Assessments

Introduction

Repeat Assessments

The availability of comprehensive child data over time, coupled with longitudinal information on the family background, education, employment histories, and well-being of the NLSY79 mothers, provide researchers with a unique opportunity to examine the linkages between maternal- family behaviors and attitudes and subsequent child development. Certain measures in the NLSY79 Child surveys, such as the HOME, are taken at each survey point. Some assessments, such as the PIAT achievement battery, are administered to a wide range of age-eligible children over a period of time. Still others, such as the PPVT, are administered at the first eligible age, and then usually at the index age of 10 or 11. 

Overall patterns of repeat interviews can be seen in the Retention section, in Table 1 for children and in Table 2 for young adults.

In Table 7 we present data showing the extent to which children have been repeatedly assessed on the PIAT and PPVT. Children are included in Table 7 if they had any valid PIAT math or reading score in any of the assessment years from 1986 to the current survey round or any valid PPVT score. These counts of repeat assessment scores offer a preliminary idea of the number of data points for each of these measures over time. More than two thirds of NLSY79 children have three or more PIAT achievement measures, and more than 7,200 children have more than one PPVT score.

Table 7.  Repeat PIAT and PPVT Scores:  Children Assessed in Any Year 1986-Current

Number of Valid Scores1 PIAT Math Score PIAT Reading Score PPVT Score
One valid score 825 823 2223
Two valid scores 1028 1033 3882
Three valid scores 1207 1179 3229
More than three valid scores 6173 6186 145
Total 9233 9221 9479
 
1 The number of PIAT Math scores is based on a count of the survey years in which the child received a valid Math score. The number of PIAT Reading scores is based on a count of either valid Reading Recognition and/or Reading Comprehension scores in any survey year. The number of PPVT scores is based on a count of valid PPVT scores available in any survey year. Counts are based on the number of valid raw scores.

The pattern of repeat PIAT scores by age at the most recent assessment point is displayed in Table 8. This table shows the number of children with multiple PIAT scores, based on a count of any valid math or reading score between the initial and most recent assessment date. Children with only one valid PIAT score comprise the smallest subgroup in this table. As one would expect, the majority of 5- and 6-year-olds at the last interview date have only been tested once.  Children in the middle age group and those in early adolescence have valid scores from multiple survey points enabling various measures of change to be calculated. Clearly the number of children for whom repeat achievement scores are available is large, particularly when viewing the distribution for children ages 10-14.

Table 8.  Number of PIAT Scores by Age of Child at Date of Last Valid Score:  Children Assessed in Any Year 1986-Current

Valid PIAT Scores1 Age of Child (Years)
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + Total
One score 230 207 108 48 35 38 27 37 38 23 4 795
Two scores 0 2 132 201 120 137 110 115 117 62 36 1032
Three scores 0 0 0 8 109 222 141 259 220 115 87 1161
More than three scores 0 0 0 0 0 36 235 1232 2768 1677 300 6248
Total 230 209 240 257 264 433 513 1643 3143 1877 427 9236
 
1 The number of PIAT scores is based on a count of the number of survey rounds in which a child received a valid PIAT Math and/or Reading Recognition and/or Reading Comprehension score. Counts are based on the number of valid raw scores.

The number of repeat PPVT scores by child age at the date of the last valid score is profiled in Table 9. Users interested in multiple PPVT scores are directed to the index group of children who were assessed at preschool or early school levels and then again at the age of 10 or 11. Table 9 highlights the power of pooling the sample. This table shows larger numbers of children with multiple scores for assessments that were administered to them when they were age 10 or 11 years old. These children may now be of differing ages since the table displays counts at the last time a child was administered the PPVT.

Table 9.  Number of PPVT Scores by Age of Child at Date of Last Valid Score: Children Assessed in Any Year 1986-Current

Valid PPVT Scores1 Age of Child (Years)
< 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + Total
One score 349 598 419 182 100 54 68 185 137 49 46 24 12 2223
Two scores 0 1 29 63 139 64 49 1499 1611 64 70 61 232 3882
Three scores 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 960 1286 338 250 298 88 3229
More than three scores 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116 26 3 0 0 145
Total 349 599 448 245 239 118 126 2644 3150 477 369 383 332 9479
 
1 The number of PPVT scores is based on a count of the number of years in which a child received a valid PPVT score. Counts are based on the number of valid raw scores.

These examples illustrate how NLSY79 children experience varying degrees of repeat administration of various assessments. An overall picture of the assessment history of NLSY79 children who have become young adults is available in Table 2 in the Retention section.