Search Results

Source: Pediatrics
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Batty, G. David
Der, Geoff
Deary, Ian J.
Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Pediatrics 118,3 (September 2006): 943-950.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/3/943
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Intelligence; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Variables, Independent - Covariate

BACKGROUND. Numerous studies have reported that maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is related to lower IQ scores in the offspring. Confounding is a crucial issue in interpreting this association. METHODS. In the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, IQ was ascertained serially during childhood using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the total score for which comprises results on 3 subtests: mathematics, reading comprehension, and reading recognition. Maternal IQ was assessed by using the Armed Forces Qualification Test. There were 5578 offspring (born to 3145 mothers) with complete information for maternal smoking habits, total Peabody Individual Achievement Test score, and covariates. RESULTS. The offspring of mothers who smoked ≥1 pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy had an IQ score (Peabody Individual Achievement Test total) that was, on average, 2.87 points lower than children born to nonsmoking mothers. Separate control for maternal education (0.27-IQ-point decrement) and, to a lesser degree, maternal IQ (1.51-1Q-point decrement) led to marked attenuation of the maternal-smoking-offspring-IQ relation. A similar pattern of results was seen when Peabody Individual Achievement Test subtest results were the outcomes of interest. The only exception was the Peabody Individual Achievement Test mathematics score, in which adjusting for maternal IQ essentially led to complete attenuation of the maternal-smoking-offspring-IQ gradient (0.66-IQ-point decrement). The impact of controlling for physical, behavioral, and other social indices was much less pronounced than for maternal education or IQ. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that previous studies that did not adjust for maternal education and/or IQ may have overestimated the association of maternal smoking with offspring cognitive ability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Batty, G. David, Geoff Der and Ian J. Deary. "Effect of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Cognitive Ability: Empirical Evidence for Complete Confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Pediatrics 118,3 (September 2006): 943-950.
2. Berger, Lawrence Marc
Houle, Jason N.
Parental Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being
Pediatrics 137,2 (February 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-3059.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/01/20/peds.2015-3059
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Well-Being; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Investments; Home Ownership; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Parental Investments; Student Loans

OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between total amount of parental debt and of home mortgage, student loan, automobile, and unsecured debt with children's socioemotional well-being.

METHODS: We used population-based longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Cohort and Children of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Cohort. Our analytic sample consisted of 29,318 child-year observations of 9011 children and their mothers observed annually or biennially from 1986 to 2008. We used the Behavioral Problems Index to measure socioemotional well-being. We used ordinary least squares regressions to estimate between-child associations of amounts and types of parental debt with socioemotional well-being, net of a host of control variables, and regressions with child-specific fixed effects to estimate within-child associations of changes in parental debt with changes in socioemotional well-being, net of all time-constant observed and unobserved confounders.

RESULTS: Greater total debt was associated with poorer child socioemotional well-being. However, this association varied by type of debt. Specifically, higher levels of home mortgage and education debt were associated with greater socioemotional well-being for children, whereas higher levels of and increases in unsecured debt were associated with lower levels of and declines in child socioemotional well-being.

CONCLUSIONS: Debt that allows for investment in homes (and perhaps access to better neighborhoods and schools) and parental education is associated with greater socioemotional well-being for children, whereas unsecured debt is negatively associated with socioemotional development, which may reflect limited financial resources to invest in children and/or parental financial stress. This suggests that debt is not universally harmful for children's well-being, particularly if used to invest in a home or education.

Bibliography Citation
Berger, Lawrence Marc and Jason N. Houle. "Parental Debt and Children's Socioemotional Well-being." Pediatrics 137,2 (February 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-3059.
3. Boynton-Jarrett, Renée
Ryan, Louise M.
Berkman, Lisa F.
Wright, Rosalind J.
Cumulative Violence Exposure and Self-Rated Health: Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in the United States
Pediatrics 122,5 (November 2008): 961-970.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/5/961
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Self-Reporting; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

OBJECTIVE. The goal was to determine whether cumulative exposure to violence in childhood and adolescence contributes to disparities in self-rated health among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. METHODS. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is an ongoing, 8-year (1997-2004), longitudinal, cohort study of youths who were 12 to 18 years of age at baseline (N = 8224). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to investigate the relationship between cumulative exposure to violence and risk for poor health. RESULTS. At baseline, 75% of subjects reported excellent or very good health, 21.5% reported good health, and 4.5% reported fair or poor health. Cumulative violence exposures (witnessed gun violence, threat of violence, repeated bullying, perceived safety, and criminal victimization) were associated with a graded increase in risk for poor health and reduced the strength of the relationship between household income and poor health. In comparison with subjects with no violence exposure, risk for poor self-rated health was 4.6 times greater among subjects who reported ≥5 forms of cumulative exposure to violence, controlling for demographic features and household income. Trend analysis revealed that, for each additional violence exposure, the risk of poor health increased by 38%. Adjustment for alcohol use, drug use, smoking, depressive symptoms, and family and neighborhood environment reduced the strength of the relationships between household income and cumulative exposure to violence scores and poor self-rated health, which suggests partial mediation of the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative exposure to violence by these factors. CONCLUSIONS. In this nationally representative sample, social inequality in risk for poor self-rated health during the transition from adolescence to adulthood was partially attributable to disparities in cumulative exposure to violence. A strong graded association was noted between... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Pediatrics is the property of American Academy of Pediatrics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Boynton-Jarrett, Renée, Louise M. Ryan, Lisa F. Berkman and Rosalind J. Wright. "Cumulative Violence Exposure and Self-Rated Health: Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in the United States." Pediatrics 122,5 (November 2008): 961-970.
4. Brame, Robert
Turner, Michael G.
Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample
Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/21.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Comparison Group (Reference group); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Statistics

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative proportion of youth who self-report having been arrested or taken into custody for illegal or delinquent offenses (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from ages 8 to 23 years.

METHODS: Self-reported arrest history data (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335) were examined from 1997 to 2008.

RESULTS: By age 18, the in-sample cumulative arrest prevalence rate lies between 15.9% and 26.8%; at age 23, it lies between 25.3% and 41.4%. These bounds make no assumptions at all about missing cases. If we assume that the missing cases are at least as likely to have been arrested as the observed cases, the in-sample age-23 prevalence rate must lie between 30.2% and 41.4%. The greatest growth in the cumulative prevalence of arrest occurs during late adolescence and the period of early or emerging adulthood.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the last nationally defensible estimate based on data from 1965, the cumulative prevalence of arrest for American youth (particularly in the period of late adolescence and early adulthood) has increased substantially. At a minimum, being arrested for criminal activity signifies increased risk of unhealthy lifestyle, violence involvement, and violent victimization. Incorporating this insight into regular clinical assessment could yield significant benefits for patients and the larger community.

Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Michael G. Turner, Raymond Paternoster and Shawn D. Bushway. "Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample." Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
5. Certain, Laura K.
Kahn, Robert S.
Prevalence, Correlates, and Trajectory of Television Viewing Among Infants and Toddlers
Pediatrics 109, 4 (April 2002): 634-642.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/109/4/634
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Child Care; Depression (see also CESD); Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Infants; Longitudinal Surveys; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Television Viewing

OBJECTIVES: Recognizing the negative effects of television on children, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children 2 years and older watch <2 hours of television per day and that children younger than 2 years watch no television. However, relatively little is known about the amount of television viewed by infants and toddlers. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and correlates of television viewing that exceeds the AAP guidelines for 0- to 35-month-olds and to examine the trajectory of a child's viewing over time.

METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1990 to 1998, were used to analyze reported television viewing at 0 to 35 months of age and to follow the trajectory of a child's viewing from infancy through age 6. Logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors associated with greater television viewing at 0 to 35 months and the association of early viewing habits with school-age viewing.

RESULTS: Seventeen percent of 0- to 11-month-olds, 48% of 12- to 23-month-olds, and 41% of 24- to 35-month-olds were reported to watch more television than the AAP recommends. Compared with college graduates, less-educated women were more likely to report that their children watched more television than recommended. Children who watched >2 hours per day at age 2 were more likely to watch >2 hours per day at age 6 (odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-3.9), controlling for maternal education, race, marital status and employment, household income, and birth order.

CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of children begin watching television at an earlier age and in greater amounts than the AAP recommends. Furthermore, these early viewing patterns persist into childhood. Preventive intervention research on television viewing should consider targeting infants and toddlers and their families.

Bibliography Citation
Certain, Laura K. and Robert S. Kahn. "Prevalence, Correlates, and Trajectory of Television Viewing Among Infants and Toddlers." Pediatrics 109, 4 (April 2002): 634-642.
6. Chandra, Anita
Martino, Steven C.
Collins, Rebecca L.
Elliott, Marc N.
Berry, Sandra H.
Kanouse, David E.
Miu, Angela
Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Pediatrics 122,5 (November 2008): 1047-1054.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/cgi/reprint/122/5/1047
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Teenagers; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate

OBJECTIVE. There is increasing evidence that youth exposure to sexual content on television shapes sexual attitudes and behavior in a manner that may influence reproductive health outcomes. To our knowledge, no previous work has empirically examined associations between exposure to television sexual content and adolescent pregnancy. METHODS. Data from a national longitudinal survey of teens (12-17 years of age, monitored to 15-20 years of age) were used to assess whether exposure to televised sexual content predicted subsequent pregnancy for girls or responsibility for pregnancy for boys. Multivariate logistic regression models controlled for other known correlates of exposure to sexual content and pregnancy. We measured experience of a teen pregnancy during a 3-year period. RESULTS. Exposure to sexual content on television predicted teen pregnancy, with adjustment for all covariates. Teens who were exposed to high levels of television sexual content (90th percentile) were twice as likely to experience a pregnancy in the subsequent 3 years, compared with those with lower levels of exposure (10th percentile). CONCLUSIONS. This is the first study to demonstrate a prospective link between exposure to sexual content on television and the experience of a pregnancy before the age of 20. Limiting adolescent exposure to the sexual content on television and balancing portrayals of sex in the media with information about possible negative consequences might reduce the risk of teen pregnancy. Parents may be able to mitigate the influence of this sexual content by viewing with their children and discussing these depictions of sex. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Pediatrics is the property of American Academy of Pediatrics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abr idged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Chandra, Anita, Steven C. Martino, Rebecca L. Collins, Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse and Angela Miu. "Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Pediatrics 122,5 (November 2008): 1047-1054.
7. Chen, Edith
Martin, Andrew D.
Matthews, Karen A.
Trajectories of Socioeconomic Status Across Children's Lifetime Predict Health
Pediatrics 120, 2 (August 2007): e297-e303.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/120/2/e297
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Asthma; Child Health; Children, Illness; Children, Poverty; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Illnesses; Mobility, Social; Modeling, Logit; Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

OBJECTIVE. Socioeconomic status is one of the most robust social factors associated with health, but the dynamics of how socioeconomic status over time affects children's health remains unclear. This study tested how various models of childhood socioeconomic status (accumulation, change, variability, and critical periods of family income) would predict health outcomes at a final time point in childhood.

METHODS. This was a prospective, longitudinal study of 6306 children who were aged 10 to 11 years and whose families were interviewed every other year from birth onward. The sample came from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Children. In the same data set, a replication sample of 4305 14- to 15-year-old children was also examined. Primary outcomes included parent report of asthma and conditions that limited activity and school and required physician treatment.

RESULTS. Lower cumulative family income was associated with higher odds for having a condition that limited childhood activities, as well as a condition that required treatment by a physician at ages 10 to 11. Cumulative family income was a stronger predictor than change in income or variability in income. Lower family income early in life (ages 0–5 years) was associated with higher odds for having a condition that limited activities and a condition that required treatment by a physician at ages 10 to 11, independent of current socioeconomic status. Findings were replicated in the 14- to 15-year-old sample.

CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that the accumulation of socioeconomic status in terms of family income across childhood is more important than social mobility or variability in socioeconomic status, although there may be certain periods of time (early life) that have stronger effects on health. These findings suggest the importance of childhood interventions for reducing health disparities.

Bibliography Citation
Chen, Edith, Andrew D. Martin and Karen A. Matthews. "Trajectories of Socioeconomic Status Across Children's Lifetime Predict Health." Pediatrics 120, 2 (August 2007): e297-e303.
8. Christakis, Dimitri A.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Digiuseppe, David L.
McCarty, Carolyn A.
Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children
Pediatrics 113, 4 (April 2004): 708-713.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/4/708
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Self-Esteem; Television Viewing

Objective. Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7.

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were 1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years.

Results. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 1.09 [1.02-1.16]), respectively.

Conclusions. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.

Bibliography Citation
Christakis, Dimitri A., Frederick J. Zimmerman, David L. Digiuseppe and Carolyn A. McCarty. "Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children." Pediatrics 113, 4 (April 2004): 708-713.
9. Elster, Arthur B.
Ketterlinus, Robert D.
Lamb, Michael E.
Association Between Parenthood and Problem Behavior in a National Sample of Adolescent Women
Pediatrics 85,6 (June 1990): 1044-1050.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/6/1044
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Deviance; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Mothers; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Runaways; Rural Sociology; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Differences; School Suspension/Expulsion; Substance Use; Truancy

The association between problem behaviors and parental status was studied among 1263 urban and 388 rural 15- to 17-year old teens from the NLSY. The three parental status groups appeared ordered in risk, with school-age mothers having engaged in the most problem behaviors, followed, in turn, by young adult mothers (those who had a child between 19-21 years of age) and then women who had not had a child by age 21. When individual behaviors were analyzed, school-age mothers were more likely than either young adult mothers or non-mothers to have reported school suspension, truancy, runaway, smoking marijuana and fighting. Urban women, overall, engaged in more problem behaviors than did rural women, and blacks reported fewer problem behaviors than did whites.
Bibliography Citation
Elster, Arthur B., Robert D. Ketterlinus and Michael E. Lamb. "Association Between Parenthood and Problem Behavior in a National Sample of Adolescent Women." Pediatrics 85,6 (June 1990): 1044-1050.
10. Fosse, Nathan Edward
Haas, Steven A.
Validity and Stability of Self-Reported Health among Adolescents in a Longitudinal, Nationally Representative Survey
Pediatrics 123,3 (March 2009): 496-501.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/123/3/e496
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Fathers and Sons; Gender; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mothers and Daughters; Obesity; Pairs (also see Siblings); Self-Reporting; Weight

OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study to assess (1) the stability of self-reported health among a nationally representative sample of youth in adolescence over a period of 6 years, (2) the concordance of self-reported health between parents and children, and (3) the validity of self-reported health across a range of physical and emotional indicators of adolescent well-being.

METHODS: This study uses data from rounds 1 to 7 (1997-2003) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). The sample consists of 6748 youth born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984. Data on one of the youths' parents were also included in the baseline of the survey. Analyses were conducted using polychoric correlations and ordinal logistic regression.

RESULTS: Self-reported health of adolescents over a 7-year period indicated moderate stability (40% agreement after 7 years for girls and 41% for boys). Concordance was also present between parents and their children, although the association was higher among same-gender pairings (mother-daughter and father-son concordances). Adolescents' self-reported health was also linked with the presence or absence of chronic health conditions, emotional problems, and with being overweight or obese but not with sensory conditions or physical deformity.

CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported health is stable from early and middle adolescence to young adulthood. Self-reported health is also a valid measure of a variety of physical and emotional dimensions of adolescent well-being. The stability and validity of self-reported health do not differ by the gender of the child, although there is slightly greater concordance when the reporting parent is the same gender as the child.

Bibliography Citation
Fosse, Nathan Edward and Steven A. Haas. "Validity and Stability of Self-Reported Health among Adolescents in a Longitudinal, Nationally Representative Survey." Pediatrics 123,3 (March 2009): 496-501.
11. Gidwani, Pradeep P.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Dejong, William
Perrin, James M.
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Television Viewing and Initiation of Smoking Among Youth
Pediatrics 110,3 (September 2002): 505-508.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/110/3/505
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Structure; I.Q.; Mothers, Education; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Television Viewing; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Background. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and the risk of disease increases the earlier in life smoking begins. The prevalence of smoking among US adolescents has increased since 1991. Despite bans on television tobacco advertising, smoking on television remains widespread.

Objective. To determine whether youth with greater exposure to television viewing exhibit higher rates of smoking initiation.

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Cohort to examine longitudinally the association of television viewing in 1990 among youth ages 10 to 15 years with smoking initiation from 1990-1992. Television viewing was based on the average of youth and parent reports. We used multiple logistic regression, taking into account sampling weights, and controlled for ethnicity; maternal education, IQ, and work; household structure; number of children; household poverty; child gender; and child aptitude test scores.

Results. Among these youth, smoking increased from 4.8% in 1990 to 12.3% in 1992. Controlling for baseline characteristics, youth who watched 5 or more hours of TV per day were 5.99 times more likely to initiate smoking behaviors (95% confidence interval: 1.39-25.71) than those youth who watched <2 hours. Similarly, youth who watched >4 to 5 hours per day were 5.24 times more likely to initiate smoking than youth who watched <2 hours (95% confidence interval: 1.19-23.10).

Conclusions. Television viewing is associated in a dose-response relationship with the initiation of youth smoking. Television viewing should be included in adolescent risk behavior research. Interventions to reduce television viewing may also reduce youth smoking initiation.

Bibliography Citation
Gidwani, Pradeep P., Arthur M. Sobol, William Dejong, James M. Perrin and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Television Viewing and Initiation of Smoking Among Youth." Pediatrics 110,3 (September 2002): 505-508.
12. Heymann, S. Jody
Earle, Alison
Egleston, Brian
Parental Availability for the Care of Sick Children
Pediatrics 98,2 (August 1996): 226-230.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/2/226
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Health Care; Maternal Employment; Parents, Behavior; Poverty

Many parents do not have enough available paid sick time to care for their sick children during both routine and long-term illnesses. Researchers used the results of two national surveys to examine the number of family illness days, amount of paid sick time, and risk factors for inadequate paid sick time. One in three families experienced an illness in the family two weeks or more during the year. Twenty-eight percent of working mothers have no paid sick time. Mothers who live in poverty, nonwhite mothers, or those who have children with long-term illnesses are more likely to have no paid sick leave. Copyright 1996 American Academy of Pediatrics
Bibliography Citation
Heymann, S. Jody, Alison Earle and Brian Egleston. "Parental Availability for the Care of Sick Children." Pediatrics 98,2 (August 1996): 226-230.
13. Lumeng, Julie C.
Gannon, Kate
Cabral, Howard J.
Frank, Deborah A.
Zuckerman, Barry
Association Between Clinically Meaningful Behavior Problems and Overweight in Children
Pediatrics 112,5 (November 2003): 1138-1146.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/112/5/1138
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health, Limiting Condition(s); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Depression (see also CESD); Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Logit; Mothers; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Poverty; Racial Differences; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Weight

Objective. To determine whether there is a relationship between clinically meaningful behavior problems and concurrent and future overweight in 8- to 11-year-old children.

Methods. 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interview data for 8- to 11-year-old children and their mothers were analyzed. A Behavior Problems Index score >= the 90th percentile was considered clinically meaningful. Child overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) >= the 95th percentile for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders (selected a priori): child's sex, race, use of behavior-modifying medication, history of academic retention, and hours of television per day; maternal obesity, smoking status, marital status, education, and depressive symptoms; family poverty status; and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score. In an attempt to elucidate temporal sequence, a second analysis was conducted with a subsample of normal-weight children who became overweight between 1996 and 1998 while controlling for BMI z score in 1996.

Results. The sample included 755 mother-child pairs. Of the potential confounding variables, race, maternal obesity, academic grade retention, maternal education, poverty status, and HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score acted as joint confounders, altering the relationship between behavior problems and overweight in the multiple logistic regression model. With these covariates in the final model, behavior problems were independently associated with concurrent child overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-6.49). The relationship was strengthened in the subsample of previously normal-weight children, with race, maternal obesity, HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score, and 1996 BMI z score acting as confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 5.23; 95% confidence interval: 1. 37-19.9).

Conclusions. Clinically meaningful behavior problems in 8- to 11-year-old children were independently associated with an increased risk of concurrent overweight and becoming overweight in previously normal-weight children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
Lumeng, Julie C., Kate Gannon, Howard J. Cabral, Deborah A. Frank and Barry Zuckerman. "Association Between Clinically Meaningful Behavior Problems and Overweight in Children." Pediatrics 112,5 (November 2003): 1138-1146.
14. McCarty, Carolyn A.
Ebel, Beth E.
Garrison, Michelle M.
Digiuseppe, David L.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Rivara, Frederick P.
Continuity of Binge and Harmful Drinking From Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood
Pediatrics 114,3 (September 2004): 714-719.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/114/3/714
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Modeling

Objective. To test the hypothesis that late adolescent drinking behavior (ages 17--20) is associated with harmful and binge drinking in early adulthood (ages 30--31).

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative longitudinal data set. We used harmful and binge drinking at ages 17 to 20 to predict harmful and binge drinking at ages 30 to 31, stratifying for gender and controlling for confounders.

Results. Data were available on harmful drinking at both the adolescent and the early adult age period for 3790 individuals and on binge drinking for 2387 individuals. Harmful drinking during adolescence was significantly associated with harmful drinking at ages 30 to 31 for men only. Among male adolescents, 14% of harmful drinkers continued harmful drinking at ages 30 to 31, compared with 4% of nonharmful drinkers who became harmful drinkers. In Poisson regression models, binge drinking during adolescence was associated with binge drinking at ages 30 to 31 for both men and women, generating relative risks of 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.8--3.0) and 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 2.4--4.8), respectively. Half of binge-drinking male adolescents and one third of binge-drinking female adolescents engaged in binge drinking into early adulthood, compared with 19% for non--binge-drinking male adolescents and 8% of non--binge-drinking female adolescents.

Conclusions. Problem drinking during adolescence is associated with problem drinking in early adulthood. Efforts to prevent and treat adolescent problem drinking could have an impact on the progression of alcohol-related disease. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
McCarty, Carolyn A., Beth E. Ebel, Michelle M. Garrison, David L. Digiuseppe, Dimitri A. Christakis and Frederick P. Rivara. "Continuity of Binge and Harmful Drinking From Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood." Pediatrics 114,3 (September 2004): 714-719.
15. Pachter, Lee M.
Auinger, Peggy
Palmer, Ray
Weitzman, Michael
Do Parenting and the Home Environment, Maternal Depression, Neighborhood, and Chronic Poverty Affect Child Behavioral Problems Differently in Different Racial-Ethnic Groups?
Pediatrics 117,4 (April 2006): 1329-1338.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/117/4/1329
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Differences; Children, Behavioral Development; Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; Poverty; Racial Differences

OBJECTIVE. To determine whether the processes through which parenting practices, maternal depression, neighborhood, and chronic poverty affect child behavioral problems are similar or different in minority and nonminority children in the United States.

METHODS. Data from 884 white, 538 black, and 404 Latino families with children who were 6 to 9 years of age in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed. The outcome, child behavioral problems, was measured using the Behavior Problems Index externalizing and internalizing subscales. The effects of chronic poverty, neighborhood, maternal depression, and parenting on the outcome were analyzed using multigroup structural equation modeling.

RESULTS. Chronic poverty affected child behavioral problems indirectly through the other variables, and parenting practices had direct effects in each racial/ethnic group. The effects of maternal depression were partially mediated through parenting in the white and Latino samples but were direct and unmediated through parenting practices in the black sample. Neighborhood effects were present in the white and black samples but were not significant for the Latino sample.

CONCLUSIONS. Chronic poverty, neighborhood, maternal depression, and parenting practices have effects on child behavioral problems in white, black, and Latino children, but the processes and mechanisms through which they exert their effects differ among the groups. The differences may be related to social stratification mechanisms as well as sociocultural differences in family and childrearing practices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
Pachter, Lee M., Peggy Auinger, Ray Palmer and Michael Weitzman. "Do Parenting and the Home Environment, Maternal Depression, Neighborhood, and Chronic Poverty Affect Child Behavioral Problems Differently in Different Racial-Ethnic Groups?" Pediatrics 117,4 (April 2006): 1329-1338.
16. Rubin, David M.
O'Reilly, Amanda L. R.
Luan, Xianqun
Localio, A. Russell
The Impact of Placement Stability on Behavioral Well-being for Children in Foster Care
Pediatrics 119,2 (February 2007): 336-344.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/119/2/336
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Well-Being; Foster Care; General Assessment; Modeling; Propensity Scores; Temperament; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

OBJECTIVE. The problems children have upon entering foster care can potentially explain prior research findings that frequent placement changes are associated with poor outcomes. This study sought to disentangle this cascading relationship in order to identify the independent impact of placement stability on behavioral outcomes downstream.

DESIGN/METHODS. Placement stability over the first 18 months in out-of-home care for 729 children from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being was categorized as early stability (stable placement within 45 days), late stability (stable placement beyond 45 days), or unstable (never achieving stability). Propensity scores predicting placement instability based on baseline attributes were divided into risk categories and added to a logistic regression model to examine the independent association between placement stability and behavioral well-being using the Child Behavior Checklist and temperament scores from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

RESULTS. Half (52%) of the children achieved early stability, 19% achieved later stability, and 28% remained unstable. Early stabilizers were more likely to be young, have normal baseline behavior, have no prior history with child welfare, and have birth parents without mental health problems. After accounting for baseline attributes, stability remained an important predictor of well-being at 18 months. Unstable children were more likely to have behavior problems than children who achieved early stability across every level of risk for instability. Among low-risk children, the probability of behavioral problems among early stabilizers was 22%, compared to 36% among unstable children, showing a 63% increase in behavior problems due to instability alone.

CONCLUSIONS. Children in foster care experience placement instability unrelated to their baseline problems, and this instability has a significant impact on their behavioral well-being. This find ing would support the... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Rubin, David M., Amanda L. R. O'Reilly, Xianqun Luan and A. Russell Localio. "The Impact of Placement Stability on Behavioral Well-being for Children in Foster Care." Pediatrics 119,2 (February 2007): 336-344.
17. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Padilla, Christina
Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011
Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/11/10/peds.2016-0720.full.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Discipline; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time.

METHODS: Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts.

RESULTS: The proportion of mothers at the 50th income-percentile who endorse physical discipline decreased from 46% to 21% over time. Gaps between the 90th and 10th income-percentiles were stable at 11 and 18 percentage points in 1988 and 2011. The percentage of mothers at the 10th income-percentile endorsing time-outs increased from 51% to 71%, and the 90/10 income gap decreased from 23 to 14 percentage points between 1998 and 2011.

CONCLUSIONS: Decline in popular support for physical discipline reflects real changes in parents' discipline strategies. These changes have occurred at all socioeconomic levels, producing for some behaviors a significant reduction in socioeconomic differences.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Christina Padilla. "Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011." Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
18. Salsberry, Pamela J.
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Dynamics of Early Childhood Overweight
Pediatrics 116,6 (December 2005): 1329-1338.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/116/6/1329
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Breastfeeding; Child Development; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Data Analysis; Ethnic Differences; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Infants; Markov chain / Markov model; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Statistical Analysis; Weight

Objective. To study the dynamic processes that drive development of childhood overweight by examining the effects of prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding (breastfeeding versus bottle feeding) on weight states through age 7 years. We test a model to determine whether prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding influence the development of a persistent early tendency toward overweight and/or whether prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding factors influence the likelihood that children will change weight states as they get older.

Methods. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Child-Mother file were used to implement these analyses. A total of 3022 children were included in this sample. For inclusion in this sample, valid information on height and weight during 3 consecutive interviews when the child was aged 24 to 95 months as well as valid data on prenatal and birth characteristics were needed. The primary outcome measure was childhood overweight (BMI <95th percentile). Multivariate logistic models and first-order Markov models were estimated.

Results. Early development of childhood overweight was associated with race, ethnicity, maternal prepregnancy obesity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and later birth years. In later years, the factor that contributed the most to being overweight was having been overweight in the previous observation period. However, with conditioning on the child's having been overweight in the previous observation period, the prenatal factors that contributed to early childhood overweight, except for birth cohort, were also associated with development of overweight among children who had previously been normal weight and perpetuated the persistence of overweight over time.

Conclusions. This research suggests that prenatal characteristics, particularly race, ethnicity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal prepregnancy obesity, exert influence on the child's weight states through an early. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
Salsberry, Pamela J. and Patricia Benton Reagan. "Dynamics of Early Childhood Overweight." Pediatrics 116,6 (December 2005): 1329-1338.
19. Slade, Eric Phillip
Wissow, Lawrence S.
Spanking in Early Childhood and Later Behavior Problems: A Prospective Study of Infants and Young Toddlers
Pediatrics 113, 5 (May 2004): 1321-1330.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/5/1321
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Behavioral Development; Discipline; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Temperament

Objective. To explore the relationship of spanking frequency before age 2 with behavior problems near time of entry into school.

Methods. Children who were younger than 2 years were followed up 4 years later, after they had entered school. The likelihood of significant behavior problems at follow-up was estimated in multivariate analyses that controlled for baseline spanking frequency and other characteristics. Participants were mothers from a large-scale national study and their children. Statistical analysis included an ethnically diverse sample of 1966 children aged 0 to 23 months at baseline. Two dichotomous indicators of behavior problems were used. The first indicated that maternal rating of child behavior problems exceeded a threshold. The second indicated that a mother met with a school administrator to discuss her child's behavior problems.

Results. White non-Hispanic children who were spanked more frequently before age 2 were substantially more likely to have behavior problems after entry into school, controlling for other factors. For Hispanic and black children, associations between spanking frequency and behavior problems were not statistically significant and were not consistent across outcome measures.

Conclusion. Among white non-Hispanic children but not among black and Hispanic children, spanking frequency before age 2 is significantly and positively associated with child behavior problems at school age. These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age.

Bibliography Citation
Slade, Eric Phillip and Lawrence S. Wissow. "Spanking in Early Childhood and Later Behavior Problems: A Prospective Study of Infants and Young Toddlers." Pediatrics 113, 5 (May 2004): 1321-1330.
20. Strauss, Richard S.
Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem
Pediatrics 105,1 (January 2000): N1-N5.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/105/1/e15
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Hispanics; Obesity; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Social Emotional Development; Weight

Results. Scholastic and global self-esteem scores were not significantly different among 9- to 10-year-old obese and nonobese children. However, over the 4-year period, obese Hispanic females and obese white females showed significantly decreased levels of global self-esteem compared with nonobese Hispanic females and nonobese white females, respectively. Mild decreases in self-esteem also were observed in obese boys compared with nonobese boys. As a result, by 13 to 14 years of age, significantly lower levels of self-esteem were observed in obese boys, obese Hispanic girls, and obese white girls compared with their nonobese counterparts. Decreasing levels of self-esteem in obese children were associated with significantly increased rates of sadness, loneliness, and nervousness compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged. In addition, obese children with decreasing levels of self-esteem over the 4-year period were more likely to smoke and drink alcohol compared with obese children whose self-esteem increased or remained unchanged.
Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. "Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem." Pediatrics 105,1 (January 2000): N1-N5.
21. Strauss, Richard S.
Knight, Judith
Influence of the Home Environment on the Development of Obesity in Children
Pediatrics 103,6 (June 1999): e85.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/6/e85
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Cognitive Development; Family Income; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Weight

Context. Obesity is the most common health problem facing children. The most recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III suggest that 22% of children and adolescents are overweight and that 11% are obese. Objective. To investigate prospectively the association between the home environment and socioeconomic factors and the development of obesity in children. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Population. A total of 2913 normal weight children between the ages of 0 and 8 years were followed over a 6-year period. We examined the roles of race, marital status, maternal education, family income, and parental occupation, as well as standardized measures of the home environment (The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]-Short Form) on the development of childhood obesity. Primary Outcome Measure. Incidence of obesity. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >95th percentile for age and gender at the 6-year follow-up. Results. Maternal obesity was the most significant predictor of childhood obesity (OR: 3.62 [2. 65-4.96]). The HOME-Short Form cognitive scores and household income were also significant predictors of childhood obesity (OR, low HOME-cognitive: 2.64 [1.48-4.70], medium HOME-cognitive: 2.32 [1. 39-3.88]; low income: 2.91 [1.66-5.08], medium income: 2.04 [1.21-3. 44]). Children who lived with single mothers were also significantly more likely to become obese by the 6-year follow-up, as were black children, children with nonworking parents, children with nonprofessional parents, and children whose mothers did not complete high school. Neither the child's gender nor the HOME-emotional scores contributed to the development of obesity. After controlling for the child's initial weight-for-height z-score, maternal body mass index, race, marital status, occupation, education, and HOME emotional scores, only the HOME cognitive score and family income remained significant predictors of childhood obesity. Conclusion. Children with obese mothers, low family incomes, and lower cognitive stimulation have significantly elevated risks of developing obesity, independent of other demographic and socioeconomic factors. In contrast, increased rates of obesity in black children, children with lower family education, and nonprofessional parents may be mediated through the confounding effects of low income and lower levels of cognitive stimulation.
Bibliography Citation
Strauss, Richard S. and Judith Knight. "Influence of the Home Environment on the Development of Obesity in Children." Pediatrics 103,6 (June 1999): e85.
22. Wang, Y. Claire
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Kuntz, Karen M.
Estimating the Energy Gap Among US Children: A Counterfactual Approach
Pediatrics 118,6 (December 2006): e1721-e1733.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/6/e1721
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Height; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Obesity; Weight

OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to quantify the magnitude of energy imbalance responsible for the increase in body weight among US children during the periods 1988–1994 and 1999–2002.

METHODS. We adopted a counterfactual approach to estimate weight gains in excess of normal growth and the implicit "energy gap" the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. On the basis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, we constructed weight, height, and BMI percentile distributions for cohorts 2 to 4 and 5 to 7 years of age in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5000). Under the counterfactual "normal-growth-only" scenario, we assumed that these percentile distributions remained the same as the cohort aged 10 years. Under this assumption, we projected the weight and height distributions for this cohort at 12 to 14 and 15 to 17 years of age on the basis of their baseline weight-for-age and stature-for-age percentiles. We compared these distributions with those for corresponding age groups in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 3091) ~10 years after the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated differences between the counterfactual and observed weight distributions and translated this difference into the estimated average energy gap, adjusting for increased total energy expenditure attributable to weight gain. In addition, we estimated the average excess weight accumulated among overweight adolescents in the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, validating our counterfactual assumptions by analyzing longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Bogalusa Heart Study.

RESULTS. Compared with the counterfactual scenario, boys and girls who were aged 2 to 7 in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey gained, on average, an excess of 0.43 kg/year over the 10-year period. Assuming that 3500 kcal leads to an average of 1-lb weight gain as fat, our results suggest that a reduction in the energy gap of 110–165 kcal/day could have prevented this increase. Among overweight adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 1999–2002, results indicate an average energy imbalance ranging from 678 to 1017 kcal/day because of an excess of 26.5 kg accumulated over 10 years.

CONCLUSIONS. Quantifying the energy imbalance responsible for recent changes in weight distribution among children can provide salient targets for population intervention. Consistent behavioral changes averaging 110 to 165 kcal/day may be sufficient to counterbalance the energy gap. Changes in excess dietary intake (eg, eliminating one sugar-sweetened beverage at 150 kcal per can) may be easier to attain than increases in physical activity levels (eg, a 30-kg boy replacing sitting for 1.9 hours with 1.9 hours walking for an extra 150 kcal). Youth at higher levels of weight gain will likely need changes in multiple behaviors and environments to close the energy gap.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Y. Claire, Steven L. Gortmaker, Arthur M. Sobol and Karen M. Kuntz. "Estimating the Energy Gap Among US Children: A Counterfactual Approach." Pediatrics 118,6 (December 2006): e1721-e1733.
23. Weitzman, Michael
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Sobol, Arthur M.
Maternal Smoking and Behavior Problems of Children
Pediatrics 90,3 (September 1992): 342-349.
Also: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/90/3/342
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Asthma; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Child Health; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mortality; Mothers, Behavior; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Self-Esteem

Numerous health consequences of children's exposure to maternal smoking have been demonstrated, including increased rates of low birth weight, infant mortality, respiratory infections, asthma, and modest impairments of cognitive development. There is little evidence, however, linking maternal smoking and increased rates of children's behavior problems. Data from the population-based National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to investigate the possible association of maternal smoking and behavior problems among 2256 children aged 4 through 11 years. In multiple regression analyses the authors controlled for child's race, age, sex, birth weight, and chronic asthma; family structure, income, and divorce or separation in the prior 2 years; mother's education, intelligence, self-esteem, employment status, chronic disabling health conditions, and use of alcohol during pregnancy; and the quality of the home environment as assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and children's behavior problems. The measure of maternal smoking status reflected two levels of smoking intensity (less than a pack per day and a pack or more per day) for each of three different categories of children's exposure: prenatal only (mother smoked only during pregnancy), passive only (mother smoked only after pregnancy), and prenatal plus passive exposure (mother smoked both during and after pregnancy). Measures of children's behavior problems included the overall score on a 32-item parent-reported child Behavior Problem Index (BPI), scores on the BPI's subscales, and rates of extreme scores on the BPI.
Bibliography Citation
Weitzman, Michael, Steven L. Gortmaker and Arthur M. Sobol. "Maternal Smoking and Behavior Problems of Children." Pediatrics 90,3 (September 1992): 342-349.