Search Results

Author: Morrison, Donna Ruane
Resulting in 27 citations.
1. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Nord, Christine Winquis
Teenage Childbearing and Poverty
Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; Hispanics; Poverty

An association between teenage parenthood and subsequent poverty has been noted for several decades. However, because early childbearing is more common among women from disadvantaged backgrounds, whether teenage childbearing increases the probability of poverty over and above the risk due to background factors has not been clear. In this paper, the effect of the timing of the first birth on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the family is examined using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. All women are age 27 when studied. Direct effects are not hypothesized; rather the effect of age at first birth is expected to be mediated by intervening variables including educational attainment, age at first marriage, family size, women's work experience and earnings, and the earnings of other members of the household. Structural equation models are estimated, taking into account background variables that affect both selection into early childbearing and the outcome variables in the model, and employing a variant of Amemiya's principle to deal with problems of censoring and selectivity. Results indicate that age at first birth has a substantial effect on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold at age 27 among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, though the effect is particularly large among blacks and Hispanics. Age at first birth is found to have a significant direct effect on highest grade completed and number of children among all three race/ethnicity groups. In addition, age at first birth has a significant direct effect on age at first marriage among whites. These variables in turn affect family income and thus poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, David E. Meyers, Donna Ruane Morrison and Christine Winquis Nord. "Teenage Childbearing and Poverty." Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992.
2. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Glei, Dana A.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Family Resources; Family Studies

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Dana A. Glei. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994.
3. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Greene, Angela Dungee
Children Born to Teenage Mothers: Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement and the National Survey of Children
Report, Child Trends, Washington DC, January 1995.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED415998&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED415998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children, Health Care; Children, Mental Health; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Behavior; National Survey of Children (NSC); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Runaways; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

ED415998
This study compared the well-being of children born to mothers younger than 17 years old(very young teens), 18 to 19 years old (older teens), and mothers in their early twenties. Measures of well-being were assessed in five domains: (1) health and psychological well-being; (2) quality of home environment; (3) cognitive development and educational attainment; (4) behavior problems and substance abuse; and (5) sexual experiences and first births. The study also examined the effects of mother's age at first birth on child well-being. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS) and the National Survey of Children (NSC). Major findings indicated that although controlling for maternal background characteristics reduced the effects of teen motherhood on child well-being, the deleterious effect of being born to young teens remained statistically significant on children's cognitive achievement scores, grade repetition, teacher rating of school performance, and home environment quality. The deleterious consequences of teen childbearing extended to their subsequent children. There was a persistently negative effect of early childbearing in the cognitive domain. The NLSY-CS revealed that 4- to 14-year-old children of the youngest teens performed more poorly on tests of cognitive ability, and NSC results showed that the offspring of teens were more likely to be retained and less likely to be perceived by their teachers as performing favorably in high school. Behavior difficulties such as running away, early sexual activity, and teen motherhood emerged among children in the NSC.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Angela Dungee Greene. "Children Born to Teenage Mothers: Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement and the National Survey of Children." Report, Child Trends, Washington DC, January 1995.
4. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Greene, Angela Dungee
Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Welfare

To assess the effects of early childbearing on the children themselves, the authors of this chapter look at four types of outcomes: the quality of the home environment provided to the child; the child's cognitive development and educational attainment; physical and psychological well-being; and behavior problems and substance abuse. They consider these potential impacts for the children when young as well as when adolescents. And they examine whether firstborns fare differently from their siblings. Their major finding are in the areas of home environment and cognitive and educational development. When the mother's background characteristics are controlled, the quality of the home environment (including both emotional support and cognitive stimulation) is over 4 points lower (on a normal scale where the mean is set at 100) for the offspring of young teen mothers than for children whose mothers were 20 to 21 at their birth. The children of young teen mothers also score lower in mathematics and reading recognition (4 points) and in reading comprehension (3 points) in the period up to age 14. These differences carry over into adolescence in the form of greater likelihood of repeating a grade and being rated unfavorably by teachers in high school. Birth order is not important. These deficits are found for subsequent children as well as the firstborn children of young teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Angela Dungee Greene. "Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
5. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Zaslow, Martha J.
Glei, Dana A.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, September 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Family Background; Family Resources; Family Studies; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

Revised and under review. Direct correspondence to Kristin A. Moore, 4301 Connecticut Ave., Suite 100, Washington DC, 20008. This paper examines transitions into and from welfare and poverty across the time period from 1986 to 1990. and their implications for children's math achievement, reading skills, and behavior and the level of emotional support and cognitive stimulation provided in children's homes. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement indicate that even with controls for factors that select family into poverty, children who do not experience poverty or welfare over this time period are advantaged relative to children who experience poverty or welfare; and that children who are continuously poor but never receive welfare have fewer behavior problems as reported by their mothers than children who receive welfare. Among children experiencing changing economic circumstances, if the family manages to leave poverty child outcomes are more positive; and children whose families fall from above the poverty level into welfare experience high levels of behavior problems. Frequent fluctuations in family economic circumstances are also associated with poorer child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison, Martha J. Zaslow and Dana A. Glei. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, September 1995.
6. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Myers, David E.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Edmonston, B.
Age at First Childbirth and Later Poverty
Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,4 (1993): 393-422
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Earnings; Ethnic Groups; Family Background; Family Income; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, David E. Myers, Donna Ruane Morrison and B. Edmonston. "Age at First Childbirth and Later Poverty." Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,4 (1993): 393-422.
7. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Child Well-Being in Step-Families and Cohabiting Unions Following Divorce: A Dynamic Appraisal
Working Paper, Department of Demography and Graduate Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Demography, Georgetown University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Divorce; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Child Well-Being in Step-Families and Cohabiting Unions Following Divorce: A Dynamic Appraisal." Working Paper, Department of Demography and Graduate Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1999.
8. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Costs of Economic Uncertainty: Child Well-Being in Cohabiting and Remarried Unions Following Parental Divorce
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Marital Disruption; Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

INTRODUCTION EXCERPT: The present study takes a first step in addressing this issue [association between marital disruption and children's behavior problems and effect on academic achievement and competence] in a context, unlike most previous studies, that considers both the pre-disruption circumstances of mothers and children as well as the fluid nature of mothers' union statuses following the initial separation or divorce.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Costs of Economic Uncertainty: Child Well-Being in Cohabiting and Remarried Unions Following Parental Divorce." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000.
9. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: a Longitudinal Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1993
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Support; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Fathers, Absence; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Previous research on the consequences of divorce for children has primarily focused on the difficulties that stem from the breakup and its aftermath. Measures of the antecedent processes of disruption generally have been unavailable. The present study examines the effects of the disruption process on two primary measures of child well-being: behavior problems and academic achievement. Data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used. The analysis begins with children ages 3 to 13 in 1986 whose parents' marriages are intact. In 1988 children are classified according to whether they are in intact or disrupted families and measures of well-being are reassessed. Within the disrupted group, time since disruption, contact with the non-custodial parent, and receipt of child support, are also examined. Research hypotheses are tested using a series of regression equations. Models are estimated separately by sex. Sample selection biases are estimated and evaluated. Findings indicate that boys undergo additional behavior problems not present in pre-disruption and that father involvement after disruption had little impact on the outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: a Longitudinal Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1993.
10. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Growing up Too Fast? The Implications of Precocious Social Competence in Young Adults from Disrupted Families
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2003
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While considerable research has focused on identifying the problems of children whose parents have separated or divorced, surprisingly few large-scale empirical studies have examined the positive, adaptive skills of these children. This gap exists despite evidence from small-scale psychological studies suggesting that some youth from maritally disrupted families (especially girls) demonstrate significantly greater amounts of household responsibility and higher levels of social maturity than their counterparts in married families. Moreover, it is unknown whether precocious social and emotional competence in response to disruption is ultimately desirable or undesirable. The press for maturity may reverberate as an increased risk of depression in later life and difficulties in making transitions into adulthood . This study addresses these issues using a prospective design and longitudinal data available into young adulthood among the children of the NLSY. Precocious competence is measured within both socio-emotional and behavioral domains.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Growing up Too Fast? The Implications of Precocious Social Competence in Young Adults from Disrupted Families." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2003.
11. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Influence of Child Characteristics on Divorce
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association Meetings, May 9-11, 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; Divorce

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Influence of Child Characteristics on Divorce." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association Meetings, May 9-11, 1996.
12. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Parental Divorce and Child Well-Being: Are There Lasting Effects?
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Studies; Marital Dissolution

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The aim of the paper is to examine whether deleterious effects of parental divorce on child well-being abate after an initial period of adjustment. Critical transitions that occur in adolescence may trigger conflicts among older children of divorce. The study examines the trajectories of children in disrupted families over time using longitudinal data from the 1986, 1988, 1990, and 1992 child interviews of the NLSY-CS. The multivariate findings suggest that the effects of divorce on measures of child well-being no longer reach statistical significance 4- and 6-years post-disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Parental Divorce and Child Well-Being: Are There Lasting Effects?" Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
13. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Parenting After Divorce: Remarriage and Cohabitation from the Perspective of Children
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Parenting After Divorce: Remarriage and Cohabitation from the Perspective of Children." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 1997.
14. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Shuffling the Line-Up: How Shifting Household Membership Following Parental Divorce Affects Child Welfare
Presented: Washington, DC, Poplation Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Divorce; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Formation; Family Structure; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Remarriage; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Typically we think of children's living arrangements following parental divorce according to three male partner-centered categories: mother remains single, mother remarries, or mother cohabits.These distinctions obscure other potentially important variations in household membership, however, to which many children are required to adapt. The boundaries of stepfamilies are often very fluid, for example, with step-children joining and departing the household at different points in the union, rather than arriving with the spouse or partner as a "package deal." Of course new unions also sometimes produce children of their own. Because these are issues largely untapped by large-scale empirical research, a much richer demographic picture of shifts in household composition in mother-custody families is needed as well as an understanding of the implications for child-well being. Employing merged mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and up to five observation points per child, the paper uses fixed-effects regression models to examine the influence of changing household membership on children's behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane. "Shuffling the Line-Up: How Shifting Household Membership Following Parental Divorce Affects Child Welfare." Presented: Washington, DC, Poplation Association of America Annual Meeting, March 2001.
15. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Divorce; Family Influences; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Marriage; Mobility; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis examines the consequences of marital disruption on the well-being of young children using the NLSY Merged Mother-Child file, a large-scale, longitudinal study that includes both detailed assessments of children and family characteristics. The authors take a prospective approach and account for the family situation before physical separation as well as practical, emotional, and economic changes that accompany divorce for children. Outcomes examined include the Behavior Problems Index (BPI) and three Peabody Individual Achievement sub-tests: mathematics, reading recognition and reading comprehension. The analysis begins with assessments of children whose parents' marriages are intact in 1986. By 1988 children fall into either disrupted or intact groups and their behavior and achievement are reassessed. It was found that negative effects of family disruption on the mathematics and BPI scores of boys are not reduced when prior family characteristics are controlled. In addition, the effect of disruption on mathematics test performance can be partially attributed to changes in the quality of the child's home environment, while downward mobility mediates the effect of divorce on boys' behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Andrew J. Cherlin. "Divorce Process and Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
16. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Cherlin, Andrew J.
The Divorce Process and Young Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis
Journal of Marriage and Family 57,3 (August 1995): 800-812.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353933
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Home Environment; Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Family Environment; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Marital Stability; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

A study was conducted to investigate the consequences of marital disruption for children's behavior problems and academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1986 and 1988 waves of the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The findings reveal that, even before predisruption characteristics are introduced into the analysis, there is little effect of marital dissolution on girls. The negative impact of family disruption on boys' behavior problems can be partially attributed to downward mobility after the disruption.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Andrew J. Cherlin. "The Divorce Process and Young Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis." Journal of Marriage and Family 57,3 (August 1995): 800-812.
17. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Coiro, Mary Jo
Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?
Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 626-637.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353565
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Conflict; Marital Disruption; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage

A million children experience divorce each year and some policymakers argue for policies that would make it more difficult for parents to divorce. However being exposed to a high degree of marital conflict has been shown to place children at risk for a variety of problems. Using mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and a prospective design, this research explores two questions: Do the effects of marital disruption on child well-being vary for children whose parents leave high-conflict marriages versus low-conflict marriages? How do children fare when their high-conflict parents remain together? We find that separation and divorce are associated with increases in behavior problems in children, regardless of the level of conflict between parents. However in marriages that do not break up, high levels of marital conflict are associated with even greater increases in children's behavior problems.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Mary Jo Coiro. "Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?" Journal of Marriage and Family 61,3 (August 1999): 626-637.
18. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Coiro, Mary Jo
Blumenthal, Connie
Marital Disruption, Conflict, and the Well Being of Children and Youth
Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994. Revised August 1994; Child Trends paper 94-12.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Fathers, Absence; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income; Marital Disruption; Marital Stability; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies using prospective data have revealed that many of the problems experienced by children of divorce can be traced to experiences that actually predated the break-up. Family conflict is key among the predisruption factors that affect child well-being. In this paper we examine whether the effect of marital disruption on children and young adults depends on the quality of the parental marriage prior to the disruption. We use longitudinal data from two complementary national-level data bases--the National Survey of Children to examine postdisruption well-being in young adulthood, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Supplement to examine outcomes among school-aged children. Because of documented differences in the way that boys and girls respond to psychosocial stress, we conduct our analyses separately by sex.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Mary Jo Coiro and Connie Blumenthal. "Marital Disruption, Conflict, and the Well Being of Children and Youth." Presented: Miami, FL, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1994. Revised August 1994; Child Trends paper 94-12.
19. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Ritualo, Amy R.
Parenting After Divorce: Remarriage and Cohabitation from the Perspective of Children
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Disruption; Parents, Non-Custodial; Parents, Single; Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One million children per year experience the break-up of their parent's marriages, but divorce is only one link in a complex chain of events that may potentially affect child well-being. While children spend some time in single parent families following marital disruption, most divorced adults eventually enter new relationships. While remarriage is common, many new unions are non-marital. Neither the pattern of these often transitory relationships from the perspective of children nor their implications for child well-being are well documented in existing research. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths child-mother data' this paper profiles maternal post-marital unions (remarriages and cohabitations) as experienced by children. We also explore the implications that alternative living arrangements following divorce have for the quality of the home environment provided to children.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg and Amy R. Ritualo. "Parenting After Divorce: Remarriage and Cohabitation from the Perspective of Children." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
20. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Ritualo, Amy R.
Road to Remarriage: A Prospective Study of Child Well-Being Following Divorce
Working Paper, Washington DC: Department of Demography and Graduate Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University and Philadelphia PA: Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Demography, Georgetown University
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Divorce; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Remarriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given the prevalence of divorce and the prominence of concerns about family structure in political debates, reassessing the implications of remarriage and post-divorce cohbitation for children is critical. Available studies have not adequately addressed either the possibility of pre-existing differences prior to divorce or the lingering effects of the divorce process when children in step-families are compared to those in two-parent nuclear families. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth mother-child data, we take a prospective approach using a pre-disruption measure of child well-being as our basis for ascertaining the effect of remarriage. We examine how children in step-families compare to their counterparts whose divorced mothers took other routes following the initial disruption including entering cohabiting unions or remaining single. Net of controls for time since disruption and the number of maternal union transitions experienced by the child, we discover remarriage is associated with fewer behavior problems than is remaining "stably" divorced, although the statisitical significance of the estimated coefficient is marginal. We found some support for the hypothesis that the more favorable economic standing of remarried families accounts for part of remarriage's salutary effect. Finally, we found no statisitcal difference between remarriage and cohabitation following divorce from the perspective of children's behavior problems, net of controls.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Frank F. Jr. Furstenberg and Amy R. Ritualo. "Road to Remarriage: A Prospective Study of Child Well-Being Following Divorce." Working Paper, Washington DC: Department of Demography and Graduate Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University and Philadelphia PA: Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 1999.
21. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Glei, Dana A.
Assessing Family Strengths in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement
Working Paper, Washington DC: Child Trends, June 1993.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/15/2e/82.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Studies; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Stability; Methods/Methodology; Mothers, Income; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Siblings; Wage Rates; Work Hours

ED415994
In this paper we develop and estimate a factor model of the earnings, labor supply, and wages of young men and young women, their parents and their siblings. We estimate the model using data on matched sibling and parent-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience. We measure the extent to which a set of unobserved parental and family factors that drive wage rates and work hours independently of wage rates lead to similarities among family members in labor market outcomes. We find strong family similarities in work hours that run along gender lines. These similarities are primarily due to preferences rather than to labor supply responses to family similarities in wages. The wage factors of the father and mother influence the wages of both sons and daughters. A 'sibling' wage factor also plays an important role in wage determination. We find that intergenerational correlations in wages substantially overestimate the direct influence of fathers, and especially mothers, on wages. This is because the father's and mother's wage factors are positively correlated. The relative importance for the variance in earnings of the direct effect of wages, the labor supply response induced by wages, and effect of hours preferences varies by gender, and by age in the case of women. For all groups most of the effect of wages on earnings is direct rather than through a labor supply response.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Dana A. Glei. "Assessing Family Strengths in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement." Working Paper, Washington DC: Child Trends, June 1993.
22. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Lichter, Daniel T.
Family Migration and Female Employment: The Problem of Underemployment among Migrant Married Women
Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 161-172.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352436
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Migration; Mobility; Part-Time Work; Underemployment; Unemployment

This article examines the effects of geographic mobility on changes in underemployment among married and single women. Data for the analysis are from the NLS of Young Women. Changes in various forms of underemployment for the 1968-73 and 1973-78 periods are measured with the Labor Utilization Framework of Clogg and Sullivan (1983). In general, the results reinforce findings from previous studies by showing that migration contributes to labor force nonparticipation and unemployment among married women. Migration also is linked to other forms of labor force hardship, including involuntary part-time employment and low pay. Contrary to expectations, migration also negatively affects employment adequacy among single women. The implications of these results for family decision- making models of migration are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Daniel T. Lichter. "Family Migration and Female Employment: The Problem of Underemployment among Migrant Married Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 50,1 (February 1988): 161-172.
23. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development
Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The aim of this paper is to further illuminate the processes through which an early birth affects child well-being. Since it is not possible to capture the developmental status and well-being of a child with a single indicator, such as an IQ score, most child experts prefer a developmental profile that covers a breadth of dimensions or domains. For this reason, this study examines the effect of the mother's age at first birth on three measures related to the child's cognitive development and academic achievement -- the reading and mathematics sub-scales of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test cognitive, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) -- and one measure of social behavior -- the child's score on the mother-rated Behavior Problems Index (BPI). The study uses a national-level sample of children and limits its analysis to first borns to eliminate the possible confounding influence of birth order. The explicit assumption of the present study is that the consequences of being born to a teenage mother do not derive from the mother's age per se, but are largely the product of the correlates of early child-bearing such as low maternal education and father absence, some of which reflect selectivity into early motherhood and some of which are consequences of the timing of her first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Kristin Anderson Moore and David E. Meyers. "Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development." Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
24. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Myers, David E.
Winglee, Marianne
Effects of Maternal Work and Child Care During the First Three Years of Life on Children's Cognitive Abilities
Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990. Working Paper, Decision Resources Corporation, July 1990
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; General Assessment; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis focuses on the effects of mothers' work, the type of child care arrangements, and the relationship of the care-giver to the child during the first three years of life on children's cognitive development. Children's experiences during each of these years, as well as their cumulative experiences in all three years, are analyzed. Data on children from the Child Supplement of the 1986 NLSY who range in age from zero to seven years old are used. This analysis lends support to earlier studies that have shown that maternal work itself generally has no effect on children's cognitive test performance, and when an effect is observed among children of low-income mothers, it is positive. It was found that significant effects of maternal work and child care observed in the first year are largely positive, although these positive effects are not observed in the second or the third years. In the year-2 and year-3 analyses, the authors found minimal effects of mothers' work intensity, inconsistent effects of child care, and no significant difference in the cognitive test performance of children with working and non-working mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, David E. Myers and Marianne Winglee. "Effects of Maternal Work and Child Care During the First Three Years of Life on Children's Cognitive Abilities." Presented: Toronto, Canada, Population Association of America Meetings, May 1990. Working Paper, Decision Resources Corporation, July 1990.
25. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Ritualo, Amy R.
Routes to Children's Economic Recovery after Divorce: Are Cohabitation and Remarriage Equivalent?
American Sociological Review 65,4 (August 2000): 560-580.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657383
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Children, Poverty; Cohabitation; Disability; Divorce; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Economic Changes/Recession; Family Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Remarriage; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Are maternal cohabitation and remarriage equivalent routes to the economic recovery of children and their mothers following parental divorce and separation? Unlike previous studies that have been primarily cross-sectional in design, this study uses panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement to make both absolute and relative comparisons of potential economic returns. Also investigated is how income from spouses and partners is combined with income from other sources to support children, and the extent to which economic hardship over time relates to mothers' union experiences. Findings show that while in absolute terms, remarriage is economically more advantageous than cohabitation, cohabitation and remarriage are equivalent in their ability to restore family income to prior levels. Cohabiting mothers start off in a weaker economic position prior to divorce, however, and continue to rely on income from employment and AFDC to a greater extent than do remarried mothers. Over time, cohabitation, even when it results in a stable union, is a comparatively poor mechanism for maintaining economic recovery for the children of divorce. The extent of economic difficulties experienced by children whose mothers "unstably" remarry is also demonstrated.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Amy R. Ritualo. "Routes to Children's Economic Recovery after Divorce: Are Cohabitation and Remarriage Equivalent?" American Sociological Review 65,4 (August 2000): 560-580.
26. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Ritualo, Amy R.
Starting Over: How Children Fare in Remarriages and Cohabiting Unions Following Divorce
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Divorce; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Marital Disruption; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Remarriage; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For children in maritally disrupted families, separation and divorce are often only the first of numerous changes in family structure to which they will need to adjust. Each time a mother and her children *start over* there are potential difficulties for children. Although available evidence suggests that children in step-families fare no better and possibly even worse than children whose mothers remain single following divorce we know virtually nothing about how the experience of mothers' cohabiting unions affects child well-being. Moreover, the implications of multiple transitions has been rarely studied. This paper examines the implications for child well-being of changes in family structure (remaining single, remarriage and cohabitation) in the aftermath of divorce, paying particular attention to the factors that enhance or undermine children's adjustment to them. We employ dynamic measures of children's post-disruption family structures that trace their mothers' union experiences from the initial separation or divorce to up to eight years later.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Amy R. Ritualo. "Starting Over: How Children Fare in Remarriages and Cohabiting Unions Following Divorce." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
27. Ritualo, Amy R.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Dynamics of Post-Divorce: How Remarriage and Cohabitation Influence the Changing Economic Resources of Children
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Divorce; Exits; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although it is well documented that children and their mothers experience marked declines in their economic circumstances following divorce, many women move on to subsequent marital and non-marital relationships. Our aim is to understand how declines in children's economic resources following marital disruption are moderated by the patterns of their mothers' subsequent unions. The paper departs from traditional approaches to understanding children's economic well-being in the aftermath of divorce by considering both how cohabitation as well as remarriage contribute to the economic standing of separated or divorced mothers and their children. This is important as rates of remarriage have fallen in recent years, increasingly replaced by cohabiting unions. We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement to examine changes in economic resources associated with particular post-disruption transitions (both entries and exits).
Bibliography Citation
Ritualo, Amy R. and Donna Ruane Morrison. "Dynamics of Post-Divorce: How Remarriage and Cohabitation Influence the Changing Economic Resources of Children." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.