teen mothers relative to women who delay giving birth until adulthood. The analysis also considers racial-ethnic differences in patterns of attainment. Next, the analysis is restricted to teen mothers and focuses on an examination of the composition of educational attainment according to the amount of time that has elapsed since the first birth. The findings suggest that later life education among teen mothers is an important and understudied phenomenon with implications for welfare reform and adult education policies.
Bibliography Citation
Rich, Lauren M. and Sun-Bin Kim. "Patterns of Later Life Education Among Teenage Mothers." Gender and Society 13,6 (December 1999): 798-817.
11. Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Gender Ideology Construction: A Life Course and Intersectional Approach
Gender and Society 23,3 (June 2009): 363-387.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/23/3/363.short
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marriage; Parental Marital Status; Parenthood; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using life course and intersectional perspectives, this study examines how changes in life experiences such as marriage, parenthood, and work are associated with changes in individuals' gender ideology. Using longitudinal survey data and fixed effects, findings suggest that exposure to these experiences influences gender ideology, though with greater variation than previous work has detected. Marriage exerts an egalitarian influence on Blacks but a less egalitarian one on whites. Parenthood has a less egalitarian effect for all married parents but an egalitarian one for most unmarried parents. These findings suggest that gender ideology is dynamic and life experiences are important sources of change. Furthermore, this change depends on individuals' race-gender categories and the configuration of life events to which they are exposed. These nuanced findings amend past work by better identifying for whom and under which conditions life experiences shape gender ideology. In doing so, this study illustrates how the conceptual and methodological approaches help us understand gender ideology construction by revealing substantial variation that went undetected in past work.
Bibliography Citation
Vespa, Jonathan Edward. "Gender Ideology Construction: A Life Course and Intersectional Approach." Gender and Society 23,3 (June 2009): 363-387.
12. Wenk, Deeann L.
Garrett, Patricia
Having a Baby: Some Predictions of Maternal Employment around Childbirth
Gender and Society 6,1 (March 1992): 49-65.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/6/1/49.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Family Income; Job Status; Maternal Employment; Occupational Prestige

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1986 Merged Child/Mother File from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is used to examine employment patterns of 1,920 women who gave birth 1979-1986, exploring the influence of personal, job, and family status characteristics on timing and duration of maternal employment. Logistic regression and proportional hazards analyses reveal that family status factors and the proportion of the family income the mother earns are consistently important in predicting maternal employment. Human capital factors are more significant in predicting employment exit rates than return rates or employment status one year after a childbirth. 5 Tables, 1 Appendix, 27 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1992, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Wenk, Deeann L. and Patricia Garrett. "Having a Baby: Some Predictions of Maternal Employment around Childbirth." Gender and Society 6,1 (March 1992): 49-65.
13. Westbrook, Laurel
Saperstein, Aliya
New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys
Gender and Society 29,4 (August 2015): 534-560.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/29/4/534.full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): American National Election Studies (ANES); Gender; General Social Survey (GSS); Methods/Methodology; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recently, scholars and activists have turned their attention toward improving the measurement of sex and gender in survey research. The focus of this effort has been on including answer options beyond "male" and "female" to questions about the respondent's gender. This is an important step toward both reflecting the diversity of gendered lives and better aligning survey measurement practice with contemporary gender theory. However, our systematic examination of questionnaires, manuals, and other technical materials from four of the largest and longest-running surveys in the United States indicates that there are a number of other issues with how gender is conceptualized and measured in social surveys that also deserve attention, including essentialist practices that treat sex and gender as synonymous, easily determined by others, obvious, and unchanging over the life course. We find that these understandings extend well beyond direct questions about the respondent's gender, permeating the surveys. A hyper-gendered world of "males" and "females," "brothers" and "sisters," and "husbands" and "wives" shapes what we can see in survey data. If not altered, surveys will continue to reproduce statistical representations that erase important dimensions of variation and likely limit understanding of the processes that perpetuate social inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Westbrook, Laurel and Aliya Saperstein. "New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys." Gender and Society 29,4 (August 2015): 534-560.