Search Results

Author: Moore, Kristin Anderson
Resulting in 76 citations.
1. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Capps, Randolph C.
Zaff, Jonathan
The Influence of Father Involvement on Youth Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Native-Born and Immigrant Families
Social Science Research 35,1 (March 2006): 181-209.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X04000845
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Fathers and Sons; Fathers, Involvement; Immigrants; Modeling, Logit; Risk-Taking

This study explores how father involvement is associated with adolescent risk behaviors among youth in first, second, and third-generation families in US. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 (Rounds One–Three), and discrete time logit regressions, we find that father involvement predicts a reduced likelihood of subsequent engagement in risky behaviors among adolescents. Being a first-generation immigrant youth is also associated with reduced risky behaviors. Two-way interaction models indicate that father involvement matters more for sons than for daughters. Two-way interaction models also indicate that father involvement does not interact with immigration status to predict adolescent risky behaviors, but is significant for adolescents in immigrant and native-born families. These findings are preliminary because of two important limitations. First, these data did not capture country of origin variations, and the analyses did not take into consideration cultural differences in parenting among immigrant groups that are likely to influence adolescent outcomes. A strength is that all analyses control for maternal involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Kristin Anderson Moore, Randolph C. Capps and Jonathan Zaff. "The Influence of Father Involvement on Youth Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Native-Born and Immigrant Families." Social Science Research 35,1 (March 2006): 181-209.
2. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Carrano, Jennifer
Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families
Journal of Family Issues 27,6 (June 2006): 850-881.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/27/6/850
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Gender Differences; Modeling, Logit; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship predicts a reduced risk of engagement in multiple first risky behaviors. Having a father with an authoritarian parenting style is associated with an increased risk of engaging in delinquent activity and substance use. Two-way interaction models further indicate that the negative effect of authoritarian parenting is reduced when fathers have a positive relationship with their adolescent. Permissive parenting also predicts less risky behavior when the father-child relationship is positive. The positive influence of the father-child relationship on risk behaviors is stronger for male than for female adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Kristin Anderson Moore and Jennifer Carrano. "Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families ." Journal of Family Issues 27,6 (June 2006): 850-881.
3. Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Zaff, Jonathan
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Father Involvement and Youth Transition into Risky Behaviors in Immigrant and Native-Born Families
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Fathers, Involvement; Immigrants

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores how father involvement is related to adolescent risk behaviors among youth in first and second-generation immigrant families and US native-born families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study or Youth (1997 - 1999) and discrete time regressions, we test three hypotheses: 1) high levels of father involvement are related to reduced likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors; 2) immigrant status (being first or second-generation youth) reduces the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors; and 3) father involvement interacts with immigration status, race or gender in its effects on youth risk behaviors. Findings indicate that father involvement, and being an immigrant youth (1st or 2nd gen) is associated with reduced risky behaviors. Two-way interactions indicate that father involvement does not interact with gender, race or youth immigration status in predicting risky behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Jonathan Zaff and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Father Involvement and Youth Transition into Risky Behaviors in Immigrant and Native-Born Families." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2003.
4. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Brown, Brett V.
Duncan, Greg J.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Child Development in the Context of Family and Community Resources: An Agenda for National Data Collections
In: Integrating Federal Statistics on Children: Report of a Workshop. Committee on National Statistics and Board on Children and Families, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995: pp. 27-97.
Also: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309052491/html/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Academy Press
Keyword(s): Child Development; Overview, Child Assessment Data

In this paper we suggest specific national data collection projects that could improve research on child and adolescent development. Our explicit aim is to encourage continued expansion of both the outcome domains covered and the explanatory variables measured, to enhance the richness and quality of the data obtained, and to improve the representativeness of the samples that are drawn. These improvements would serve both the policy and academic research communities in their efforts to specify and estimate causal models of child, adolescent, and young adult behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Brett V. Brown, Greg J. Duncan and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Child Development in the Context of Family and Community Resources: An Agenda for National Data Collections" In: Integrating Federal Statistics on Children: Report of a Workshop. Committee on National Statistics and Board on Children and Families, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995: pp. 27-97.
5. Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Joyner, Kara
Curtin, Sally C.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Sexual Behaviors Across 9 National Cohorts of Young Males and Females Ages 15-19
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
Also: http://paa2011.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=112016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Pregnancy, Adolescent; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Overview
Although adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV transmission are preventable, (1) youth aged 15 to 24 contribute 18.9 million new STD cases in the US annually, (2) youth under age 20 account for 750,000 pregnancies a year, and (3) youth aged 15 to 24 were responsible for 20,000 new HIV cases, half of the 40,000 total, in 2006. What places these youth at risk are their sexual behaviors, with timing of first sex denoting the length of risk exposure.

Using nine nationally representative cohorts (NSLY79, NSAM88, NSFG88, NSAM95, NSFG95, ADD-Health, NLSY97, NSFG2002, and NLSY79YA), we examine cohort and sex differences in being sexually experienced and corroborate associations and trends across different data sets. Our samples are limited to male and female never-married youth ages 15 to 19 at the time they were reporting on their sexual behavior. We identify trends over time in being sexually experienced for 15 to 19 year old males and females. We find a monotonic decrease in the percent of 15-19 year old males being sexually experienced over cohorts. For females aged 15-19, we find an increase and then decrease from earlier to later cohorts. These results have significant implications for public health sexual outcomes among youth and for studies that examine sexually experienced youth, especially timing of first sex.

Bibliography Citation
Dariotis, Jacinda K., Kara Joyner, Sally C. Curtin, Freya L. Sonenstein, Kristin Anderson Moore and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Sexual Behaviors Across 9 National Cohorts of Young Males and Females Ages 15-19." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
6. Day, Randal D.
Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley A.
Price, Jessica L. Smith
Orthner, Dennis K.
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Kaye, Kelleen
Family Processes and Adolescent Religiosity and Religious Practice: View from the NLSY97
Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 289-309.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494920902735109
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parent-Child Interaction; Parental Marital Status; Religion; Religious Influences

This article focuses on family processes and adolescent religious attendance and personal religiosity. We find that the closeness and quality of the marital relationship and relationship between adolescent and parents significantly contributes to the strength of adolescent religious conviction and practice. The study used data from the NLSY97 cohort. Predictors include parenting style, closeness, and parent--child closeness; family structure; income, employment, parental education, mother's age at first birth, and number of siblings; adolescent characteristics (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disability, lying or cheating); and environmental characteristics (e.g., region of country, urbanicity, and physical environment risk). Family religious attendance was dramatically influenced by race in adolescents aged 16 years. Adolescents living with married, biological parents in 1997 were 36% more likely to attend worship services than those living with stepfamilies. Adolescents living in more physically risky environments, with peers who belonged to gangs, cut classes, or had sex, were less likely to attend weekly worship services with their families. Finally, compared with adolescents whose parents had a high-quality marital relationship and who had good relationships with both parents, all other adolescents were less likely to attend weekly worship services with their families.

Copyright of Marriage & Family Review is the property of Haworth Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Day, Randal D., Hinckley A. Jones-Sanpei, Jessica L. Smith Price, Dennis K. Orthner, Elizabeth Catherine Hair, Kristin Anderson Moore and Kelleen Kaye. "Family Processes and Adolescent Religiosity and Religious Practice: View from the NLSY97." Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 289-309.
7. Day, Randal D.
Kaye, Kelleen
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Exploring Family Processes in the NLSY97
Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009):109-115.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494920902735364
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Family Process Measures; Family Studies

This article introduces a special edition of Marriage and Family Review. We comment on how this collection emerged and was funded. A theoretical foundation for the articles is also presented. Finally, a short description of each article is included. The overall conclusion of the article is that the NLSY97 is a significant and important starting point for researching inner family life and family process variables. However, the authors note that large-scale research projects are needed within which family processes are the focus and not a sidelight.

Copyright of Marriage & Family Review is the property of Haworth Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Day, Randal D., Kelleen Kaye, Elizabeth Catherine Hair and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Exploring Family Processes in the NLSY97." Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009):109-115.
8. Driscoll, Anne K.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes
Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, June 1997.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED428859&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED428859
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Cognitive Ability; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

ED428859
Receipt of welfare is often negatively correlated with children's outcomes. Yet, virtually all children who live in households that receive public assistance are poor, giving rise to the question of whether poor outcomes are truly an effect of welfare, a spurious relationship between welfare and child outcomes, or a result of welfare selection factors. Using children in the NLSY-CS aged 9-14 in 1992, these possibilities are examined by controlling for poverty and for selection onto welfare. Controlling for child and maternal characteristics accounts for the majority of bivariate negative associations between welfare and cognitive ability and behaviors problems among black children. Controlling for poverty does little to change the negative relationship between welfare and measures of children's academic achievement and behavior problems for either blacks or whites. Controlling for selection onto welfare, through a two-stage selection model, reduces, but does not eliminate the negative relationship between welfare receipt and outcomes among white children and has little discernible effect among black children.
Bibliography Citation
Driscoll, Anne K. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes." Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, June 1997.
9. Driscoll, Anne K.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (Spring 1999): 85-113.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x38027r8n40238t5/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Cognitive Ability; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

Welfare receipt often is correlated negatively with children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Yet, virtually all children in households that receive public assistance are poor, prompting the question of whether poor outcomes are an effect of welfare, a spurious relationship between welfare and child outcomes, or a result of welfare selection. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), these possibilities were examined by controlling for poverty and for selection into welfare. Controlling for child and maternal characteristics accounted for the majority of bivariate associations between welfare and outcomes among Black children. Controlling for poverty did little to change the relationship between welfare and outcomes for Black or White children. Controlling for selection into welfare further reduced the relationship between welfare receipt and outcomes among White children and had little discernible effect among Black children. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Driscoll, Anne K. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (Spring 1999): 85-113.
10. Ehrle, Jennifer
Moore, Kristin Anderson
1997 NSAF Benchmarking Measures of Child and Family Well-Being
Report No. 6, Methodology Reports Series, Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1999.
Also: http://newfederalism.urban.org/nsaf/methodology_rpts/Methodology_6.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Health, Mental

Report No. 6 assesses several measures of child and family well-being used in the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF): parent mental health, child school engagement, behavioral and emotional problems in children, parent aggravation, reading to children, taking children on outings, and child participation in sports, clubs, and lessons. Each measure is considered in terms of its relevance to research on welfare reform, its psychometric properties (including quality of the data, internal reliability and construct validity), and how estimates using the measure compare with data from other large samples using the same or similar measures. [Note: this study uses the Behavior Problems Index as a benchmark for measures designed for the NSAF.]
Bibliography Citation
Ehrle, Jennifer and Kristin Anderson Moore. "1997 NSAF Benchmarking Measures of Child and Family Well-Being." Report No. 6, Methodology Reports Series, Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1999.
11. Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Parent-Teen Relationship As Associated With Youth Outcomes: Differences Based on Family Income
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, March 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA)
Keyword(s): Income; Income Level; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Garrett, Sarah Bracey, Elizabeth Catherine Hair and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Parent-Teen Relationship As Associated With Youth Outcomes: Differences Based on Family Income." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, March 2004.
12. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Kinukawa, Akemi
Lippman, Laura
Michelson, E.
The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale
In: What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development, The Search Institute Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society, Volume 3. K. Moore and L. Lippman, eds., New York: Springer, 2005: 183-202
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Scale Construction; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Papers presented at a conference held in Washington, D.C. in March 2003. Includes bibliographical references and index. This volume, part of the Search Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society, focuses on how scholars and practitioners can begin to build rigorous measures of the positive behaviors and attitudes that result in positive outcomes for children and youth. The volume is presented in five parts:
- Introduction and conceptual framework
- Positive formation of the self-character, values, spirituality, life satisfaction, hope, and ethnic identity
- Healthy habits, positive behaviors, and time use
- Positive relationships with parents and siblings
- Positive attitudes and behaviors toward learning and school environments
- Enacting positive values and behaviors in communities

Table of Contents
Introduction and Conceptual Framework.- The Values in Action Inventory of Character Strengths for Youth.- Adolescent Spirituality.- Children’s Life Satisfaction.- Measuring Hope in Children.- The Ethnic Identify Scale.- Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood.- Healthy Habits among Adolescents: Sleep, Exercise, Diet, and Body Image.- Adolescent Participation in Organized Activities.- Positive Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Functioning: An Assessment of Measures among Adolescents.- A Scale of Positive Social Behaviors.- The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale.- Positive Indicators of Sibling Relationship Quality: The Sibling Inventory of Behavior.- The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey.- Ability Self-Perceptions and Subjective Task Values in Adolescents and Children.- Assessing Academic Self-regulated Learning.- Identifying Adaptive Classrooms: Dimensions of the Classroom Social Environment.- Connection to School.- School Engagement.- Community-Based Civic Engagement.- Prosocial Orientation and Community service.- Frugality, Generosity, and Materialism in Children and Adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Sarah Bracey Garrett, Akemi Kinukawa, Laura Lippman and E. Michelson. "The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale" In: What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development, The Search Institute Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society, Volume 3. K. Moore and L. Lippman, eds., New York: Springer, 2005: 183-202
13. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Ling, Thomson J.
Cleveland, Kevin
The Continued Importance of Quality Parent–Adolescent Relationships During Late Adolescence
Journal of Research on Adolescence 18,1 (March 2008): 187-200.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00556.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Attrition; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Well-Being

The quality of adolescents' relationships with residential parents has been found to predict many different health and behavioral youth outcomes; strong associations have also been found between these outcomes and family processes, and between relationship quality and family processes. Data from Rounds 1–5 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 were used to examine hypotheses about the influence of the parent–adolescent relationship on subsequent adolescent mental well-being and delinquency, as mediated by family processes. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the influence of a positive residential parent–adolescent relationship on better mental well-being and fewer delinquency was entirely mediated by family routines, parental monitoring, and parental supportiveness, net of sociodemographic controls. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Research on Adolescence (Blackwell Publishing Limited) is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Sarah Bracey Garrett, Thomson J. Ling and Kevin Cleveland. "The Continued Importance of Quality Parent–Adolescent Relationships During Late Adolescence." Journal of Research on Adolescence 18,1 (March 2008): 187-200.
14. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hadley, Alena M.
Kaye, Kelleen
Day, Randal D.
Orthner, Dennis K.
Parent Marital Quality and the Parent-Adolescent Relationship: Profiles of Relationship Quality
Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 189-217.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494920902733500
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Divorce; Fathers and Children; Marital Conflict; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Marital Status

Rigorous studies repeatedly have demonstrated the negative effects of parental divorce on outcomes for families. However, very few studies have examined the quality of the marital relationship within intact families or how the quality of the marital relationship interacts with the quality of the parent--adolescent relationship. The present study examines how aspects of parent marital quality, such as marital support and conflict between the couple, existed within married families and examines how patterns of mother--adolescent and father--adolescent relationships quality varied longitudinally from 1997 to 1999. The study uses data from the NLSY97 cohort, a nationally representative sample of adolescents who are being followed into adulthood. Four profiles of parent marital quality were developed using latent class analyses. Four growth profiles for the mother--adolescent relationship and for the father--adolescent relationship were created using latent growth class analysis in Mplus.

To examine how the parent marital quality profiles and the parent--adolescent relationship quality interact, we examined how they overlapped. Six distinct groups were evident from this examination: (1) high marital quality and good relationships with both parents, (2) high marital quality and a good relationship with only one parent, (3) high support and high conflict marital quality and a good relationship with at least one parent, (4) low marital quality and a good relationship with at least one parent, (5) high marital quality and bad relationships with both parents, and (6) low marital quality and bad relationships with both parents.

Copyright of Marriage & Family Review is the property of Haworth Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Alena M. Hadley, Kelleen Kaye, Randal D. Day and Dennis K. Orthner. "Parent Marital Quality and the Parent-Adolescent Relationship: Profiles of Relationship Quality." Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 189-217.
15. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Kaye, Kelleen
Day, Randal D.
Orthner, Dennis K.
Marital Quality and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Components of Relationship Strengths in Married Couple Families
ASPE Research Brief, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), January 2009.
Also: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/RelationshipStrengths/Components/rb.shtml
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Families, Two-Parent; Marital Dissolution; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Marital Status; Transition, Adulthood

OVERVIEW
Due to sharp increases in the divorce rate and the increasing numbers of unmarried couples cohabitating in the United States, numerous research studies have examined the effects of marital dissolution on children. However, in 2006 nearly 50 million children were living with two, married parents, about two-thirds of all children in the country.

The purpose of this research brief is to explain the relationship context of adolescents who live in married couple families. Specifically, we assess the marital quality of the adolescents’ biological parents (and step-parents) by examining how supportive and conflict behaviors combine within the couple relationship. We also examine how support and conflict operate in parent-adolescent relationships. These separate measures of couple and parent-adolescent relationships are then combine[d] to form new categories that describe the relationship context within which adolescents transition into young adulthood.

The overall goal of the research is to determine whether marital quality and parent-adolescent relationships are associated with particular outcomes for adolescents. This analysis is unique in that it relies on the perceptions of parent marital and parent-adolescent relationship quality from the adolescents’ perspective. Additionally, this study uses a nationally representative data set to examine these couple and parent-adolescent relationships.

Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kelleen Kaye, Randal D. Day and Dennis K. Orthner. "Marital Quality and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Components of Relationship Strengths in Married Couple Families." ASPE Research Brief, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), January 2009.
16. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Kaye, Kelleen
Day, Randal D.
Orthner, Dennis K.
Marital Quality and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Well-Being
ASPE Research Brief, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), January 2009.
Also: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/RelationshipStrengths/Well-Being/rb.shtml
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Educational Outcomes; Families, Two-Parent; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Marital Dissolution; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Religious Influences; Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

OVERVIEW
While a number of studies have examined the effects of marital disruption on adolescent well-being, few have studied the implications of marital conflict and relationship quality for child well-being in married-couple families. This represents an important gap in the research, since most children live in married couple families. The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of adolescents who are being followed into adulthood to examine how parent marital quality among intact families interacts with the quality of the parent-adolescent relationships to predict physical health, mental health, substance use, sexual activity, religious activity, and educational outcomes in middle adolescence and early adulthood. Results indicate that adolescents whose parents have a high quality relationship and who have a good parent-adolescent relationship with both parents consistently had the best outcomes. Ironically, these types of parent/child situations are among the least studied.

SUMMARY
This study of adolescents in married couple families finds that the combined nature of parent marital quality and parent-youth relationships affect physical health, mental health, and substance abuse outcomes for youth in middle adolescence and, to a lesser extent, early adulthood. Specifically, among adolescents in married-couple families, those whose parents experienced marital discord and poor parent-adolescent relationships during their early adolescent years fare worse on a range of indicators of physical health, mental health, substance use, sexual activity, religious activity, and education outcomes. Furthermore, this research offers preliminary evidence that both parental marital quality and positive parent-adolescent relationships are important to well-being outcomes later in adolescence and extending in some cases even into early adulthood.

Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kelleen Kaye, Randal D. Day and Dennis K. Orthner. "Marital Quality and Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Well-Being." ASPE Research Brief, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), January 2009.
17. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Ling, Thomson J.
McPhee-Baker, Cameron
Brown, Brett V.
Youth Who Are "Disconnected" and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Communities
Publication #2009-37, Child Trends Research Brief, July 2009.
Also: http://www.childtrends.org/files/child_trends-2009_07_22_rb_disconnectedyouth.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Disconnected Youth; Health Factors; Job Training; Support Networks; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Training; Youth Problems

Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Kristin Anderson Moore, Thomson J. Ling, Cameron McPhee-Baker and Brett V. Brown. "Youth Who Are "Disconnected" and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Communities." Publication #2009-37, Child Trends Research Brief, July 2009.
18. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Park, M. Jane
Ling, Thomson J.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Risky Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Co-Occurrence, Predictors, and Consequences
Journal of Adolescent Health 45,3 (September 2009): 253-261.
Also: http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X%2809%2900111-6/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Behavioral Problems; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Risk-Taking; Well-Being

PURPOSE: Advances in research have broadened our understanding of the risky behaviors that significantly threaten adolescent health and well-being. Advances include: using person-centered, rather than behavior-centered approaches to examine how behaviors co-occur; greater focus on how environmental factors, such as family, or peer-level characteristics, influence behavior; and examination of how behaviors affect well-being in young adulthood. Use of nationally representative, longitudinal data would expand research on these critical relationships. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, a nationally representative sample of adolescents who are being followed over time, the present study: (1) identifies profiles of risky behaviors, (2) investigates how environmental characteristics predict these profiles of risky behaviors (e.g., delinquency, smoking, drug use, drinking, sexual behavior, and exercise), and (3) examines how these profiles of risky behaviors relate to positive and negative youth outcomes. RESULTS: Four "risk profiles" were identified: a high-risk group (those who report high levels of participation in numerous behaviors), a low-risk group (those who engage in very few risky behaviors), and two moderate risk-taking groups. We found that profiles with any negative behaviors were predictive of negative outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for practitioners to examine health behaviors in multiple domains concurrently rather than individually in isolation. Interventions and research should not simply target adolescents engaging in high levels of risky behavior but also adolescents who are engaging in lower levels of risky behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, M. Jane Park, Thomson J. Ling and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Risky Behaviors in Late Adolescence: Co-Occurrence, Predictors, and Consequences." Journal of Adolescent Health 45,3 (September 2009): 253-261.
19. Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Scott, Elizabeth
McPhee, Cameron
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Brown, Brett V.
Kinukawa, Akemi
Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Disconnected Youth: The Influence of Family, Programs, Peers, and Communities on Becoming Disconnected and on Re-Connecting
Child Trends Report Prepared for the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation. Washington, DC, October 2005.
Also: http://www.teenfutures.net/sites/default/files/resources/Disconnected%20Youth%20Report.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Demography; Disconnected Youth; Family Influences; Health Factors; Poverty; Racial Differences; School Dropouts; Transition, Adulthood; Unemployment, Youth; Work Attachment; Youth Problems

Introduction: The transition to adulthood has many bumps in the road. However, for some youth, this transition is especially difficult. Such youth may become disengaged from the worlds of school and work for a lengthy period of time. These youth are often referred to as disconnected. In this research brief, we analyze newly available data that allow us to track for four years the experiences of youth ages 12 to 16 in 1997.
Bibliography Citation
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine, Elizabeth Scott, Cameron McPhee, Kristin Anderson Moore, Brett V. Brown, Akemi Kinukawa and Sarah Bracey Garrett. "Disconnected Youth: The Influence of Family, Programs, Peers, and Communities on Becoming Disconnected and on Re-Connecting." Child Trends Report Prepared for the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation. Washington, DC, October 2005.
20. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Early Childbearing and Later Economic Well-Being
American Sociological Review 44,5 (October 1979): 784-815.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094528
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Educational Attainment; Family Size; First Birth; Husbands, Influence; Schooling; Simultaneity; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLS of Young Women on a subsample of those women who have borne a child by age 27, we find strong direct effects within a path analytic framework, such that later childbearers complete more education, have smaller families, and work fewer hours at age 27. The relationship with education is recursive among women having a first child by age l8, but simultaneous among later childbearers. Effects of age at first birth on economic well-being at 27 are indirect. Lower education is related to reduced earnings among women and among other household members (usually the husband). Since resources must be divided among more family members, the incidence of poverty is greater. For women who are at least l9 when they have their first birth, the timing of that birth is important to later well-being primarily because of the smaller families and increased work experience to those who postpone their first birth into the twenties. Having an early first birth was found to be less detrimental to the later economic well-being of black women than white women.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Early Childbearing and Later Economic Well-Being." American Sociological Review 44,5 (October 1979): 784-815.
21. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Consequences of Age At First Childbirth: Causal Models
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Earnings; Fertility; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling; Welfare

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on later poverty was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with young women aged 14 to 24 in l968. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Related analyses document a direct impact of early childbearing on schooling, marriage, and family size, and an indirect impact on employment, earnings, and welfare recipiency, through its effect on education, marriage,and fertility. To explore these indirect effects, causal models were developed and estimated. Results indicate that the impact of an early birth is complicated and differs among different population sub-groups. Early childbearing was associated with greater poverty in both samples.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Consequences of Age At First Childbirth: Causal Models." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
22. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Caldwell, Steven B.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Career Patterns; Childbearing; Earnings; Employment; Family Influences; Fertility; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Teenagers; Work Experience

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on labor force participation and earnings was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in 1976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between 1968 and 1976. A first birth during the teen years does not directly affect whether a woman is working years later, her accumulated work experience, or the occupational status, hours of work, hourly wages, and annual earnings of working women, when other factors are controlled. However, since early childbearing affects schooling and fertility, it has an indirect impact on labor force participation and earnings. For example, teenage childbearers have larger families and consequently accumulate less work experience and earn less per hour net of other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L., Kristin Anderson Moore and Steven B. Caldwell. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
23. Ikramullah, Erum N.
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Cui, Carol
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Parents Matter: The Role of Parents in Teens' Decisions About Sex
Publication #2009-45, Child Trends Research Brief, Child Trends, Inc, November 2009.
Also: http://www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends-2009_11_11_RB_Parents&TeenSex.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Gender Differences; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking

Overview. Adolescents are influenced by a variety of social factors and institutions. Prior research confirms what many of us know instinctively: that parents can be one of the strongest influences in adolescents' lives. For example, higher levels of parental involvement in their adolescents' lives are linked with lower levels of delinquency, violent behavior, high-school dropout, and drug abuse, as well as with higher levels of educational attainment. In this Research Brief, we look specifically at whether parental involvement in adolescence reduces the chances of teens being sexually active at a young age. Compelling reasons exist for exploring this topic. Early adolescent sexual experience is linked with a variety of risky outcomes, including acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and having an unintended pregnancy.5,6 Because of the significant role that parents can potentially play in influencing their teens to delay having sex—thus reducing the risk of negative reproductive health outcomes—it is important to understand whether and how multiple dimensions of parental involvement are associated with the timing of teens' first sexual experience. To further this understanding, Child Trends analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—1997 cohort to explore how parenting practices that occur before adolescents become sexually experienced are associated with the probability of sexual experience by age 16. This Research Brief reports our key findings. We found that multiple measures of parental involvement and engagement are associated with delayed sex among teens. These measures include positive parent-adolescent relationship quality, high parental awareness and monitoring, and family dinner routines. Specifically, our analyses showed that adolescent girls who reported higher quality relationships with their mothers and fathers, and adolescent boys who reported that they ate dinner with their families every day were less likely to have sexual intercourse at an early age. The same held true for both adolescent girls and adolescent boys who reported that their parents kept close tabs on whom they were with when not at home.
Bibliography Citation
Ikramullah, Erum N., Jennifer S. Manlove, Carol Cui and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Parents Matter: The Role of Parents in Teens' Decisions About Sex." Publication #2009-45, Child Trends Research Brief, Child Trends, Inc, November 2009.
24. Kaye, Kelleen
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Hadley, Alena M.
Day, Randal D.
Orthner, Dennis K.
Parent Marital Quality and the Parent–Adolescent Relationship: Effects on Sexual Activity among Adolescents and Youth
Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 270-288.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494920902733641
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Marital Stability; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Marital Status; Religious Influences; Risk-Taking; Teenagers; Variables, Independent - Covariate

The link between growing up outside of an intact family and the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors as an adolescent has been explored extensively. However, fewer studies examined the likelihood of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents within intact families and what elements of those married-parent families seem to function as protective factors for adolescents. This study looks at relationships within married-parent families—that is, the parent marital relationship, the youth-parent relationship, and the interaction of the two—to identify potential sources of resilience for adolescents that influence their sexual activity. Overall, the youths' relationship with their parents matters more than the parents' relationship with each other, particularly for male youth and youth in stepparent families. Other covariates with notable influence on youths' risky sexual behaviors include parents' marital disruption and religious activity during the teen years. Analyses are based on data from the NLSY97 cohort.

Copyright of Marriage & Family Review is the property of Haworth Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Kaye, Kelleen, Kristin Anderson Moore, Elizabeth Catherine Hair, Alena M. Hadley, Randal D. Day and Dennis K. Orthner. "Parent Marital Quality and the Parent–Adolescent Relationship: Effects on Sexual Activity among Adolescents and Youth ." Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 270-288.
25. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Logan, Cassandra
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Ikramullah, Erum N.
Pathways from Family Religiosity to Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 40,2 (June 2008): 105-117.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1363/4010508/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Contraception; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

CONTEXT: Few studies with nationally representative longitudinal data have examined whether and how family religiosity is associated with adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. METHODS: Data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine associations between a multidimensional measure of family religiosity assessed during early adolescence and reproductive health outcomes (sexual activity, number of partners and consistent contraceptive use) at age 17. Pathways through which family religiosity is associated with these outcomes were identified using structural equation models. RESULTS: Family religiosity was negatively associated with adolescent sexual activity, both directly (beta, −0.14) and indirectly (−0.02). The indirect association was mediated by family cohesion (as reflected in parental monitoring among the entire sample and among males, and in parent-teenager relationship quality and family routine activities among females) and negative peer behaviors. Greater family religiosity was indirectly associated with having fewer sexual partners (−0.03) and with using contraceptives consistently (0.02); these relationships were mediated through later age at first sex, more positive peer environments and higher levels of parental monitoring and awareness. However, among sexually active males (but not females), family religiosity was directly and negatively associated with contraceptive consistency (−0.11). CONCLUSION: Cohesive family environments and positive peer networks contribute to reduced levels of risky sexual behavior among adolescents from religious families. Parents who monitor their children's activities and peer environments, engage their families in regular activities and foster strong parent-child relationships can help reduce risky sexual behavior, regardless of family religiosity. Parental involvement in prevention programs may help reduce rates of teenage pregnancy and STDs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Cassandra Logan, Kristin Anderson Moore and Erum N. Ikramullah. "Pathways from Family Religiosity to Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 40,2 (June 2008): 105-117.
26. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
Mincieli, Lisa A.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Chapter 5: Outcomes for Children from Kindergarten through Adolescence
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition. S.D. Hoffman and R.A. Maynard, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
Also: http://www.urban.org/books/kidshavingkids/contents.cfm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Childbearing, Adolescent; Cognitive Development; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Well-Being

This chapter uses recent nationally representative data to update the portrait of the consequences of teen childbearing for the health, development, and welfare of children and adolescents. This chapter examines a broad set of outcomes in five domains: cognitive development and academic achievement, behavioral outcomes, home environment, relationship outcomes, and physical health and well-being. The analysis uses two large national datasets: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to examine outcomes for children at kindergarten entry, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97) to look at outcomes during adolescence.

Jennifer S. Manlove, Elizabeth Terry-Humen, Lisa A. Mincieli, and Kristin A. Moore examine outcomes for children of teen parents and compare these outcomes with those for children born to older mothers. As in the previous edition of Kids Having Kids, the authors find that children of teenage mothers fare poorly compared with other children. However, much of the difference is explained by factors other than adolescent childbearing. Compared with children whose mothers begin parenting at age 20 to 21, children of teen mothers are much more likely to be low birth weight, have lower health assessment scores, have lower cognitive attainment and proficiency scores at kindergarten entry, and exhibit more behavior problems. Adolescent children have significantly lower academic achievement as measured by performance on standardized tests, and they are at higher risk of not completing high school. Generally, these differences are most pronounced for the children born to women who have their first child before age 18.

For example, compared with children whose mothers begin parenting at age 20 to 21, children of teen mothers have lower standardized test scores at kindergarten entry, and adolescent daughters of teen mothers are less likely to graduate from high school, net of controls. In addition, children of teen mothers exhibit more behavior problems, and children of the youngest teen mothers are more likely to be low birth weight. Adolescent children of teen mothers are also more likely to be married or cohabiting at a young age and are more likely to have a teen birth themselves.

These adverse effects for children are most pronounced for those outcomes measured at kindergarten. However, unlike chapter 5 in the previous edition of Kids Having Kids, which found more pronounced differences for the children born to women who have their first child before age 18, this chapter finds similarly poor outcomes among children of younger and older teen mothers. The authors suggest that this similarity may result, in part, from the different living situations of younger and older teen mothers. These findings suggest that it will take more than convincing teen mothers to delay childbearing for a few years to eliminate the myriad disadvantages their children face relative to children whose mothers choose to begin parenting in their 20s or later.

Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Elizabeth Terry-Humen, Lisa A. Mincieli and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Chapter 5: Outcomes for Children from Kindergarten through Adolescence " In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition. S.D. Hoffman and R.A. Maynard, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
27. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Child Outcomes in the NLSY
Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Life Course; Longitudinal Surveys

This report contemplates strategies for future data collection and survey design for the NLSY-Child cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson. "Child Outcomes in the NLSY." Presented: Washington DC, NLSY79 Redesign Conference, September 1998.
28. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Burt, Martha R.
The Consequences of Early Childbearing
In: Private Crisis, Public Cost: Policy Perspectives on Teenage Childbearing. K.A. Moore and M.R. Burt, eds. Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Mothers; Poverty

This chapter reviews findings to date on the impact of early childbearing on: (1) subsequent educational attainment of the parent; (2) medical risks for the mother and child; (3) marriage and divorce rates; (4) subsequent fertility; (5) labor force participation and earnings; and (6) dependency on governmental support programs. The authors estimate a path model of the impact of age at first birth on the probability of being in poverty at age 27 using data from the NLS of Young Women and the PSID. It was found that the impact of an early birth differed among various population subgroups with lower educational attainment of the teenage mother and her larger family size impacting labor force participation rates and earnings and thus chances of being in poverty. Postponement of a first birth netted the NLS women studied $193 (in 1975 dollars) or $293 (in 1980 dollars) for each year the birth was delayed. The probability of being in poverty fell by an average of two percentage points per year of delayed childbirth.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Martha R. Burt. "The Consequences of Early Childbearing" In: Private Crisis, Public Cost: Policy Perspectives on Teenage Childbearing. K.A. Moore and M.R. Burt, eds. Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1982
29. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Caldwell, Steven B.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Waite, Linda J.
The Consequences of Early Childbearing: An Analysis of Selected Parental Outcomes Using Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes)
Working Paper No. 0999-01, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1977.
Also: http://www.lib.muohio.edu/multifacet/record/mu3ugb1214129
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Children; Dropouts; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Schooling; Teenagers

Strong differences have been documented between early and late childbearers in education and family size which appear to have enduring consequences for household income and family wellbeing. Young women who bore their first child while l5 or younger completed about 1.9 fewer years of school by age 24 than did their peers who delayed motherhood until 18, and 2.8 fewer years than those waiting until at least age 24 to have their first child. Women having a first birth at age 15 or less had 1.3 more children by age 24 than women having a first birth at ages 21 to 23; women having a first birth at 16 or 17 had 1.0 more children; while women with a first birth at age 18 had 0.6 more children. The relative sizes of these consequences at ages 24 and 27 were estimated using a path analytic model. In a separate analysis of the same data set, the probability of such critical life events as dropping out of school or the labor force in any year was found to be greater if a first birth occurs in that year and if the woman was married or marries in that year. The evidence suggests that early childbearers will not catch up with later childbearers by returning to school; however, their labor force participation does eventually equal that of later childbearers. These results were obtained in a multivariate model in which factors such as region of residence, familial socio-economic background, race, and cohort were controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Steven B. Caldwell, Sandra L. Hofferth and Linda J. Waite. "The Consequences of Early Childbearing: An Analysis of Selected Parental Outcomes Using Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes)." Working Paper No. 0999-01, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1977.
30. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Driscoll, Anne K.
Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children a Study
The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Wage Levels; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels. The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had ,somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply these generalizations based on these findings to families forced into employment by welfare reform. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Anne K. Driscoll. "Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children a Study." The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
31. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Glei, Dana A.
Driscoll, Anne K.
Zaslow, Martha J.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1998.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/17/88/f0.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Siblings

ED429683
Transitions into and out of poverty and welfare across a four-year time periods and their implications for math and reading skills and behavior are examined among a sample of ten and eleven year-olds. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement indicate that even with controls for factors that select families into poverty, children who do not experience poverty or welfare over this time period are advantaged relative to children who experience either. Children who are continuously poor but never receive welfare have more favorable outcomes than poor children who receive welfare. Among children experiencing changing economic circumstances, if the family manages to leave poverty, child outcomes are more positive; children whose families fall into poverty experience more negative outcomes than children living consistently above the poverty line. Fluctuations in family economic circumstances are also associated with poorer child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Dana A. Glei, Anne K. Driscoll and Martha J. Zaslow. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1998.
32. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Glei, Dana A.
Driscoll, Anne K.
Zaslow, Martha J.
Poverty and Welfare Patterns: Implications for Children
Welfare and Poverty Paper 2000-07, Washington DC: Child Trends, Inc., 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

To provide early insight into the possible implications of welfare reform for children, patterns of welfare receipt and poverty among a sample of ten and eleven year-olds are examined in detail across a four-year time period. Children's math and reading skills and behavior problems are analyzed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. Results indicate that early childhood experiences and maternal characteristics are powerful determinants of children's outcomes. Net of these selection factors, children who experienced stable albeit disadvantaged economic conditions did not have worse outcomes than those who were never poor. Children whose families' economic fortunes improved were not at higher risk for poor outcomes. However, children in families whose financial circumstances declined were more at risk for behavioral problems and scored lower on reading tests than never poor children, as did children whose situations fluctuated.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Dana A. Glei, Anne K. Driscoll and Martha J. Zaslow. "Poverty and Welfare Patterns: Implications for Children." Welfare and Poverty Paper 2000-07, Washington DC: Child Trends, Inc., 2000.
33. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Glei, Dana A.
Driscoll, Anne K.
Zaslow, Martha J.
Redd, Zakia
Poverty and Welfare Patterns: Implications for Children
Journal of Social Policy 31, 2 (April 2002), 207-227.
Also: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=102533&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0047279401006602
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1996, the US federal government passed welfare reform legislation. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act(PRWORA) altered greatly the circumstances under which families can receive public assistance, limiting receipt to 5 years, requiring work after 24 months, and allowing states to impose sanctions and other requirements such as family caps (Greenberg, 1999). Because many countries reforming their social welfare system look to the USA as one possible model, analyses of the effects of US welfare policy on children are of relevance internationally. We find that the population receiving welfare in the USA is highly diverse and that background differences and early experiences explain most of the associations between welfare and poverty and children's outcomes. After taking account of these background differences, we find that children who experienced stable albeit disadvantaged economic conditions did not have worse outcomes than children who were never poor. Nor were children whose families' economic fortunes improved at higher risk for poor outcomes. However, children in families whose financial circumstances declined or fluctuated were more at risk for behavioural problems and scored lower on reading tests than were children who had never been poor.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Dana A. Glei, Anne K. Driscoll, Martha J. Zaslow and Zakia Redd. "Poverty and Welfare Patterns: Implications for Children." Journal of Social Policy 31, 2 (April 2002), 207-227.
34. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Guzman, Lina
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Lippman, Laura
Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Parent-Teen Relationships and Interactions: Far More Positive Than Not
Publication # 2004-25, Child Trends Research Brief, Child Trends Inc, December 2004.
Also: http://www.childtrends.org/Files/Parent_TeenRB.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children, Well-Being; Health, Mental; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

ED484689
This Research Brief brings together recent results of a nationally representative survey of U.S. teens about the nature of their relationships with their parents and findings from rigorous research studies on the parent-adolescent bond. The evidence presented shows that while the proportion of teens reporting positive relationships with their parents does dip somewhat during the early teen years and while this proportion is lower for parents who live apart from their children, adolescents, in general, respect, admire, and like their parents and enjoy spending time with them. These results from interviews with teens dovetail with research showing the link between the quality of parent-child relationships and a wide range of positive outcomes for teens. Moreover, this research is reinforced by similar findings in industrialized countries elsewhere in the world, which are also reported on in this brief.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Lina Guzman, Elizabeth Catherine Hair, Laura Lippman and Sarah Bracey Garrett. "Parent-Teen Relationships and Interactions: Far More Positive Than Not." Publication # 2004-25, Child Trends Research Brief, Child Trends Inc, December 2004.
35. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Parent Religious Beliefs and Adolescent Outcomes
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Parents, Behavior; Religion; Religious Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Attendance at religious services has been examined frequently in studies of adolescent development and is generally found correlated with more positive outcomes. However, little empirical work has been done to examine the factors that explain these correlations. Using measures of religious belief designed at Child Trends and included in the 1997 panel of the new National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate multivariate models to explore the relative importance of family religious attendance compared with parental religious beliefs, family socioeconomic status, demographic characteristics, and parenting practices. Measures of religious belief include the importance of religious belief, prayer, and the degree to which they believe that the scriptures of their faith should be interpreted literally. Child outcomes include measures of the parent-child relationship and measures of adolescent substance use and delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Elizabeth Catherine Hair. "Parent Religious Beliefs and Adolescent Outcomes." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
36. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Patterns and Implications of Step-Parents/Adolescent Relationships
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adoption; Cohabitation; Family Characteristics; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Formation; Family Structure; Family Studies; Parents, Non-Custodial

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Increased marital dissolution and non-marital childbearing have resulted in high proportions of American children who live with step-parents during their adolescent years. The new National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1997 (NLS97) panel, a nationally representative sample of 9,022 adolescents aged 12-16 in 1997, includes rich information on parent-adolescent relationships as well as on the parent's marital history. We address several questions: What are the within-group residential and marital history patterns of step-parent?; What are the implications of these different residential histories for adolescent/ step-parent relationships and for adolescent problem behaviors? While most adolescents live with two bio parents, large numbers live with non-adoptive step-parents, adoptive step-parents, and a parent's boy/girlfriend. Adolescents report feeling closer to residential bio parents and describe these parents as more supportive. Residential bio parents also monitor the adolescents more and the adolescents report fewer behavior problems and less substance use.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Elizabeth Catherine Hair. "Patterns and Implications of Step-Parents/Adolescent Relationships." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 2001.
37. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Garrett, Sarah Bracey
Into Adulthood: The Continued Importance of Quality Parent-Adolescent Relationships
Presented: Baltimore, MD, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, March 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA)
Keyword(s): Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Elizabeth Catherine Hair and Sarah Bracey Garrett. "Into Adulthood: The Continued Importance of Quality Parent-Adolescent Relationships." Presented: Baltimore, MD, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, March 2004.
38. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Halle, Tamara G.
Vandivere, Sharon
Mariner, Carrie L.
Scaling Back Survey Scales: How Short is too Short?
Sociological Methods and Research 30,4 (May 2002): 530-567.
Also: http://smr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/30/4/530
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Data Quality/Consistency; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Scale Construction; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To understand children's development, one must examine an array of constructs. Yet the time and budget constraints of large-scale survey research create a dilemma: how to cut scales to the fewest possible items while still retaining their predictive properties. In this article, the authors compare the predictive validity of several shortened versions of the Behavior Problems Index and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment--Short Form with their full scales within the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--1979 cohort. They use the scales to predict delinquency, reading recognition scores, parent-child activities, and smoking behavior of 2,017 children at ages 13 or 14 from data gathered 2, 4, and 6 years prior. Analyses leave the authors cautiously optimistic that short scales, especially scales composed of items gathered at different time points and repeated regularly, may enjoy substantial predictive power. However, two-item scales may be too short, and psychometric study on additional scales is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record Copyright: 2002 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Tamara G. Halle, Sharon Vandivere and Carrie L. Mariner. "Scaling Back Survey Scales: How Short is too Short?" Sociological Methods and Research 30,4 (May 2002): 530-567.
39. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Factors Affecting Early Family Formation: A Path Model
Population and Environment 3,1 (Spring 1980): 73-98
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; First Birth; Marriage; Parental Influences

This study uses a path model to examine the factors that determine age at initiation of childbearing. Family orientation was found to have a significant effect on the age at which a woman begins a family. Age at first marriage, educational attainment, and age at family formation are strongly interdependent; however, the process seems to vary by race.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "Factors Affecting Early Family Formation: A Path Model." Population and Environment 3,1 (Spring 1980): 73-98.
40. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Family Size
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Children; Earnings; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Schooling; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on family size was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women age 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Analyses on both data sets provide strong support for an association between an early first birth and higher subsequent fertility. Among PSID women aged 35 to 52, mothers whose first child was born when they were 17 or younger bore an average of more than five children each, approximately three children more per mother compared to women who delayed their first birth to age 24 or later. Age at first birth is found to have a far greater impact on fertility than age at first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Family Size." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
41. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Female Headed Families and Welfare Recipiency
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Children; Earnings; Employment; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Teenagers; Welfare

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on female-headed families and welfare recipiency was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Teenage childbearing per se does not appear to be related to subsequent female headship, although a premarital first birth and a teenage marriage do predict to later being a female household head. The strong association between early childbearing and receipt of welfare disappears when controls for education, family size, labor force participation, age at marriage and race are included.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Female Headed Families and Welfare Recipiency." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
42. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Final Research Summary
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on her subsequent social and economic status was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Analyses indicate that an early first birth reduces the amount of schooling a young woman is able to complete, even net of family background, motivation, and age at marriage, particularly among white and high school age mothers. Teenage mothers also have substantially larger families, net of controls. An early birth does not increase marital dissolution, except indirectly by precipitating teenage marriages. The variables in turn affect earnings, income and the probability of poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Final Research Summary." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
43. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Caldwell, Steven B.
Waite, Linda J.
Teenage Motherhood: Social and Economic Consequences
Working Paper URI 243000, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Fertility; First Birth; Marriage; Occupational Status; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Schooling; Teenagers

This report focuses on the effects of early childbearing on the later social and economic status of the mother and her family; specifically, on education, family size, marriage and marital instability, participation in the labor force and earnings, welfare receipt, and poverty. Each of these outcomes has been studied separately. In addition, the interrelationships between these outcomes have been studied within causal models. These models explore the indirect as well as the direct effects of a woman's age at first childbirth.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Sandra L. Hofferth, Steven B. Caldwell and Linda J. Waite. "Teenage Motherhood: Social and Economic Consequences." Working Paper URI 243000, The Urban Institute, Washington DC, 1979.
44. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Ling, Thomson J.
Kinukawa, Akemi
Vandivere, Sharon
Creating a Longitudinal Indicator: an Exploratory Analysis of Turbulence
Child Indicators Research [electronic resource] 2,1 (March 2009): 5-32.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/637030247m6h346v/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Care Arrangements; Child Development; Family Structure; Parental Marital Status; Residence; Turbulence; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This exploratory paper conceptualizes, develops, and assesses a potential longitudinal indicator of children's contexts. Three sets of activities are used to create and examine a cumulative, longitudinal measure of turbulence that aggregates children's experiences with different types of change. The initial step involves conceptualizing a construct based on theory and previous research and distinguishing it from related or similar constructs. A second set of activities involves defining and coding a measure of the construct. A third step involves examining predictive or concurrent validity. Turbulence encompasses varied types of change experienced by a developing child, for example, repeated changes in child care arrangements, family structure, income, residence and schooling. Each has been separately linked to poorer outcomes for children. For this exploratory work, retrospective data collected in Round 1 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, were used. A measure was conceptualized and constructed; and the predictive validity of turbulence, over and above background factors, was assessed for a set of adolescent outcomes. Substantively, we conclude that turbulence is an important and measurable construct, but that better data are needed than currently available. The value of the paper is that it illustrates a general approached for conceptualizing, developing, and examining longitudinal, cumulative indicators.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Thomson J. Ling, Akemi Kinukawa and Sharon Vandivere. "Creating a Longitudinal Indicator: an Exploratory Analysis of Turbulence ." Child Indicators Research [electronic resource] 2,1 (March 2009): 5-32.
45. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Lippman, Laura
What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development
New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, January 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Book Review.] What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development, part of the Search Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society (vol. 3), focuses on how scholars and practitioners can begin to build rigorous measures of the positive behaviors and attitudes that result in positive outcomes for children and youth. The volume is presented in five parts: - Introduction and conceptual framework
- Positive formation of the self-character, values, spirituality, life satisfaction, hope, and ethnic identity
- Healthy habits, positive behaviors, and time use
- Positive relationships with parents and siblings
- Positive attitudes and behaviors toward learning and school environments
- Enacting positive values and behaviors in communities

Table of Contents
Introduction and Conceptual Framework.- The Values in Action Inventory of Character Strengths for Youth.- Adolescent Spirituality.- Children's Life Satisfaction.- Measuring Hope in Children.- The Ethnic Identify Scale.- Leisure Time Activities in Middle Childhood.- Healthy Habits among Adolescents: Sleep, Exercise, Diet, and Body Image.- Adolescent Participation in Organized Activities.- Positive Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Functioning: An Assessment of Measures among Adolescents.- A Scale of Positive Social Behaviors.- The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale.- Positive Indicators of Sibling Relationship Quality: The Sibling Inventory of Behavior.- The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey.- Ability Self-Perceptions and Subjective Task Values in Adolescents and Children.- Assessing Academic Self-regulated Learning.- Identifying Adaptive Classrooms: Dimensions of the Classroom Social Environment.- Connection to School.- School Engagement.- Community-Based Civic Engagement.- Prosocial Orientation and Community service.- Frugality, Generosity, and Materialism in Children and Adolescents

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Laura Lippman. What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, January 2005.
46. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
Positive Outcomes among the Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although children born to teen mothers are at higher risk of negative outcomes, many manage to succeed in life. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement to explore positive outcomes among adolescents aged 13-14 across several outcome domains: their activities; internalizing and externalizing behaviors; and academic achievements.
Bivariate and multivariate analyses show that adolescents whose mothers were in their late teens rather than their early teens when their first child was born have better outcomes, as do adolescents with fewer siblings, those whose biological father is in the household, those not receiving welfare and those not in poverty. Components of the adolescent's home environment, including cognitive stimulation and emotional support, are associated with positive outcomes in multiple domains. Other factors affect outcomes primarily in one domain; for example, maternal education and cognitive test scores affect primarily academic outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Jennifer S. Manlove and Elizabeth Terry-Humen. "Positive Outcomes among the Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, May 2002.
47. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Mariner, Carrie L.
Halle, Tamara G.
Scaling Back Survey Scales: How Short is too Short?
Presented: Ann Arbor, MI, Health and Retirement Study, Institute for Social Research, Conference on Data Quality Issues in Longitudinal Surveys, October 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Social Research (ISR), University of Michigan
Keyword(s): Attrition; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Data Quality/Consistency; Family Environment; Genetics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Marital Conflict; Marital Instability; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Research Methodology; Scale Construction; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evolving research and theory indicate that the factors that affect child development are varied, and arise from multiple domains, including the family, the neighborhood, the school, and the peer group, in addition to genetic and physiological factors (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979, 1986, 1989; Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994). Even within a single domain -- the family-numerous processes have been posited and suggested to affect children's development in very different ways, some positive and some negative. For example, Day, Gavazzi, and Acock (1997) recommend multiple measures of family process constructs for inclusion in surveys, ranging from the intensity and frequency of marital conflict, to the use and creation of rituals. Similarly, Thornton (1998), summarizing the work of the NICHD Family and Child Well-being Research Network, lists dozens of candidate constructs for inclusion in studies of children and families. Collecting information on the varied factors that might potentially affe ct children's development places extraordinary data collection demands on a study. The respondent burden can become quite high, as data collection efforts can take an hour or more or even several hours. Repeated visits may be necessary at a single data collection point. Moreover, given a general consensus that longitudinal data are necessary in order to begin to address causal processes, there is a need to engage in these lengthy data collection efforts year after year. Thus, in addition to concerns about respondent burden, concerns must be addressed about the cumulative implications of very lengthy data collection studies on attrition, break-offs and respondent cooperation.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Carrie L. Mariner and Tamara G. Halle. "Scaling Back Survey Scales: How Short is too Short?" Presented: Ann Arbor, MI, Health and Retirement Study, Institute for Social Research, Conference on Data Quality Issues in Longitudinal Surveys, October 1998.
48. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Mbwana, Kassim
Preventing Risky Sex
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
Also: http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/Research/conferences/NLSYConf/pdf/Moore_Mbwana_Preventing_Risky_Sex.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Gender; Parenting Skills/Styles; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Our goal is to extend prior research exploring differences on the effects of parenting and varied risk factors on adolescent sexual behavior for both males and females. We examine four outcomes: sexual activity, unsafe sex, multiple sexual partners and teen parenthood. We test three hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that higher levels of parental awareness and authoritative parenting will be associated, as a main effect, with reduced sexual activity, more consistent contraceptive use, fewer sexual partners, and a lower probability of teen parenthood. Second, we assess the main effects for a varied set of adolescent risks including behavioral problems, peer risks, neighborhood risks and academic risk, by gender. These risks are identified based on an ecological model for exploring a comprehensive set of background risk factors that may influence an adolescent's outcomes. We hypothesize that higher levels of adolescent risks will be associated with increased sexual activity, reduced contraceptive use, an increased number of sexual partners, and higher risks of teen parenthood. Third, we extend previous work by examining how parenting practices interact with early adolescent risks to affect sexual behavior and early parenthood later in the adolescent years. We hypothesize that stronger parenting will be especially protective for preventing risky sexual behaviors among high-risk adolescents. Specifically, we hypothesize that adolescents with greater school, neighborhood, peers, and individual risks will benefit more from parental monitoring/awareness and authoritative parenting than adolescents at lesser risk. These hypotheses are explored separately by gender.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Kassim Mbwana. "Preventing Risky Sex." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
49. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Nord, Christine Winquis
Teenage Childbearing and Poverty
Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Childbearing, Adolescent; Fertility; Hispanics; Poverty

An association between teenage parenthood and subsequent poverty has been noted for several decades. However, because early childbearing is more common among women from disadvantaged backgrounds, whether teenage childbearing increases the probability of poverty over and above the risk due to background factors has not been clear. In this paper, the effect of the timing of the first birth on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the family is examined using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. All women are age 27 when studied. Direct effects are not hypothesized; rather the effect of age at first birth is expected to be mediated by intervening variables including educational attainment, age at first marriage, family size, women's work experience and earnings, and the earnings of other members of the household. Structural equation models are estimated, taking into account background variables that affect both selection into early childbearing and the outcome variables in the model, and employing a variant of Amemiya's principle to deal with problems of censoring and selectivity. Results indicate that age at first birth has a substantial effect on the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold at age 27 among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, though the effect is particularly large among blacks and Hispanics. Age at first birth is found to have a significant direct effect on highest grade completed and number of children among all three race/ethnicity groups. In addition, age at first birth has a significant direct effect on age at first marriage among whites. These variables in turn affect family income and thus poverty.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, David E. Meyers, Donna Ruane Morrison and Christine Winquis Nord. "Teenage Childbearing and Poverty." Presented: Bethesda, MD, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", National Institutes of Health, May 18-19, 1992.
50. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Glei, Dana A.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Family Resources; Family Studies

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Dana A. Glei. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Welfare and Child Development, sponsored by the Board on Children and Families and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Family and Child Well-Being Network, 1994.
51. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Greene, Angela Dungee
Children Born to Teenage Mothers: Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement and the National Survey of Children
Report, Child Trends, Washington DC, January 1995.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED415998&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED415998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children, Health Care; Children, Mental Health; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Family Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Behavior; National Survey of Children (NSC); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Runaways; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

ED415998
This study compared the well-being of children born to mothers younger than 17 years old(very young teens), 18 to 19 years old (older teens), and mothers in their early twenties. Measures of well-being were assessed in five domains: (1) health and psychological well-being; (2) quality of home environment; (3) cognitive development and educational attainment; (4) behavior problems and substance abuse; and (5) sexual experiences and first births. The study also examined the effects of mother's age at first birth on child well-being. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS) and the National Survey of Children (NSC). Major findings indicated that although controlling for maternal background characteristics reduced the effects of teen motherhood on child well-being, the deleterious effect of being born to young teens remained statistically significant on children's cognitive achievement scores, grade repetition, teacher rating of school performance, and home environment quality. The deleterious consequences of teen childbearing extended to their subsequent children. There was a persistently negative effect of early childbearing in the cognitive domain. The NLSY-CS revealed that 4- to 14-year-old children of the youngest teens performed more poorly on tests of cognitive ability, and NSC results showed that the offspring of teens were more likely to be retained and less likely to be perceived by their teachers as performing favorably in high school. Behavior difficulties such as running away, early sexual activity, and teen motherhood emerged among children in the NSC.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Angela Dungee Greene. "Children Born to Teenage Mothers: Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Child Supplement and the National Survey of Children." Report, Child Trends, Washington DC, January 1995.
52. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Greene, Angela Dungee
Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; Child Health; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Welfare

To assess the effects of early childbearing on the children themselves, the authors of this chapter look at four types of outcomes: the quality of the home environment provided to the child; the child's cognitive development and educational attainment; physical and psychological well-being; and behavior problems and substance abuse. They consider these potential impacts for the children when young as well as when adolescents. And they examine whether firstborns fare differently from their siblings. Their major finding are in the areas of home environment and cognitive and educational development. When the mother's background characteristics are controlled, the quality of the home environment (including both emotional support and cognitive stimulation) is over 4 points lower (on a normal scale where the mean is set at 100) for the offspring of young teen mothers than for children whose mothers were 20 to 21 at their birth. The children of young teen mothers also score lower in mathematics and reading recognition (4 points) and in reading comprehension (3 points) in the period up to age 14. These differences carry over into adolescence in the form of greater likelihood of repeating a grade and being rated unfavorably by teachers in high school. Birth order is not important. These deficits are found for subsequent children as well as the firstborn children of young teen mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison and Angela Dungee Greene. "Effects on Children Born to Adolescent Mothers" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 145-173
53. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Zaslow, Martha J.
Glei, Dana A.
Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development
Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, September 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Family Background; Family Resources; Family Studies; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

Revised and under review. Direct correspondence to Kristin A. Moore, 4301 Connecticut Ave., Suite 100, Washington DC, 20008. This paper examines transitions into and from welfare and poverty across the time period from 1986 to 1990. and their implications for children's math achievement, reading skills, and behavior and the level of emotional support and cognitive stimulation provided in children's homes. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement indicate that even with controls for factors that select family into poverty, children who do not experience poverty or welfare over this time period are advantaged relative to children who experience poverty or welfare; and that children who are continuously poor but never receive welfare have fewer behavior problems as reported by their mothers than children who receive welfare. Among children experiencing changing economic circumstances, if the family manages to leave poverty child outcomes are more positive; and children whose families fall from above the poverty level into welfare experience high levels of behavior problems. Frequent fluctuations in family economic circumstances are also associated with poorer child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Donna Ruane Morrison, Martha J. Zaslow and Dana A. Glei. "Ebbing and Flowing, Learning and Growing: Transitions in Family Economic Resources and Children's Development." Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, September 1995.
54. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Myers, David E.
Morrison, Donna Ruane
Edmonston, B.
Age at First Childbirth and Later Poverty
Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,4 (1993): 393-422
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Earnings; Ethnic Groups; Family Background; Family Income; Family Size; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Poverty; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, David E. Myers, Donna Ruane Morrison and B. Edmonston. "Age at First Childbirth and Later Poverty." Journal of Research on Adolescence 3,4 (1993): 393-422.
55. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Nord, Christine Winquis
Peterson, James Lloyd
Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents
Family Planning Perspectives 21,3 (May-June 1989): 110-114.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2135660
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Poverty; Sexual Activity; Underreporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1987 round of the National Survey of Children indicate that seven percent of Americans aged 18-22 have experienced at least one episode of nonvoluntary sexual intercourse. Women were more likely than men to report having had such an experience, with just under half of all nonvoluntary experiences among women occurring before the age of 14. Multiple classification analysis reveals that white women who had lived apart from their parents before age 16, those who had been brought up in poverty, those who had a physical, emotional or mental limitation when they were young, those whose parents had been heavy drinkers, those whose parents had used illegal drugs and those whose parents had smoked cigarettes when they themselves were teenagers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual abuse. Six percent of young white women with no risk factors, nine percent of those with one, 26 percent of those with two, and 68 percent of those with three or more had been sexually abused before or during adolescence. The analyses are based on data from the third wave of the National Survey of Children (NSC) conducted in 1987, Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) carried out in 1982, and the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Behavior of Youth (NLSY) for the years 1983-1985.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Christine Winquis Nord and James Lloyd Peterson. "Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents." Family Planning Perspectives 21,3 (May-June 1989): 110-114.
56. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Sacks, Vanessa Harbin
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Sawhill, Isabel V.
What If You Earned a Diploma and Delayed Parenthood? Intergenerational Simulations of Delayed Childbearing and Increased Education
Research Brief 2014-27, Child Trends, June 2014.
Also: http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2014-27SocialGenomeDelayChildbearing.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Economic Well-Being; Educational Attainment; High School Diploma; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Adolescent

This brief reports the results of using the Social Genome Model to provide a better understanding of how delaying childbearing and improving the educational attainment of teen mothers in one generation can be linked to the improved economic well-being of their children. This brief specifically reports results from "What if" simulations, in which teen mothers' age at their first birth was increased by two or five years and in which the mothers earn a high school diploma. The implications of these changes on the life of the mothers' children are estimated through childhood and up to age 29.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Vanessa Harbin Sacks, Jennifer S. Manlove and Isabel V. Sawhill. "What If You Earned a Diploma and Delayed Parenthood? Intergenerational Simulations of Delayed Childbearing and Increased Education." Research Brief 2014-27, Child Trends, June 2014.
57. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Snyder, Nancy O.
Cognitive Attainment Among Firstborn Children of Adolescent Mothers
American Sociological Review 56,5 (October 1991): 612-624.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096083
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Child Development; Childbearing; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The consequences of early childbearing for the intellectual achievement of young children are examined. Earlier studies have suggested that mothers who were early childbearers and those who are high school dropouts have children who fare worse than the children of older mothers and those who were progressing normally in school. Data on the children born to women in the NLSY, together with week-by-week school enrollment data for each mother, allowed the examination of this hypothesis. Separate analysis of black, Hispanic, and non-minority children were made. Children's cognitive abilities were most strongly predicted by the mother's cognitive test score. Mother's age at first birth and school enrollment status at conception proved to be less important predictors of the child's cognitive score compared to the powerful prediction made by her Armed Forces Qualifying Test score. While environmental factors were relatively weak predictors, measures of the stimulating nature of the child's home increased the predictive power in regression sets. It must be concluded that there is strong selectivity into school failure and teenage parenthood and that the low parental ability as measured here is clearly evident in the next generation.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Nancy O. Snyder. "Cognitive Attainment Among Firstborn Children of Adolescent Mothers." American Sociological Review 56,5 (October 1991): 612-624.
58. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Snyder, Nancy O.
Cognitive Development among the Children of Adolescent Mothers
Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Birthweight; Child Development; Childbearing; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Teenagers

The consequences of early childbearing for the intellectual achievement of young children are examined. Earlier studies have suggested that mothers who were early childbearers and those who are high-school dropouts have children who fare worse than the children of older mothers and those who were progressing normally in school. Data on the children born to women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, together with week-by-week school enrollment data for each mother, allowed the examination of this hypothesis. Separate analyses of black, Hispanic, and non-minority children were made. Children's cognitive abilities were most strongly predicted by the mother's cognitive test score. Mother's age at first birth and school enrollment status at conception proved to be less important predictors of the child's cognitive score compared to the powerful prediction made by her Armed Forces Qualifying Test score. While environmental factors were relatively weak predictors, measures of the stimulating nature of the child's home increased the predictive power in regression sets. It must be concluded that there is strong selectivity into school failure and teenage parenthood; and that the low parental ability as measured here is clearly evident in the next generation.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Nancy O. Snyder. "Cognitive Development among the Children of Adolescent Mothers." Working Paper, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1991.
59. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Vandivere, Sharon
Kinukawa, Akemi
Turbulence During Childhood
Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Care Arrangements; Childhood Education, Early; Childhood Residence; Family Income; Family Structure; Parental Marital Status; Residence; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Schooling; Turbulence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers have regularly found that turbulence is related to poorer development among children. For example, repeated changes in child care arrangements, family structure, income, residence and schooling have all been linked to poorer outcomes for children. This paper will examine measures of turbulence in children's lives through age 12 in schooling, residence, and parental marriage from Round 1 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort. In addition, traumatic events, such as seeing a shooting, being bullied repeatedly, or experiencing a break-in, will be examined, along with social and demographic control variables, to assess the importance of turbulence over and above background factors and life stressors. Implications for behavior problems and delinquency will be examined. Analyses will assess whether turbulence matters, net of control variables, whether types of turbulence are cumulative or redundant, and whether some types of turbulence are more critical than others.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Sharon Vandivere and Akemi Kinukawa. "Turbulence During Childhood." Presented: Boston, MA, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2004.
60. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment
Family Planning Perspectives 9,5 (September-October 1977): 220-225.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2134432
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Alan Guttmacher Institute
Keyword(s): Child Care; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

These data show that early childbearing is strongly associated with a lower level of educational attainment, especially among young women attending school at the time of the birth of the first child, even when other factors known to affect educational attainment are taken into account. The negative impact of early childbearing on a woman's educational attainment is probably due to the difficulty and cost of arranging child care and running a household (if the woman heads her own household or is married), to the necessity of earning a living, and, not least, to the pressures she may encounter from family and friends to devote herself to child care. There is no evidence that the young mother is ever able to catch up educationally with her childless peers. In fact, quite the opposite occurs; teenage mothers are unable to catch up and fall further behind their former classmates who have postponed parenthood.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Linda J. Waite. "Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment." Family Planning Perspectives 9,5 (September-October 1977): 220-225.
61. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Marital Dissolution, Early Motherhood and Early Marriage
Social Forces 60,1 (September 1981): 20-40.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577930
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Children; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The age at which a young woman marries appears to be related strongly to the probability that the marriage remains intact: older couples tend to make more stable pairings than those who wed while quite young. But youthful marriages are often accompanied by youthful childbearing. The effects of the age at which the woman first wed and the age at which she bore her first child on the likelihood that the marriage dissolved during this period were assessed, net of each other and of the characteristics and circumstances of the woman. We found that, among young wives, teenage parenthood did not appear to increase the risk of divorce or separation, whereas teenage marriage significantly raised the probability of disruption. When the analysis was performed separately by race, this pattern held among white wives; however, for black wives, a first birth before the age of 20 was found to increase instability more than a first marriage before that age. The finding that age at first marriage but not age at first birth is significantly related to the probability of marital dissolution appears robust in the total sample: among subsamples of wives all married at about the same age, the age at which they had their first birth did not influence stability of marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Linda J. Waite. "Marital Dissolution, Early Motherhood and Early Marriage." Social Forces 60,1 (September 1981): 20-40.
62. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Caldwell, Steven B.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Educational Attainment
The Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Fertility; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Schooling

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on the amount of schooling she completes was assessed using two national, longitudinal data sets. National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with young women aged 14 to 24 in l968. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. Results from analyses on both data sets indicate that early childbearing is associated with significant educational losses, even when the impact of family background, educational goals, and age at marriage are statistically controlled. There is some evidence that older women catch up slightly; but in no instance did even half of the women who became mothers at 17 or younger manage to complete high school. Losses appear to be particularly great for white teenage mothers and for young women who marry as teenagers.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Linda J. Waite, Steven B. Caldwell and Sandra L. Hofferth. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Educational Attainment." The Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
63. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Waite, Linda J.
Hofferth, Sandra L.
Caldwell, Steven B.
The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Marriage, Separation and Divorce
Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; First Birth; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Teenagers

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on marriage, separation and divorce was assessed using two national longitudinal data sets. Analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between l968 and l972 with the Young Women's cohort of the NLS. Information on women aged 22 to 52 in l976, both wives and female heads, was obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) interviews, which were conducted between l968 and l976. A link between early pregnancy and early marriage was confirmed. An issue of greater debate-the associations among early childbearing, early marriage, and subsequent marital dissolution, was explored in varied ways. Analyses indicate that early marriage, rather than an early birth, increases the probability of subsequent marital break- up. Early childbearing does contribute to marital break-up indirectly, however, since pregnancy is a factor that precipitates many teenage marriages.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson, Linda J. Waite, Sandra L. Hofferth and Steven B. Caldwell. "The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Marriage, Separation and Divorce." Final Report, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1978.
64. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Meyers, David E.
Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development
Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The aim of this paper is to further illuminate the processes through which an early birth affects child well-being. Since it is not possible to capture the developmental status and well-being of a child with a single indicator, such as an IQ score, most child experts prefer a developmental profile that covers a breadth of dimensions or domains. For this reason, this study examines the effect of the mother's age at first birth on three measures related to the child's cognitive development and academic achievement -- the reading and mathematics sub-scales of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test cognitive, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) -- and one measure of social behavior -- the child's score on the mother-rated Behavior Problems Index (BPI). The study uses a national-level sample of children and limits its analysis to first borns to eliminate the possible confounding influence of birth order. The explicit assumption of the present study is that the consequences of being born to a teenage mother do not derive from the mother's age per se, but are largely the product of the correlates of early child-bearing such as low maternal education and father absence, some of which reflect selectivity into early motherhood and some of which are consequences of the timing of her first birth.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane, Kristin Anderson Moore and David E. Meyers. "Maternal Age at First Birth and Children's Behavior and Cognitive Development." Presented: Bethesda, MA, NICHD Conference, "Outcomes of Early Childbearing: An Appraisal of Recent Evidence", May 1992.
65. Myers, David E.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Nord, Christine Winquis
Brown, Brett V.
Long-Term Consequences for Women of Having a Child During the Teen Years
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; First Birth; Marriage; Simultaneity; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on the simultaneous effects of age at first birth, age at first marriage, and highest grade in school among women age 27. The work builds on earlier analyses in three ways. Individual level background characteristics are augmented with contextual variables such as labor market conditions and the incidence of female-headed households. In addition, an estimated strategy is employed that allows us to estimate the simultaneous effects of age at first birth, age at first marriage, and educational attainment, and to account for censoring of age at first birth and first marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Myers, David E., Kristin Anderson Moore, Christine Winquis Nord and Brett V. Brown. "Long-Term Consequences for Women of Having a Child During the Teen Years." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, 1991.
66. Orthner, Dennis K.
Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley A.
Hair, Elizabeth Catherine
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Day, Randal D.
Kaye, Kelleen
Marital and Parental Relationship Quality and Educational Outcomes for Youth
Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 249-269.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01494920902733617
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Human Capital; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood

This research examines the effects of parental marital quality and the quality of the parent--child relationship on the educational progress of adolescents. Previous research indicates that family structure and economic capacity have significant effects on educational achievement and high school graduation rates. Few studies, however, examined the effects of the quality of the parental relationship on the educational outcomes of their children. This study is built on bioecological and social capital theories of human development suggesting that the capacity for child and youth development is enhanced when their primary relationships are supportive and provide them with social assets that encourage human capital development. The study uses data from the NLSY97, a nationally representative sample of adolescents who are being followed into adulthood.

The findings indicate that family stability and living with two biological parents is a stronger predictor of high school graduation than parent marital quality and the quality of the parent--child relationship. But the data also indicate that parent marital quality and the quality of the parent--child relationship have a strong and positive effect on postsecondary education access among those who do graduate from high school. These findings are interpreted in light of the contribution of relationship quality to further educational involvement and the implications this has for workforce development and successful labor force competition in a global economy.

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Bibliography Citation
Orthner, Dennis K., Hinckley A. Jones-Sanpei, Elizabeth Catherine Hair, Kristin Anderson Moore, Randal D. Day and Kelleen Kaye. "Marital and Parental Relationship Quality and Educational Outcomes for Youth." Marriage and Family Review 45,2-3 (April 2009): 249-269.
67. Ross, Martha
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Murphy, Kelly
Bateman, Nicole
DeMand, Alex
Sacks, Vanessa Harbin
Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults
Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
Also: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Brookings_Child-Trends_Pathways-for-High-Quality-Jobs-FINAL.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Benefits; Disadvantaged, Economically; Employment, Youth; Job Characteristics; Job Satisfaction; Socioeconomic Background; Wages

Using an advanced methodology and longitudinal data, this report examines two main questions: the quality of jobs (as measured by wages, benefits, hours, and job satisfaction) held by 29-year-olds who experienced disadvantage in adolescence; and the particular adolescent and young adulthood employment, education, and training experiences of people from disadvantaged backgrounds that are associated with higher-quality jobs at age 29.
Bibliography Citation
Ross, Martha, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kelly Murphy, Nicole Bateman, Alex DeMand and Vanessa Harbin Sacks. "Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults." Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
68. Sugland, Barbara W.
Blumenthal, Connie
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Social Capital and the Normative Order of Life Events Among At-Risk Female Youth
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Disadvantaged, Economically; Event History; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Marriage; Racial Differences; School Completion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the mediating effects of family-based social capital on the normative order of life events among at-risk female youth. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women are used to examine the transition to: 1) high school completion, 2) consistent labor force participation, 3) first birth, and 4) first marriage. Female adolescents 14 to 16 years of age in 1968 constitute the study sample. Young women are observed for a period of 20 years (1968 to 1988). Findings indicate strong racial disparities in the dominant order of life events for young women. Specifically, whites are significantly more likely than blacks to complete high school before any other life event. Black women are significantly more likely than white women to experience a first birth prior to a transition to work, school completion, or marriage, and enter the labor force last in the sequence of observed life events. The normative order of life trajectories is unaffected by risk status, irrespective of race. Exposure to family-based social capital increases the likelihood of high school completion and stable employment before marriage and childbearing, particularly among at-risk black women. Social capital also significantly contributes to eventual high school completion among young school-age mothers. The need to examine cultural differences in the normative order of life events, and the need for further exploration of positive supports disadvantaged families provide for their children is discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sugland, Barbara W., Connie Blumenthal and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Social Capital and the Normative Order of Life Events Among At-Risk Female Youth." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
69. Waite, Linda J.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Impact of an Early First Birth on Young Women's Educational Attainment
Social Forces 56,3 (March 1978): 845-865.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577222
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Children; Educational Attainment; Family Background; First Birth; Motherhood; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women who become mothers at an early age tend to accumulate fewer years of schooling than those who delay entry into motherhood. In this paper, the impact of age at first birth on the process of educational attainment of young women is examined using data from the NLS of Young Women for the period 1968 to 1972. The results of this analysis indicate that: (1) the younger the age at first birth, the fewer years of schooling completed, other things equal; (2) the effect of most determinants of educational attainment depends on age at first birth; and (3) the educational decrement caused by an early birth is about half as large for young black women as for their white counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Impact of an Early First Birth on Young Women's Educational Attainment." Social Forces 56,3 (March 1978): 845-865.
70. Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Teenage Childbearing among Youth Born to Teenage Mothers
Youth and Society 44,2 (June 2012): 258-283.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/44/2/258.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mothers, Adolescent; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article examined how early maternal characteristics, an adolescent’s family environment, and the adolescent’s own attitudes and behaviors were associated with the odds of a nonmarital teenage birth among youth born to teenage mothers. Multivariate analyses indicated that these domains were closely linked. Early maternal characteristics shaped the later family environment of adolescents (parenting quality and home environment), which, in turn, was associated with the attitudes and behaviors of teens that put them at risk of a nonmarital birth. Notably, there was variation in some of the associations by gender. Increased mother’s cognitive ability lowered the risk of a nonmarital birth for boys, but not for girls, whereas fertility expectations were significant for girls, but not for boys. There were no race-ethnic differences in the risk of a teenage birth among girls, although Black boys had a higher risk than White boys.
Bibliography Citation
Wildsmith, Elizabeth, Jennifer S. Manlove, Susan Marie Jekielek and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Teenage Childbearing among Youth Born to Teenage Mothers." Youth and Society 44,2 (June 2012): 258-283.
71. Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Mincieli, Lisa A.
Teenage Childbearing Among Youth Born to Teenage Mothers
Youth and Society 44,2 (June 2012): 258-283.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/44/2/258.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cognitive Ability; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Family Environment; Family Structure; First Birth; Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Racial Differences; Religion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article examined how early maternal characteristics, an adolescent’s family environment, and the adolescent’s own attitudes and behaviors were associated with the odds of a nonmarital teenage birth among youth born to teenage mothers. Multivariate analyses indicated that these domains were closely linked. Early maternal characteristics shaped the later family environment of adolescents (parenting quality and home environment), which, in turn, was associated with the attitudes and behaviors of teens that put them at risk of a nonmarital birth. Notably, there was variation in some of the associations by gender. Increased mother’s cognitive ability lowered the risk of a nonmarital birth for boys, but not for girls, whereas fertility expectations were significant for girls, but not for boys. There were no race-ethnic differences in the risk of a teenage birth among girls, although Black boys had a higher risk than White boys.
Bibliography Citation
Wildsmith, Elizabeth, Jennifer S. Manlove, Susan Marie Jekielek, Kristin Anderson Moore and Lisa A. Mincieli. "Teenage Childbearing Among Youth Born to Teenage Mothers." Youth and Society 44,2 (June 2012): 258-283.
72. Zaslow, Martha J.
Tout, Kathryn
Botsko, Christopher
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Welfare Reform and Children: Potential Implications
Number A-23 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States". Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 1998.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/308014.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); State Welfare; Welfare

Findings from recent welfare-to-work evaluations point to evidence of program impacts on maternal psychological well-being and on parent-child interaction and the children's home environments.

Adults are typically the focus of welfare policies and programs, even though children comprise a majority of public assistance recipients. In 1995, about two-thirds of those receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children each month were children.1 Moreover, key provisions in the most recent welfare legislation, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), have implications for children.

Based on research findings from welfare-to-work program evaluations and from basic research on child development, we conclude that welfare reform can affect children in diverse ways. These effects will vary depending on state and local policies, family characteristics and risk status, patterns of maternal employment, and children's experiences in the home and in nonmaternal care settings.

Bibliography Citation
Zaslow, Martha J., Kathryn Tout, Christopher Botsko and Kristin Anderson Moore. Welfare Reform and Children: Potential Implications. Number A-23 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States". Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 1998..
73. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Nord, Christine Winquis
Stief, Thomas
Welfare Mothers as Potential Employees: A Statistical Profile Based on National Survey Data
Report, Child Trends, Inc., 1991.
Also: http://openlibrary.org/b/OL1492369M/Welfare_mothers_as_potential_employees
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Government Regulation; Mothers; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Welfare

When women who receive welfare benefits are compared with other women, both poor and non-poor, in the NLSY and other national sample surveys, welfare mothers are notably different from non-poor mothers. At the same time, these data show that there is considerable diversity within the welfare population. In particular, compared to short-term recipients, longer-term recipients have lower cognitive achievement scores, less education, sporadic work experience, and lower self-esteem. Non-welfare mothers with similar disadvantages disproportionately find only low-paying service jobs, which are insufficient to move them out of poverty. Differences between poor women on welfare and poor working women are too small to represent major positive changes in the lives of the women themselves or in the life prospects of their children. The study suggests that federal programs of education and job training may be of help to those whose academic skills, education, and work experience are in the second quartile among welfare mothers. Those in the top quartile probably possess enough skills, education, and experience to succeed on their own, while prospects for those in the bottom half are unclear.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Christine Winquis Nord and Thomas Stief. "Welfare Mothers as Potential Employees: A Statistical Profile Based on National Survey Data." Report, Child Trends, Inc., 1991.
74. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Smith, Ellen Wolpow
Stief, Thomas
Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data
Research Report, Washington DC: Child Trends, October 29, 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); General Assessment; Health Care; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Welfare

The finding that welfare children exhibit problems such as low achievement, grade repetition, and classroom conduct disorders at rates double those shown by non-poor children means the "cycle of disadvantage" is still very much with us. Unless effective interventions are found and applied, many of these young people will go on to become adult non-workers and impoverished or dependent parents, perhaps producing another generation of high-risk children. The similarities between children in families receiving AFDC and other poor children suggest that low parent education, poverty, and family turmoil are detrimental to children's development, no matter what the particular sources of the family's financial support or the predominant family configuration might be. The findings may also mean that if families move from being "welfare poor" to "working poor," the overall life chances of the children will not necessarily be enhanced. The findings regarding the home environments of children suggest that many mothers in low-income families need more than remedial education or job training; some need training in effective childrearing practices. A lack of parental stimulation may not be the only handicap, or even the most significant impediment faced by children in AFDC families, but it is a handicap that can be addressed through programs such as parenting education, high quality child care, and compensatory preschool. Finally, there is the finding that welfare children are clearly doing better than children in other low-income families with respect to receipt of routine health care. This finding reinforces concerns about the possible negative effects on children of a loss of Medicaid benefits as parents move from AFDC dependency to precarious self-sufficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith and Thomas Stief. "Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data." Research Report, Washington DC: Child Trends, October 29, 1991.
75. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Smith, Ellen Wolpow
Stief, Thomas
Coiro, Mary Jo
Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data
In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Health Factors; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Racial Studies; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One child in seven in the United States is in a family that receives "welfare," or cash income through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. As of September 1992 some 9.4 million children under the age of 18 were receiving AFDC (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993). Because families move on and off welfare, a larger proportion of children receive AFDC for some period between birth and adulthood. Estimates by Martha Hill, Greg Duncan, and their colleagues at the University of Michigan, based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are that 22% of U.S. children born in the early 1970s received welfare for at least 1 year before reaching their 15th birthday. For African-American children born during these years, an estimated 55% were dependent for some childhood (Committee on Ways and Means, 1991, p. 643).
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith, Thomas Stief and Mary Jo Coiro. "Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data" In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
76. Zill, Nicholas
Peterson, James Lloyd
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Guide to Federal Data on Children, Youth, and Families
Report #89-04, Conference on Child and Family Statistics, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1988
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Child Trends, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children; Data Quality/Consistency; Family Studies; Longitudinal Data Sets; Overview, Child Assessment Data

Overview of research and policy uses of federal data on children and families: Recommendations from the Second Interagency.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, James Lloyd Peterson and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Guide to Federal Data on Children, Youth, and Families." Report #89-04, Conference on Child and Family Statistics, Child Trends, Inc., Washington DC, 1988.