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Source: Journal of Public Economics
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Aizer, Anna
Home Alone: Supervision After School and Child Behavior
Journal of Public Economics 88, 9-10 ( August, 2004): 1835-1848.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272703000227
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Care; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Maternal Employment

As female participation in the labor force continues to grow in the US, so too does reliance on non-parental child care. However, the high cost of child care has impeded the ability of many working mothers to find sufficient child care for their children. As a result, as recently as 1998 over eight million children ages five to fourteen spent time without adult supervision on a regular basis in the US. I examine the effect of the lack of adult supervision after school on panel of school-age children using ordinary least squares and fixed effect estimation. I find that children with adult supervision are less likely to skip school, use alcohol or marijuana, steal something or hurt someone. These findings suggest that expanding after school or child care programs typically geared to preschool age children to accommodate more school age children may have important consequences for their human capital development and labor market outcomes later in life.
Bibliography Citation
Aizer, Anna. "Home Alone: Supervision After School and Child Behavior." Journal of Public Economics 88, 9-10 ( August, 2004): 1835-1848.
2. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Does Head Start Help Hispanic Children?
Journal of Public Economics 74,2 (November 1999): 235-262.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272799000274
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood Education, Early; Children, Preschool; Educational Attainment; Head Start; Hispanics; Immigrants; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Poor educational attainment is a persistent problem among US hispanic children, relative to non-hispanics. Many of these children are immigrants and/or come from households that use a minority language in the home. This paper examines the effects of participation in a government sponsored preschool program called Head Start on these children. We find that large and significant benefits accrue to Head Start children when we compare them to siblings who did not participate in the program. On average, Head Start closes at least 1/4 of the gap in test scores between hispanic children and non-hispanic white children, and 2/3 of the gap in the probability of grade repetition. However, we find that the benefits of Head Start are not evenly distributed across sub-groups.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Does Head Start Help Hispanic Children?" Journal of Public Economics 74,2 (November 1999): 235-262.
3. Diamond, Peter A.
Hausman, Jerry A.
Individual Retirement and Savings Behavior
Journal of Public Economics 23,1-2 (February-March 1984): 81-114.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0047272784900689
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Event History; Income; Life Cycle Research; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security

The National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Men is examined to determine the extent of low wealth holdings. In 1966, about 7.6% of men aged 45-59 reported negative net wealth, while another 12.1% reported nonnegative net wealth below $1,000. The analysis is continued on the premise that the life-cycle theory is applicable only to part of the population. Further examination of the data indicates the presence of considerable variation in individual propensities to save. An individual model of wealth accumulation is estimated with the first 10 years of panel data from the NLS. The presence of pension and Social Security benefits has a significant effect on retirement behavior. Individuals who prefer to retire early should have greater savings propensities. The savings-to-permanent-income ratio rises with permanent income in a sharply nonlinear fashion. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Diamond, Peter A. and Jerry A. Hausman. "Individual Retirement and Savings Behavior." Journal of Public Economics 23,1-2 (February-March 1984): 81-114.
4. Heckman, James J.
Moon, Seong Hyeok
Pinto, Rodrigo
Savelyev, Peter A.
Yavitz, Adam
The Rate of Return to the Highscope Perry Preschool Program
Journal of Public Economics 94,1-2 (February 2010): 114-128.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272709001418
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Comparison Group (Reference group); Earnings; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Head Start; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Preschool Children; Record Linkage (also see Data Linkage); Welfare

This paper estimates the rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program, an early intervention program targeted toward disadvantaged African-American youth. Estimates of the rate of return to the Perry program are widely cited to support the claim of substantial economic benefits from preschool education programs. Previous studies of the rate of return to this program ignore the compromises that occurred in the randomization protocol. They do not report standard errors. The rates of return estimated in this paper account for these factors. We conduct an extensive analysis of sensitivity to alternative plausible assumptions. Estimated annual social rates of return generally fall between 7 and 10%, with most estimates substantially lower than those previously reported in the literature. However, returns are generally statistically significantly different from zero for both males and females and are above the historical return on equity. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios support this conclusion.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J., Seong Hyeok Moon, Rodrigo Pinto, Peter A. Savelyev and Adam Yavitz. "The Rate of Return to the Highscope Perry Preschool Program ." Journal of Public Economics 94,1-2 (February 2010): 114-128.
5. Levine, Phillip B.
Zimmerman, David J.
Children's Welfare Exposure and Subsequent Development
Journal of Public Economics 89,1 (January 2005): 31-56.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272704000040
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings; Variables, Instrumental; Welfare

We examine the extent to which children are exposed to the welfare system through their mother's receipt of benefits and its impact on several developmental outcomes. Using data from the matched mother-child file from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that children's welfare exposure is substantial. By age 10, over one-third of all children will have lived in a welfare household; black, non-Hispanic children face a much higher rate of exposure. Simple correlations suggest a strong negative relationship between maternal welfare receipt and children's outcomes. In this paper, we implement three alternative strategies (instrumental variables, sibling differences, and child fixed effects models) designed to identify whether this correlation can be attributed to the mother's welfare receipt directly or to other characteristics of mothers who receive welfare, regardless of whether or not those characteristics are observable to the researcher. Based on the results of all three estimation strategies, we find little evidence of any causal link between maternal welfare receipt and children's developmental outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B. and David J. Zimmerman. "Children's Welfare Exposure and Subsequent Development." Journal of Public Economics 89,1 (January 2005): 31-56.
6. Powers, Elizabeth T.
Does Mean-Testing Welfare Discourage Saving? Evidence from a Change in AFDC Policy in the United States
Journal of Public Economics 68,1 (April 1998): 33-53.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004727279700087X
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Household Structure; Savings; Welfare

Empirical evidence is provided on the impact of a welfare program's asset test on the saving behavior of its target population. The approach exploits a policy experiment; the essential federalization of the AFDC program's asset-testing policy in 1981. Data on female-headed households from the National Longitudinal Survey - Young Women are used to test the hypothesis that likely AFDC users adjusted their asset stocks in response to this change. The findings indicate additional saving between 1978 and 1983 of about 25 cents for each additional $1 increase in the limit in most states.
Bibliography Citation
Powers, Elizabeth T. "Does Mean-Testing Welfare Discourage Saving? Evidence from a Change in AFDC Policy in the United States." Journal of Public Economics 68,1 (April 1998): 33-53.