Search Results

Source: Western Economic Association
Resulting in 17 citations.
1. Black, Dan A.
Krishnamurty, Parvati
Lane, Julia
Samardick, Ruth
A Deeper Look at the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Veterans
Presented: Honolulu, HI, Western Economics Association Annual Conference - Defense Track, July 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Labor Market Outcomes; Veterans

Bibliography Citation
Black, Dan A., Parvati Krishnamurty, Julia Lane and Ruth Samardick. "A Deeper Look at the Labor Market Outcomes of Young Veterans." Presented: Honolulu, HI, Western Economics Association Annual Conference - Defense Track, July 2008.
2. Cameron, A. Colin
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
A Description of the Earnings and Employment Experiences of Youth
Presented: San Diego, CA, Meetings of the Western Economics Association, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment, Youth

Remarkably little is known about the patterns and volatility of labor market activities of youth over a 12-month horizon. Data from the NLSY on earnings and employment experiences are categorized by 13 age-education groups and six years. Variation across different age-education groups, variation over time, and variation within each age-education group are summarized. The observed variation across different age-education groups is consistent with a priori beliefs. The observed variation over time is consistent with the business cycle of the early 1980s. Within each age-education group there is a substantial variation in labor market experiences. Even at the individual level, there is substantial variation in labor market experiences over the course of a calendar year.
Bibliography Citation
Cameron, A. Colin and Thomas E. MaCurdy. "A Description of the Earnings and Employment Experiences of Youth." Presented: San Diego, CA, Meetings of the Western Economics Association, 1990.
3. Chaloupka, Frank J.
Laixuthai, Adit
Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence
Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association Meetings, June 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Substance Use

This working paper examines the persistently high level of youth drinking. Youth drinking and alcohol abuse have been a focus of government policy since the mid 1970's. When the 26th amendment to the Constitution lowered the voting age to 18 years, a number of states followed by also lowering their minimum legal drinking ages. By 1984, the federal government became involved in what had traditionally been left up to states to decide by enacting the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act. This act pressured states into raising all legal drinking ages to 21 years or suffer the penalty of losing part of the highway funds they received from the federal government. By 1988, all states had complied. The higher drinking ages succeeded in reducing youth alcohol use and abuse. However, drinking, heavy drinking, drunken driving, and other measures of youth alcohol abuse remain stubbornly high with approximately 30 percent of high school seniors reporting at least one heavy drinking episode (five or more drinks on a single occasion) at least once in the previous two weeks. Unpublished econometric studies suggest that part of the reason for the persistently high level of youth drinking may be the success of the "War on Drugs", particularly with respect to marijuana.
Bibliography Citation
Chaloupka, Frank J. and Adit Laixuthai. "Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence." Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association Meetings, June 1993.
4. Chapman, Kenneth S.
Hariharan, Govind
Controlling for Gamma Heterogeneity in the Income-Mortality Link
Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association meetings, June 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Cost-Benefit Studies; Heterogeneity; Income; Mortality

Using data from the NLS of Mature Men this paper examines the thesis that "safety regulations save lives should be obvious". It is less obvious, but still true, that compliance with expensive regulations reduce income and, therefore, expenditures on health care for those affected. The possibility that this indirect effect of regulatory cost on mortality may outweigh the direct effect has caused the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to object to air quality standards proposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). At an estimated annual cost of $163 million, these programs were projected to save between 8 and 14 lives each year. Most economists would estimate the desirability of proposed regulations using cost benefit analysis. Value of life estimates would be used to calculate the dollar value of the gain, which would then be compared to the costs. However, recent court decisions prevent OSHA from setting regulatory standards based on cost-benefit analyses But it remains true that people made poor by costly regulations are more likely to die. Hence, these regulations are desirable only if they prevent more deaths than they cause. This "health-health analysis will tend to approve more safety regulations than the traditional cost-benefit analysis, but may stop those that are the most counterproductive. Health-health analysis assumes that reduced income causes increased mortality. This paper we attempt to isolate the portion of the income-mortality association running from income to reduced health expenditures.
Bibliography Citation
Chapman, Kenneth S. and Govind Hariharan. "Controlling for Gamma Heterogeneity in the Income-Mortality Link." Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association meetings, June 1993.
5. Fishe, Raymond P. H.
Trost, Robert P.
Lurie, Phillip M.
Selectivity Bias and Comparative Advantage: A Generalized Approach
Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Education Indicators; Research Methodology; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

The two stage method of multiple decision-making has been generalized and correlation between these decisions has been allowed for. The earnings of young women are studied in this expanded framework and it is found that comparative advantage exists in this NLS data set. In addition, the estimates of the conditional wage equations generally support the argument that these women are making income maximizing choices, which has been an implicit assumption in most of the literature on female labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Fishe, Raymond P. H., Robert P. Trost and Phillip M. Lurie. "Selectivity Bias and Comparative Advantage: A Generalized Approach." Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980.
6. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
World War II Veterans: Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Returns to Service
Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Military Personnel; Military Service; Military Training; Minority Groups; Racial Differences; Training, Occupational; Veterans

This paper investigates some specific attributes of the bridging hypothesis by comparing groups of white and black World War II veterans with their contemporaries who did not serve. Contrary to literature of the 1960s, some studies during the 1970s lend support to the proposition that military service can improve one's place in the income distribution or enhance socioeconomic attainment particularly for members of minority groups. These improvements, some sociologists have argued, may be explained by the "bridging" environment which the military service occupation provides. The authors conclude that the bridging hypothesis is not a satisfactory explanation of the difference between veteran and non-veteran positions in the income distribution or their socioeconomic attainment in the long run. Educational differences are important, but occupational choice and other labor market factors need further investigation.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "World War II Veterans: Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Returns to Service." Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980.
7. Hills, Stephen M.
Leigh, Duane E.
Employer-Sponsored Training, Union Status, and the Wage Rates of Young Women
Presented: Vancouver, B.C., Meetings of the Western Economic Association, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Training; Racial Differences; Training; Unions; Wage Rates; Wages, Young Women

Using data from the NLSY, this study tests to see if the difference in wage rates for unionized and non-unionized young women is, in part, due to additional training which women may receive in unionized jobs. Results show that in the first few years of their working lives, the company training that non-college bound women receive has little impact on the wage rates they earn. Thus training does not play a role in explaining the sizeable union/non-union difference in wages. In fact, few of the human capital variables have the impact expected on young women's wage rates. Results for young women are contrasted with results for young men and questions are raised regarding the early choices that women can be expected to make in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. and Duane E. Leigh. "Employer-Sponsored Training, Union Status, and the Wage Rates of Young Women." Presented: Vancouver, B.C., Meetings of the Western Economic Association, 1987.
8. Hoyt, Gail Mitchell
Chaloupka, Frank J.
Self-Reported Substance Use and Survey Conditions: An Examination of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association Meetings, June 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Labor Market Surveys; Self-Reporting; Substance Use

The problems associated with substance use and abuse, particularly among youths, have received increasing attention in recent years. Consequently, economists, public health researchers, and other social scientists have engaged in numerous studies analyzing the determinants of cigarette smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use, as well as the effectiveness of public and private campaigns to discourage these behaviors. In addition, the effects of substance use/abuse on various outcomes, particularly labor force behavior, has been carefully examined. Many of these studies, especially those looking at the determinants/impact of illicit drug use, employ survey data in their analyses. One criticism of studies examining survey data is the self-reported nature of the substance use information. Several factors may contribute to inaccurate or biased information being collected in these surveys. Perhaps most important is the respondent's understandable fear of reporting a behavior that is either illegal (i.e. illicit drug use or underage drinking) or socially unacceptable (i.e. cigarette smoking in recent years). In addition, a respondent may unknowingly report inaccurate levels of substance use. With the availability of look alike drugs and the difficulties in measuring substance quantities and/or purities, a respondent may believe that they are conveying information truthfully when in actuality they are misreporting their use. Finally, the conditions under which the survey is administered may lead to intentional misreporting of substance use. The presence of parents or others during the collection of substance use information may inhibit the respondent from reporting truthfully.
Bibliography Citation
Hoyt, Gail Mitchell and Frank J. Chaloupka. "Self-Reported Substance Use and Survey Conditions: An Examination of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Lake Tahoe, NV, Issues in the Economic Analysis of Substance Abuse Session of the Western Economic Association Meetings, June 1993.
9. Olsen, Randall J.
The Relation Between the Rate of Return to Tenure, Earnings Growth, and Job Switching
Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1990.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Illegal Activities; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Mobility; Quits; Racial Differences; Substance Use; Wages

The problem of estimating the rate of return to job-specific versus general human capital is attacked by specifying a model for the duration of job holdings based upon an underlying Weiner process for the evolution of the wage rate on the incumbent job, and another Weiner process for the wage on the best alternative job. The model jointly estimates job duration and the change in starting wages across job holdings. Drift in the incumbent wage process reveals the rate of return to job-specific plus general human capital, whereas the drift in the alternative wage reflects only the return to general human capital. The model estimates the importance of firm behavior that might reflect bonding to retard mobility. The duration of job holdings and the presence of incomplete spells for the duration until a voluntary job change become an essential part of separating the return to job-specific versus general human capital.
Bibliography Citation
Olsen, Randall J. "The Relation Between the Rate of Return to Tenure, Earnings Growth, and Job Switching." Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1990..
10. Porter, Sarah
Glass, Jennifer L.
Using O*NET Occupational Characteristics with Longitudinal Panel Data
Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association Conference, July 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Wage Growth; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Our research project at the University of Iowa traces the effects of flexible work practices on individual’s wage growth over time, which we believe will be moderated based on organizational and occupational characteristics of the respondent’s primary job. For example, we believe that jobs involving a high level of customer/client service or team coordination of work tasks may penalize employees more strongly for utilizing a flexible schedule or working from home. The O*NET data base contains measures such as these for detailed job classifications using the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we needed to attach occupational characteristics from the O*NET data base to each person/job in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY) sample beginning with the 1989 wave through the 2002 wave when respondents were in their peak years of career building and family formation.
Bibliography Citation
Porter, Sarah and Jennifer L. Glass. "Using O*NET Occupational Characteristics with Longitudinal Panel Data." Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association Conference, July 2006.
11. Raut, Lakshmi K.
Long Term Effects of Preschool Investment on School Performance and Labor Market Outcome
Presented: Denver, CO, Western Economic Association Annual Meeting, July 2003.
Also: http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/lab/papers/0307/0307002.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; College Enrollment; Earnings; Head Start; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Preschool Children; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Using the NLSY data set, this paper formulates and then empirically estimates the production processes for social, motivational and cognitive skills during early childhood development and the long-term effects of these skills on learning and life-time earnings of an individual. Using these estimated relationships, the paper provides a calibrated intergenerational altruistic model of parental investment in children's preschool. This dynamic model is then used to estimate the effects of publicly provided preschool to the children of poor socioeconomic status (SES) on college mobility and intergenerational social mobility and to estimate the tax burden of such a social contract.
Bibliography Citation
Raut, Lakshmi K. "Long Term Effects of Preschool Investment on School Performance and Labor Market Outcome." Presented: Denver, CO, Western Economic Association Annual Meeting, July 2003.
12. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences
Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Training; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Wages; Work History

Analysis of the early labor force years in the lives of young women indicates that the women with stronger expected lifetime attachment to the labor force do indeed invest more heavily in on-the-job training. Data is presented showing that young women seemed to consistently underestimate their future labor market participation, and that this underestimation results in lower investments in on-the-job training and lower wages. However, more recent evidence from the NLS indicates these young women seem to be revising their labor market participation expectations upwards as time passes. In addition, the data show that the more recent labor market entrants have higher expectations of being in the labor force at age thirty-five than their slightly older counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences." Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977.
13. Santos, Richard
Seitz, Patricia Ann
School-to-Work Transition Among Hispanic Youth: Selected Findings from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience
Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Labor Force Participation

This paper reviews the literature on the school-to-work transition of Hispanic youth specifically focusing on educational attainment and its relation to employment and earnings. Using data on Hispanics from the NLSY, rates of high school completion, college attendance, and labor force participation are depicted for Hispanics as a whole as well as for subgroups including Chicano, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and foreign- vs U.S.-born Hispanics. The paper discusses the sometimes conflicting findings of studies conducted to date and presents recommendations for continued research.
Bibliography Citation
Santos, Richard and Patricia Ann Seitz. "School-to-Work Transition Among Hispanic Youth: Selected Findings from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience." Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1990.
14. Seeborg, Michael C.
Kumazawa, Risa
Effect of Marriage, Divorce, Separation and Children on the Relative Standard of Living of Young Men and Women
Presented: Seattle, WA, Western Economic Association International Conference, 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Family Income; Marital Status; Poverty

Seeborg and Kumazawa explore the effects of changes in marital status on the standard of living, as measured by the ratio of family income to the poverty level, of young men and women in the NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Seeborg, Michael C. and Risa Kumazawa. "Effect of Marriage, Divorce, Separation and Children on the Relative Standard of Living of Young Men and Women." Presented: Seattle, WA, Western Economic Association International Conference, 2002.
15. Stoecker, Charles
Chill Out Mom: Extreme Cold Induced Maternal Stress in Utero and Later Outcomes
Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association International Annual Conference, June-July 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Well-Being; Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Bibliography Citation
Stoecker, Charles. "Chill Out Mom: Extreme Cold Induced Maternal Stress in Utero and Later Outcomes." Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association International Annual Conference, June-July 2011.
16. Stromsdorfer, Ernst W.
Wang, Boqing
Cao, Jian
Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive and Affective Development
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Western Economic Association Meetings, July 10, 1992. (Second Draft)
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Grandmothers; Maternal Employment; Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Methods/Methodology; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale); Wages; Welfare; Work Hours

This paper addresses the general problem of the effect of mother's labor supply on her child or children's cognitive and affective development. This issue is of considerable policy significance in view of the recent refocus of welfare policy toward requiring single mothers who are welfare dependent to work or attend some form of schooling or training. Clearly, as this new policy focus is pursued, a child receives less nurturing from his or her natural mother. There is either less care provided overall or care is provided by a surrogate. The potential social and private costs of such a policy that may reduce direct nurturing of a child by its biological mother therefore ought to be investigated. Previous studies of this social issue have typically concentrated on a particular measure of a child's cognitive or affective development and have also tended to focus on children in a narrow age range in an effort to get more precise results and screen out the effects of such factors as schooling. Our study deals with children who have been administered the various objective cognitive (and one of the affective) measures of child development and their mothers in the NLSY Mother/Child database for 1986.
Bibliography Citation
Stromsdorfer, Ernst W., Boqing Wang and Jian Cao. "Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive and Affective Development." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Western Economic Association Meetings, July 10, 1992. (Second Draft).
17. Wunnava, Phanindra V.
Union-Nonunion Gender Benefit Differentials across Firm Sizes: Evidence from NLSY
Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association International Conference, June-July 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Benefits; Firm Size; Gender Differences; Unions

Bibliography Citation
Wunnava, Phanindra V. "Union-Nonunion Gender Benefit Differentials across Firm Sizes: Evidence from NLSY." Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association International Conference, June-July 2011.