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Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Biello, Katie Brooks
Niccolai, Linda
Kershaw, Trace S.
Lin, Haiqun
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Residential Racial Segregation and Racial Differences in Sexual Behaviours: An 11-year Longitudinal Study of Sexual Risk of Adolescents Transitioning to Adulthood
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 67,1 (January 2013): 28-34.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/67/1/28.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Determining the underlying causes of racial disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important. In the USA, rates of the most common STIs range from 5 to 20 times higher for African–Americans compared to Caucasians, and the health consequences of STIs can be serious. Residential racial segregation results in very different contexts for individuals and may be an important determinant of sexual risk. The purpose of this study was to examine how segregation and race interact to impact the age trajectory of sexual risk behaviours.

Methods: Using 11 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (1997–2007) and 2000 Census data, the authors performed three-level hierarchical linear regression to examine the associations between hypersegregation, race and a sexual risk behaviour index among black and white non-Hispanic adolescents as they transition to adulthood.

Results: Through most of the teenage years, African–Americans are at higher sexual risk than Caucasians. However, by age 19, Caucasians are at higher risk. Hypersegregation was not associated with increased sexual risk index score on average and did not impact the trajectory of the race–sexual risk association.

Conclusions: The authors did not find any evidence that hypersegregation was associated with the sex risk index or that it modified the race–sex risk association as individuals got older. Future studies should examine whether segregation is associated with other causes of STI/HIV acquisition risk, such as sexual network patterns.

Bibliography Citation
Biello, Katie Brooks, Linda Niccolai, Trace S. Kershaw, Haiqun Lin and Jeannette R. Ickovics. "Residential Racial Segregation and Racial Differences in Sexual Behaviours: An 11-year Longitudinal Study of Sexual Risk of Adolescents Transitioning to Adulthood ." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 67,1 (January 2013): 28-34.
2. Hernandez, Daphne C.
Pressler, Emily
Accumulation of Childhood Poverty on Young Adult Overweight or Obese Status: Race/Ethnicity and Gender Disparities
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 68,5 (May 2014): 478-484.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/5/478.abstract?sid=e994abf7-05da-49d9-8656-4059db683a20
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Obesity; Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Childhood poverty is positively correlated with overweight status during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Repeated exposure of childhood poverty could contribute to race/ethnicity and gender disparities in young adult overweight/obese (OV/OB) weight status.

Methods: Young adults born between 1980 and 1990 who participated in the Young Adult file of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth were examined (N=3901). The accumulation of childhood poverty is captured via poverty exposure from each survey year from the prenatal year through age 18 years. Body mass index was calculated and categorised into the reference criteria for adults outlined by the Center for Disease Control. Logistic regression models were stratified by race/ethnicity and included a term interacting poverty and gender, along with a number of covariates, including various longitudinal socioeconomic status measures and indicators for the intergenerational transmission of economic disadvantage and body weight.

Results: Reoccurring exposure to childhood poverty was positively related to OV/OB for white, black and Hispanic young adult women and inversely related for white young adult men. A direct relationship between the accumulation of childhood poverty and OV/OB was not found for black and Hispanic young adult men.

Conclusions: Helping families move out of poverty may improve the long-term health status of white, black and Hispanic female children as young adults. Community area interventions designed to change impoverished community environments and assist low-income families reduce family level correlates of poverty may help to reduce the weight disparities observed in young adulthood.

Bibliography Citation
Hernandez, Daphne C. and Emily Pressler. "Accumulation of Childhood Poverty on Young Adult Overweight or Obese Status: Race/Ethnicity and Gender Disparities." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 68,5 (May 2014): 478-484.
3. Houle, Jason N.
Keene, Danya
Getting Sick and Falling Behind: Health and the Risk of Mortgage Default and Home Foreclosure
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 69,4 (2015): 382-387.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/69/4/382.abstract?sid=8b9ec29c-7287-4dc1-ada8-779df5a2ae06
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Foreclosure; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: An emerging literature shows that mortgage strain can lead to poor health outcomes, but less work has focused on whether and how health shocks influence mortgage distress. We examine the link between changes in health status and default/foreclosure risk among older middle-aged adults.

Method: We used National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 data and multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between changes in health limitations and chronic conditions across survey waves and risk of mortgage default and foreclosure.

Results: We found that changes in health limitations and chronic conditions increased the risk of default and foreclosure between 2007 and 2010. These associations were partially mediated by changes in family income and loss of health insurance.

Conclusions: From a policy perspective, the strong link between the onset of illness and foreclosure suggests a need to re-examine the safety-nets that are available to individuals who become ill or disabled.

Bibliography Citation
Houle, Jason N. and Danya Keene. "Getting Sick and Falling Behind: Health and the Risk of Mortgage Default and Home Foreclosure." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 69,4 (2015): 382-387.
4. Stewart, Leslie
Liu, Yujia
Rodriguez, Eunice
Maternal Unemployment and Childhood Overweight: Is There a Relationship?
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66,7 (July 2012): 641-646.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422027
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Unemployment Compensation; Unemployment Duration; Weight; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored.

Methods: A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2–16 at baseline, were included in the analysis.

Results: As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups.

Conclusion: Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

Bibliography Citation
Stewart, Leslie, Yujia Liu and Eunice Rodriguez. "Maternal Unemployment and Childhood Overweight: Is There a Relationship?" Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66,7 (July 2012): 641-646.
5. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Gee, Gilbert C.
Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/70/1/42.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Racial Differences; Sleep; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Student loans are the second largest source of personal debt in the USA and may represent an important source of financial strain for many young adults. Little attention has been paid to whether debt is associated with sleep duration, an important health-promoting behaviour. We determine if student loans are associated with sleep duration. Since black young adults are more likely to have student debt and sleep less, we also consider whether this association varies by race.

Methods: Data come from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The main analytic sample includes 4714 respondents who were ever enrolled in college and who reported on sleep duration in 2010. Most respondents had completed their college education by 2010, when respondents were 25 to 31 years old. Multivariable linear regression models assessed the cross-sectional association between student loans accumulated over the course of college and sleep duration in 2010, as well as between student debt at age 25 and sleep duration in 2010.

Results: Black young adults with greater amounts of student loans or more student debt reported shorter sleep duration, controlling for occupation, hours worked, household income, parental net worth, marital status, number of children in the household and other sociodemographic and health indicators. There was no association between student loans or debt with sleep for white or latino adults and other racial/ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Student loans may contribute to racial inequities in sleep duration. Our findings also suggest that the student debt crisis may have important implications for individuals’ sleep, specifically and public health, more broadly.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire and Gilbert C. Gee. "Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults ." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
6. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Bell, Janice F.
Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.
Also: http://jech.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/60/6/513
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Hispanics; Income; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Design: Regression analysis of a large, nationally representative dataset, linked to US census and other county and state level sources of data on ecological covariates. The regressions control for individual economic and demographic covariates as well as relevant potential ecological confounders.

Setting: The US population in the year 2000.

Participants: 4817 US adults about age 40, representative of the US population.

Main outcome measures: Two outcomes were studied: self reported general health status, dichotomised as \"fair\" or \"poor\" compared with \"excellent\", \"very good\", or \"good\", and depression as measured by a score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression instrument >16.

Results: State generosity was significantly associated with a reduced odds of reporting poor general health (OR 0.84, 95%CI: 0.71 to 0.99), and the county unemployment rate with reduced odds of reporting depression (OR 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84 to 0.97). The measure of income inequality is a significant risk factor for reporting poor general health (OR 1.98, CI: 1.08 to 3.62), controlling for all ecological and individual covariates. In stratified models, the index of social capital is associated with reduced odds of reporting poor general health among black people and Hispanics (OR 0.40, CI: 0.18 to 0.90), but not significant among white people. The inequality measure is significantly associated with reporting poor general health among white people (OR 2.60, CI: 1.22 to 5.56) but not black people and Hispanics.

Conclusions: The effect of income inequality on health may work through the influence of invidious social comparisons (particularly among white subjects) and (among black subjects and Latinos) through a reduction in social capital. Researchers may find it fruitful to recognise the cultural specificity of any such effects.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Janice F. Bell. "Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.