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Source: American Journal of Epidemiology
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Biello, Katie Brooks
Sipsma, Heather L.
Kershaw, Trace
Effect of Teenage Parenthood on Mental Health Trajectories: Does Sex Matter?
American Journal of Epidemiology 172,3 (1 August 2010): 279-287.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/172/3/279.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Health, Mental; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Teenagers

Rates of teenage pregnancy and parenthood in the United States remain high. Although many consequences of teenage parenthood have been well studied, little prospective research has examined its effect on mental health. This study aims to better understand the impact of teenage parenthood on mental health and to determine whether sex modifies this relation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (1997-2006), and a matched cohort design, the authors compared changes in the mental health of parenting teenagers and nonparenting teenagers over 6 years of follow-up with mixed-effects regression. The results indicate that mental health improved for all teenagers over 6 years of follow-up. Furthermore, overall, teenage parenthood was not associated with changes in mental health; however, sex modified this relation. Although the mental health of teenage fathers improved at a faster rate compared with nonparenting teenage males, teenage mothers improved at a slower rate compared with nonparenting teenage females. Psychological health has important implications for both the teenage parent and the child. Future studies should aim to better understand the mechanisms through which teenage parenthood impacts mental health among both males and females, and interventions should be developed to ensure mental health among young parents.

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Bibliography Citation
Biello, Katie Brooks, Heather L. Sipsma and Trace Kershaw. "Effect of Teenage Parenthood on Mental Health Trajectories: Does Sex Matter?" American Journal of Epidemiology 172,3 (1 August 2010): 279-287.
2. Geronimus, Arline T.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Maternal Youth or Family Background? On the Health Disadvantages of Infants with Teenage Mothers
American Journal of Epidemiology 137,2 (15 January 1993): 213-225.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/137/2/213.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; First Birth; Health Factors; Household Composition; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Racial Differences; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The health disadvantages of infants with teenage mothers are well documented. Because poor and minority women are disproportionately represented among teen mothers, differences in infant health by maternal age may reflect family background pre-childbearing) characteristics rather than the effects of maternal age. To control for differences in family background, the authors compared birth outcomes and maternal behaviors that could affect fetal or infant health among sisters in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1988). They compared sisters who had first births at different ages in order to study the relation between maternal age and low birth weight, prenatal care, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, breast feeding, and well-child visits. The authors found evidence that maternal family background accounts for many of the health-related disadvantages of the firstborn infants of teenage mothers. The findings suggest that disadvantaged black primiparous women in their twenties may be an important and possibly underemphasized target population for interventions designed to reduce excess black low birth weight and infant mortality rates.
Bibliography Citation
Geronimus, Arline T. and Sanders D. Korenman. "Maternal Youth or Family Background? On the Health Disadvantages of Infants with Teenage Mothers." American Journal of Epidemiology 137,2 (15 January 1993): 213-225.
3. Hamad, Rita
Rehkopf, David
Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit
American Journal of Epidemiology 183,9 (1 May 2016): 775-784.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/183/9/775.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Socioeconomic Factors; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores.
Bibliography Citation
Hamad, Rita and David Rehkopf. "Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit." American Journal of Epidemiology 183,9 (1 May 2016): 775-784.
4. Miller, Jane E.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Poverty and Children's Nutritional Status in the United States
American Journal of Epidemiology 140,3 (1 August 1994): 233-243.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/140/3/233.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Family Structure; Height; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income Level; Marital Status; Minorities; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Height; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Verbal Memory (McCarthy Scale); Weight

This study describes deficits in nutritional status among poor children in the United States using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for children born between 1979 and 1988. The prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting) and low weight-for-height (wasting) is higher among children in persistently poor families. Differentials appear greater according to long-term rather than short-term income; hence, single-year income measures do not adequately capture the effects of persistent poverty on children's nutritional status. Differences in nutritional status between poor and nonpoor children remain large even when controls for other characteristics associated with poverty, such as low maternal educational attainment, single-parent family structure, young maternal age,low maternal academic ability, and minority racial identification, are included. The excess risks of stunting and wasting among poor children are not reduced appreciably when size of the infant at birth or mother's height and weight are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Jane E. and Sanders D. Korenman. "Poverty and Children's Nutritional Status in the United States." American Journal of Epidemiology 140,3 (1 August 1994): 233-243.
5. Starfield, Barbara
Shapiro, Sam
Weiss, Judith
Liang, Kung-Yee
Knut, Ra
Paige, David
Wang, Xiaobin
Race, Family Income, and Low Birth Weight
American Journal of Epidemiology 134,10 (November 1991): 1167-1174.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/134/10/1167.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Birthweight; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Education; Family Income; Fertility; Marital Status; Mothers, Education; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Women

The relations among race, family income, and low birth weight were examined using information obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which conducted yearly interviews with a nationally representative sample of young women identified in the late 1970s. Data were available for these women and their offspring from 1979 through 1988. Maternal education, maternal age, age/parity risk, marital status, and smoking during pregnancy served as covariates in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The risk of low birth weight among births to black women and white women who were poor was at similarly high levels regardless of whether poverty was determined prior to study entrance or during the study period. Longitudinal analyses showed an exceptionally large increase in risk of low birth weight among children born to women whose prior pregnancy ended in a low-birth-weight infant. These two findings emphasize the importance of factors antecedent to the pregnancy in the genesis of low birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Starfield, Barbara, Sam Shapiro, Judith Weiss, Kung-Yee Liang, Ra Knut, David Paige and Xiaobin Wang. "Race, Family Income, and Low Birth Weight." American Journal of Epidemiology 134,10 (November 1991): 1167-1174.
6. Strobino, Donna M.
Ensminger, Margaret E.
Kim, Young J.
Nanda, Joy
Mechanisms for Maternal Age Differences in Birth Weight
American Journal of Epidemiology 142,5 (September 1995): 504-514.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/142/5/504
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Child Health; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Family Characteristics; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care

The authors studied three hypothesized explanations for reduced birth weights of infants born to US adolescent mothers—social disadvantage, biologic immaturity, and unhealthy behaviors during pregnancy. A hierarchical regression analysis was pursued to evaluate these explanations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth on 1,754 first births between 1979 and 1983 to women aged 14–25 years at the time of birth. The birth weights of infants of mothers aged 14–17, 18–19, and 20–23 years were 133, 54, and 88 g less than for infants of mothers aged 23–25. The regression results indicate that the reduced birth weights of infants born to young mothers, particularly women aged 14–17, were related to their disadvantaged social environment. When adjustment was made for poverty and minority status, there were no maternal age differences in birth weight. The reduced birth weights were not related to the young woman's health behaviors during pregnancy or her biologic characteristics. Ethnicity, poverty status, age at menarche, maternal height, net maternal weight gain, and smoking during pregnancy had an independent effect on birth weight in this sample of young women.
Bibliography Citation
Strobino, Donna M., Margaret E. Ensminger, Young J. Kim and Joy Nanda. "Mechanisms for Maternal Age Differences in Birth Weight." American Journal of Epidemiology 142,5 (September 1995): 504-514.
7. Weden, Margaret M.
Brownell, Peter B.
Rendall, Michael S.
Lau, Christopher
Fernandes, Meenakshi
Nazarov, Zafar
Parent-Reported Height and Weight as Sources of Bias in Survey Estimates of Childhood Obesity
American Journal of Epidemiology 178,3 (1 August 2013): 461-473.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/178/3/461.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Data Quality/Consistency; Height; Obesity; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Weight

Parental reporting of height and weight was evaluated for US children aged 2–13 years. The prevalence of obesity (defined as a body mass index value (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) in the 95th percentile or higher) and its height and weight components were compared in child supplements of 2 nationally representative surveys: the 1996–2008 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79-Child) and the 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID-CDS). Sociodemographic differences in parent reporting error were analyzed. Error was largest for children aged 2–5 years. Underreporting of height, not overreporting of weight, generated a strong upward bias in obesity prevalence at those ages. Frequencies of parent-reported heights below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (Atlanta, Georgia) first percentile were implausibly high at 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.3, 19.0) in the NLSY79-Child and 20.6% (95% CI: 16.0, 26.3) in the PSID-CDS. They were highest among low-income children at 33.2% (95% CI: 22.4, 46.1) in the PSID-CDS and 26.2% (95% CI: 20.2, 33.2) in the NLSY79-Child. Bias in the reporting of obesity decreased with children's age and reversed direction at ages 12–13 years. Underreporting of weight increased with age, and underreporting of height decreased with age. We recommend caution to researchers who use parent-reported heights, especially for very young children, and offer practical solutions for survey data collection and research on child obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Weden, Margaret M., Peter B. Brownell, Michael S. Rendall, Christopher Lau, Meenakshi Fernandes and Zafar Nazarov. "Parent-Reported Height and Weight as Sources of Bias in Survey Estimates of Childhood Obesity." American Journal of Epidemiology 178,3 (1 August 2013): 461-473.