Search Results

Author: Williams, Kristi
Resulting in 15 citations.
1. Addo, Fenaba
Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment
Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12360/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; High School Completion/Graduates; Mothers, Adolescent; Parental Marital Status

We reexamined the association of maternal age and marital status at birth with youth high school completion using data from the Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and giving attention to multiple age categories and race and ethnic variations. Youth born to older teen mothers were no more likely to graduate from high school than those born to the youngest teen mothers. Although delaying childbirth to young adulthood was associated with greater odds of children's high school completion when compared with the earliest teen births, those born to young adult mothers were disadvantaged when compared with those born to mothers aged 25 years or older. Being born to an unmarried mother was associated with lower odds of high school completion. We found no evidence that maternal age at birth more strongly predicted high school graduation for White compared with Latino and Black youth.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Sharon Sassler and Kristi Williams. "Reexamining the Association of Maternal Age and Marital Status at First Birth With Youth Educational Attainment." Journal of Marriage and Family 78,5 (October 2016): 1252-1268.
2. Carlson, Daniel L.
Williams, Kristi
Parenthood, Life Course Expectations, and Mental Health
Society and Mental Health 1,1 (March 2011): 20-40.
Also: http://smh.sagepub.com/content/1/1/20.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Society and Mental Health
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Differences; First Birth; Health, Mental; Life Course; Marriage; Parenthood; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although past research indicates that giving birth at a young age and prior to marriage negatively affects mental health, little is known about the role of individual expectations in shaping these associations. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the authors consider how individual expectations for the sequencing of marriage and parenthood and the timing of first births shape mental health outcomes associated with premarital childbearing and age at first birth, and they investigate variation in the role of expectations across gender and race/ethnicity. Results indicate that expecting children before marriage ameliorates the negative mental health consequences of premarital first births and that subsequently deviating from expected birth timing, either early or late, results in increased distress at all birth ages. In both cases, however, the degree and manner in which expectations matter differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Expectations for premarital childbearing matter only for African Americans’ mental health, and although later-than-expected births are associated with decreased mental health for all groups, earlier-than-expected births are associated only with decreased mental health for women, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites.
Bibliography Citation
Carlson, Daniel L. and Kristi Williams. "Parenthood, Life Course Expectations, and Mental Health." Society and Mental Health 1,1 (March 2011): 20-40.
3. Painter, Matthew A. II
Frech, Adrianne
Williams, Kristi
Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth
Demography 52,1 (February 2015): 153-182.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0367-9
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Stability; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II, Adrianne Frech and Kristi Williams. "Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth." Demography 52,1 (February 2015): 153-182.
4. Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Williams, Kristi
Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent demographic trends indicate declines in teen childbirth, increases in non-marital childbearing, and shifts to more births to women in their twenties. Using data from the linked Children and Young Adult sample (N=2,865) of the NLSY79, this study examines the potential benefits to the offspring of women who delay childbirth. We investigate whether the children born to mothers who delay childbirth into their early and late twenties have more positive educational outcomes compared with children born to teen mothers. Results suggest youth born to teen and young adult mothers are less likely to graduate from high school than youth born to older mothers. And, this association remains robust to mother's marital status at birth. Our results highlight the diverging destinies faced by youth born to teen mothers and older mothers, but suggest that those born to young adult women (in their early 20s) may also face educational disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Fenaba Addo and Kristi Williams. "Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?" Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
5. Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Family Structure and High School Graduation: How Children Born to Unmarried Mothers Fare
Genus: Journal of Population Sciences 69,2 (2013): 1-33.
Also: http://scistat.cilea.it/index.php/genus/article/view/501/254
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Universita Degli Studi Di Roma "La Sapienza"
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine whether the union transitions of unmarried mothers into marriage or cohabitation during their children's youth are associated with their offspring's likelihood of graduating from high school by age 20. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which enables us to extend the growing body of research on the intergenerational reproduction of family structure and well-being in the United States
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Addo, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Family Structure and High School Graduation: How Children Born to Unmarried Mothers Fare." Genus: Journal of Population Sciences 69,2 (2013): 1-33.
6. Sassler, Sharon
Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?
Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 2008, 41% of all births in the United States occurred outside of marriage. Children born to unmarried mothers are often disadvantaged in young adulthood, including being less likely to graduate high school. In recent years, the age composition of mothers has changed; teen births declined substantially, and non-marital births are now most heavily concentrated among women in their twenties. This paper examines whether maternal age at birth differentiates the educational outcomes of children, and if this varies by maternal marital status. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find significant differences in the likelihood of high school graduation among youth born to a never-married versus a married mother. These disparities remain even after including controls for maternal age at birth, as well as social and economic characteristics of mothers prior to the birth. The marital status gap in the likelihood of graduating from high school among youth born to older mothers is far narrower than for youth whose mothers were either teenagers or in their early 20s when they were born, though this finding is limited to white youth. Impacts for racial educational disparities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Addo, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Maternal Union Status and Youth Educational Attainment: Does Age at Birth Matter?" Presented: Paris, France, EUCCONET/Society For Longitudinal And Life Course Studies International Conference, October 2012.
7. Williams, Kristi
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
Family Structure and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood: How Children Born to Unwed Mothers Fare
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; CESD (Depression Scale); Cohabitation; Coresidence; Educational Outcomes; Family Structure; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Parents, Single; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research indicates that being raised in a family that does not include both biological parents is associated with a range of poor outcomes in childhood. This literature has focused primarily on children in divorced families. Less is known about the well-being of children born to single mothers, especially when they reach young adulthood. This paper explores how young adults born to single mothers fare in young adulthood, focusing on high school graduating and teen parenthood. Data are from the linked Children and Young Adult sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find significant differences in the likelihood of graduating from high school and experiencing a teen birth for those born to a never-married versus a married mother. Among those born to single mothers, there are few differences between those who remain in stable, single mother families and those whose mothers marry or cohabit.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Fenaba Addo and Adrianne Frech. "Family Structure and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood: How Children Born to Unwed Mothers Fare." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
8. Williams, Kristi
Finch, Brian
Adverse Childhood Experiences, Early and Nonmarital Fertility, and Women's Health at Midlife
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We develop and test hypotheses about the influence of adverse childhood experiences on two dimensions of family formation--age and marital status at first birth--and consider whether these dimensions of family formation mediate the effect of childhood adversity on women's midlife health. We further posit that exposure and adaptation to childhood adversity, social processes linked to structural disadvantage, may help to explain U.S. race and class disparities in fertility timing and nonmarital childbearing, both of which have been linked to women's health at midlife. Analysis of 35 years of nationally representative panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) indicate that exposure to adverse childhood experiences is significantly associated with earlier age at first birth and with greater odds of having a nonmarital first birth. Results further show that age and marital status at first birth significantly mediate the effect of adverse childhood experiences on women's health at midlife.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi and Brian Finch. "Adverse Childhood Experiences, Early and Nonmarital Fertility, and Women's Health at Midlife." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
9. Williams, Kristi
Finch, Brian
Adverse Childhood Experiences, Early and Nonmarital Fertility, and Women's Health at Midlife
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 60,3 (September 2019): 309-325.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022146519868842
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have powerful consequences for health and well-being throughout the life course. We draw on evidence that exposure to ACEs shapes developmental processes central to emotional regulation, impulsivity, and the formation of secure intimate ties to posit that ACEs shape the timing and context of childbearing, which in turn partially mediate the well-established effect of ACEs on women's later-life health. Analysis of 25 years of nationally representative panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79; n = 3,893) indicates that adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age at first birth and greater odds of having a nonmarital first birth. Age and marital status at first birth partially mediate the effect of ACEs on women's health at midlife. Implications for public health and family policy aimed at improving maternal and child well-being are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi and Brian Finch. "Adverse Childhood Experiences, Early and Nonmarital Fertility, and Women's Health at Midlife." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 60,3 (September 2019): 309-325.
10. Williams, Kristi
Finch, Brian
Adverse Childhood Experiences, Marital History, and Midlife Health
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Divorce; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have enduring consequences for health and well-being throughout the life course. We draw on recent evidence that ACEs undermine self-regulation, trust, and the formation of secure intimate ties to posit that ACEs decrease the probability of marriage and increase risk of divorce. Analysis of 35 years of panel data (NLSY79) (n = 5,784) supports the latter hypothesis among white but not black men and women. Importantly, for white women, a substantial portion of the well-established link between divorce and later life health is partly spurious -- explained by the joint effect of ACEs on both marital history and later life health. Controlling for ACEs reduces the estimated effect of divorce on health at age 50 by 25% for white women and 18% for white men. Health differences between the never-married and those in their first marriage at age 50 are not explained by ACEs.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi and Brian Finch. "Adverse Childhood Experiences, Marital History, and Midlife Health." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
11. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Early Childbearing, Union Status, and Women's Health at Midlife
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Differences; First Birth; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the prevalence of early and nonmarital childbearing, little is known about their long-term consequences for women’s health. We use data from the NLSY79 and multivariate propensity score matching to examine differences in midlife health between women who had an adolescent or young adult first birth and those whose first birth occurred at later ages. We then estimate the effect of marital status at birth and later marital history on the midlife self-assessed health of women who had an early first birth. Results suggest few negative health consequences of early childbearing except for black women who have their first birth in young adulthood. Among those who have an early first birth, marriage at birth appears beneficial for the midlife health of white women, while marriage after a nonmarital birth may pose health risks for black and Hispanic women.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Early Childbearing, Union Status, and Women's Health at Midlife." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
12. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Addo, Fenaba
Frech, Adrianne
First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 56,4 (December 2015): 514-533.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/56/4/514.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; First Birth; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital History/Transitions; Propensity Scores; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite evidence that first-birth timing influences women's health, the role of marital status in shaping this association has received scant attention. Using multivariate propensity score matching, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the effect of having a first birth in adolescence (prior to age 20), young adulthood (ages 20-24), or later ages (ages 25-35) on women's midlife self-assessed health. Findings suggest that adolescent childbearing is associated with worse midlife health compared to later births for black women but not for white women. Yet, we find no evidence of health advantages of delaying first births from adolescence to young adulthood for either group. Births in young adulthood are linked to worse health than later births among both black and white women. Our results also indicate that marriage following a nonmarital adolescent or young adult first birth is associated with modestly worse self-assessed health compared to remaining unmarried.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Fenaba Addo and Adrianne Frech. "First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 56,4 (December 2015): 514-533.
13. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mothers’ Union Histories and the Mental and Physical Health of Adolescents Born to Unmarried Mothers
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54,3 (September 2013): 278-295.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/54/3/278.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Age at Birth; CESD (Depression Scale); Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Fertility; Health Factors; Marital History/Transitions; Marital Status; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children’s well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers’ subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers’ subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Mothers’ Union Histories and the Mental and Physical Health of Adolescents Born to Unmarried Mothers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54,3 (September 2013): 278-295.
14. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife
American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/76/3/465.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mothers, Health; Parents, Single; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the United States, little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health. We pay particular attention to the paternity status of a mother’s partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black women, but not for Hispanic women. We find no evidence that the negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the child’s biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife." American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.
15. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Mother's Union History and the Health of Children Born to Single Mothers
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Marriage; Parental Influences; Parents, Single; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79 linked mother-child files, we examine whether children born to single mothers who marry or cohabit have better (or worse) psychological and physical health outcomes in early adulthood than those whose mothers remained unmarried. We limit our analysis to first-born children who were born to and lived with a single mother and distinguish mothers' union histories by marital and cohabitation status, dissolution status of the union, and paternity status of partner. Preliminary results indicate that, on average, children born to single mothers receive few mental or physical health benefits in young adulthood if their mothers subsequently marry or cohabit vs. remain unpartnered.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Mother's Union History and the Health of Children Born to Single Mothers." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.