Search Results

Source: American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Bould, Sally
Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement Decisions
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 39,2 (April 1980): 123-136.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1980.tb01622.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Assets; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement; Rural/Urban Migration; Social Security; Unemployment; Work History

A study tested whether older male workers between the ages of 52-64 tend to retire early due to discouragement over unemployment. A sample of data on American males in these age groups was subjected to regression analysis for the year 1973. An earlier survey was done to isolate those planning to retire early in 1973. Over half of the white early retirees and over two-thirds of black early retirees had not expected early retirement by 1973. Both black and white early retirees that had not anticipated early retirement had greater experience of previous unemployment than did those who planned to retire by 1973.Early retirement for both racial groups is significantly related to the weeks of previous unemployment, even when controlled for social security and pension eligibility, assets, health limits, occupation, urban residence, family status, and changes in the unemployment rate. Early retirement for older workers may help them save face from the stigma of unemployment. Public policy should take into consideration the role of unemployment in early retirement. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Bould, Sally. "Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement Decisions." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 39,2 (April 1980): 123-136.
2. Duncan, Kevin Craig
Gender Differences in the Effect of Education on the Slope of Experience-Earnings Profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 55,4 (October 1996): 457-471.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1996.tb02645.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; Benefits, Fringe; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Job Skills; Job Tenure; Job Training; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; Occupational Choice; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Levels; Work Experience

Two earnings models are estimated for men and women of the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth (1979 to 1988). Model 1 (a standard human capital equation) indicates women receive a relatively higher earnings effect from another year of education and week of work, suggesting that narrowing of the wage gap can occur through increasing these. However. increases in female education of over 20%, or increases in weeks worked of over 100% are needed to bring female earnings to the level of white males. Model 2, which includes the interaction between education and work experience, shows that more educated men have steeper experience earnings profiles while more educated women do not. This finding indicates different earnings growth patterns among similarly skilled and market attached men and women. Results imply that increasing female skills and work effort alone are insufficient in obtaining more equitable market outcomes and that the continuation of affirmative action policies are needed to achieve this goal. (Copyright American Journal of Economics & Sociology)
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Kevin Craig. "Gender Differences in the Effect of Education on the Slope of Experience-Earnings Profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 55,4 (October 1996): 457-471.
3. Garasky, Steven
The Effects of Family Structure on Educational Attainment: Do the Effects Vary by Age of the Child?
American Journal of Economics and sociology 54,1 (January 1995): 89-104.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1995.tb02633.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Head Start; High School Diploma; Poverty; Welfare

The attainment of a high school education is essential to the reduction of the probability of poverty and long-term dependence on welfare. How six distinct family structures over four separate periods of childhood are related to the likelihood of graduating from high school are studied. The impact of family structure is found to vary by both the type of structure experienced and the age of the child when the experience occurred. The effect of a change in family structure is also found to vary with the child's age. Support is provided as to the efficacy of some governmental program such as Head Start. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Garasky, Steven. "The Effects of Family Structure on Educational Attainment: Do the Effects Vary by Age of the Child?" American Journal of Economics and sociology 54,1 (January 1995): 89-104.
4. Gius, Mark Paul
The Economics of the Criminal Behavior of Young Adults: Estimation of an Economic Model of Crime with a Correction for Aggregate Market and Public Policy Variables - Statistical Data Included
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58,4 (1999): 947-957.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1999.tb03402.x/pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Crime; Gender Differences; Modeling, Logit; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences

This study uses a combination of individual-level and county-level data to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults similar to that used by Becker (1968) and Trumbull (1989). In order to estimate a model of crime in which both individual-level and county-level data are used, it is necessary to take account of the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, a technique derived by Moulton (1990) is employed. Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young adult will commit a crime. Results also suggest that police presence, as measured by county-level per capita police expenditures, does not deter young adults from committing crimes.
Bibliography Citation
Gius, Mark Paul. "The Economics of the Criminal Behavior of Young Adults: Estimation of an Economic Model of Crime with a Correction for Aggregate Market and Public Policy Variables - Statistical Data Included." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58,4 (1999): 947-957.
5. King, Randall H.
Myers, Steven C.
Byrne, Dennis M.
The Demand for Abortion by Unmarried Teenagers: Economic Factors, Age, Ethnicity and Religiosity Matter
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 51,2 (April 1992): 223-235.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1992.tb03349.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Family Income; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Religion; School Completion; Unemployment; Wages

A demand model was developed and applied to a nationally representative sample of unmarried, pregnant teenagers drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys in order to identify the economic determinants of abortion. Measures of the opportunity costs of pregnancy were found to play a major role in the individual's decision to give birth or to abort. Economic variables in the analysis included predicted wages, local area unemployment rates, other family income, poverty status, and school enrollment status. Other factors found to be significant were age, ethnicity, and religiosity. In general, young women in favorable economic circumstances were substantially more likely than others to abort a pregnancy. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
King, Randall H., Steven C. Myers and Dennis M. Byrne. "The Demand for Abortion by Unmarried Teenagers: Economic Factors, Age, Ethnicity and Religiosity Matter." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 51,2 (April 1992): 223-235.
6. Maxwell, Nan L.
Labor Market Effects from Involuntary Job Losses in Layoffs and Plant Closings: The Role of Human Capital in Facilitating Reemployment and Reduced Wage Loss
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 48,2 (April 1989): 129-141.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1989.tb02106.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Family Income; Human Capital; Layoffs; Re-employment; Training; Unemployment; Wages

A study examined a sample of young men and women, drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, to determine the extent to which unemployment and wage change after involuntary job termination were related to human capital accumulation prior to displacement. The results indicated that human capital serves as a productivity signal to new employers. It was found that workers with more firm- specific and general human capital, as manifested by higher predisplacement wages, were less likely to suffer wage loss and unemployment. Workers who showed little commitment to the labor force or were victims of bias - low skill, clerical or sales workers, females, and relatively low contributors to the family income - were unlikely candidates for reemployment. These individuals will be greatly harmed by job termination, as some of these characteristics (low skill and female) are also associated with greater wage loss. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. "Labor Market Effects from Involuntary Job Losses in Layoffs and Plant Closings: The Role of Human Capital in Facilitating Reemployment and Reduced Wage Loss." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 48,2 (April 1989): 129-141.
7. Maxwell, Nan L.
Occupational Differences in the Determination of U.S. Workers' Earnings: Both the Human Capital and the Structured Labor Market Hypotheses Are Useful in Analysis
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 46,4 (October 1987): 431-443.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1987.tb01990.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Human Capital; Labor Market, Secondary; Occupations

A fundamental ongoing debate has centered on whether there exists a single competitive labor market or whether structural impediments create mobility barriers and establish multiple self-contained labor markets. Using data from the older men's panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience (NLS), path analysis, and occupationally stratified samples, an empirical study tested the interaction of human capital and segmented labor market theories. Results showed that the dominant forces in earnings determination within labor markets differ. Within the primary segment, characterized by desirable jobs with high wages, job security, and mobility on promotional ladders, workers are rewarded for human capital accumulation and individual productivity matters. In the secondary segment, covering jobs with low wages, high turnover, and poor working conditions, human capital accumulation is not rewarded heavily and structural influences dominate the earnings determination process. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. "Occupational Differences in the Determination of U.S. Workers' Earnings: Both the Human Capital and the Structured Labor Market Hypotheses Are Useful in Analysis." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 46,4 (October 1987): 431-443.
8. Mohanty, Madhu Sudan
Ullah, Aman
Why Does Growing up in an Intact Family during Childhood Lead to Higher Earnings during Adulthood in the United States?
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71,3 (July 2012): 662-695.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.2012.00828.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Families, Two-Parent; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Happiness (see Positive Affect/Optimism)

With a view to finding an explanation of the observed differences in adult annual earnings between workers raised in intact (INTACT) and non-intact families in the US labor market, this study tests two hypotheses. First, workers growing up in intact families during childhood earn more during their adulthood because they acquire more years of schooling, which in turn affect their wages positively. Second, intact family background acts as an instrument for numerous factors that contribute to workers' happiness during adulthood. Since happier workers, with other characteristics held constant, are known to have higher earnings, workers raised in intact families during childhood by leading a relatively happier life during their adulthood earn more than their otherwise identical non-intact counterparts. Both these hypotheses find strong support from the US data. The evidence of simultaneous relationships between wage and happiness and between happiness and schooling confirms that the true effect of INTACT on wage may be much larger than what is envisaged by a simple one-step process. Regardless of whether this relationship is due to causation or correlation, the study simply demonstrates that the US evidence of higher earnings associated with workers raised in intact families may be attributed partly to their higher levels of schooling and happier lives. By demonstrating a significant positive relationship between the stability of parental family structure during childhood and earnings during adulthood, the current study highlights the importance of responsible parenthood as a means of improving the child's future economic performance.
Bibliography Citation
Mohanty, Madhu Sudan and Aman Ullah. "Why Does Growing up in an Intact Family during Childhood Lead to Higher Earnings during Adulthood in the United States?" American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71,3 (July 2012): 662-695.
9. Nunley, John M.
Seals, Richard Alan
The Effects of Household Income Volatility on Divorce
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 69,3 (July 2010): 983-1010.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.2010.00731.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Divorce; Earnings; Household Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks

We extend the literature on the effects of earnings shocks on divorce by identifying separately the effects of transitory and permanent household income shocks and by allowing the shocks to have asymmetric effects across education and racial groups. The econometric evidence suggests negative (positive) transitory household income shocks increase (decrease) the probability of divorce, while there is only weak evidence that positive (negative) permanent household income shocks raise (lower) the probability of divorce. Some differences in the effects of household income shocks on divorce propensities arise for subsamples selected by education and race.
Bibliography Citation
Nunley, John M. and Richard Alan Seals. "The Effects of Household Income Volatility on Divorce." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 69,3 (July 2010): 983-1010.
10. Smith, Marvin M.
Early Labor Market Experiences of Youth and Subsequent Wages
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44,4 (October 1985): 391-400.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1985.tb02365.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Benefits; Labor Market Outcomes; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Wages; Wages, Young Men

A single equation estimating procedure is used to examine the effects of the early labor market experiences (spells and duration of unemployment) of the Young Men's cohort during various years over the period 1966-1973 on their 1975 wages. The final sample consists of 385 young men who were out of school in 1966 but working full time in 1975. All regressions are estimated by ordinary least squares. Results show that spells of unemployment experienced very early tend to have an increasing effect on later wages. Later spells and the duration of unemployment generally lower subsequent wages. These results suggest that it is not necessary that every period of joblessness will have negative consequences in the future. Furthermore, the timing and length of unemployment seem to be important factors in determining whether they will yield later benefits or costs.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Marvin M. "Early Labor Market Experiences of Youth and Subsequent Wages." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44,4 (October 1985): 391-400.
11. Solberg, Eric J.
Using Occupational Preference in Estimating Market Wage Discrimination: The Case of the Gender Pay Gap
The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58,1 (January 1999): 85-113.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1999.tb03287.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Gender; Occupational Choice; Wage Gap

Past occupational preference is used to estimate the gender pay gap. The use of predetermined variables in a reduced-form wage equation avoids the bias caused by using variables that are correlated with the random error. Using a gender coefficient, the potential discriminatory gap is about 11.5 percent when past occupational preference is included. Decomposition yields an estimate of 10.5 percent when past occupational preference is included. In both cases, the discriminatory gap is close to that obtained when actual occupation is included. This suggests public policy directed toward reducing hiring discrimination by gender might be misdirected. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Solberg, Eric J. "Using Occupational Preference in Estimating Market Wage Discrimination: The Case of the Gender Pay Gap." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58,1 (January 1999): 85-113.
12. Wielgosz, John B.
Carpenter, Susan A.
The Effectiveness of Alternative Methods of Searching for Jobs and Finding Them: An Exploratory Analysis of the Data Bearing Upon Coping with Joblessness
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 46,2 (April 1987): 151-164.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1987.tb01951.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Job Search; Unemployment, Youth

Although job search has an impact on both the extent and the duration of unemployment, little is known about the relative effectiveness of alternative job search methods. Using data derived mainly from the 1982 NLSY, job search methods are examined to determine their effect on search duration and job satisfaction. Job search methods do seem to differ significantly in influencing job search duration. In all cases, significantly shorter job search durations were associated with the use of informal channels. Some have held that informal job search channels convey a particular type of qualitative information that produces a better job choice. The data, however, did not support the widely held view that informal job search methods had a positive effect on job satisfaction. The occupation and industry variables appear to be the main variables influencing job satisfaction. [ABI/Inform]
Bibliography Citation
Wielgosz, John B. and Susan A. Carpenter. "The Effectiveness of Alternative Methods of Searching for Jobs and Finding Them: An Exploratory Analysis of the Data Bearing Upon Coping with Joblessness." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 46,2 (April 1987): 151-164.
13. Wiens-Tuers, Barbara A.
There's No Place Like Home: The Relationship of Nonstandard Employment and Home Ownership over the 1990s
American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63,4 (October 2004): 881-896.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1536-7150.2004.00320.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Benefits; Employment, Part-Time; Home Ownership; Labor Market Demographics; Modeling, Logit; Quits; Rural/Urban Differences; Time Use; Work Hours

Employment stability for many nonstandard workers is tenuous and early research shows some types of nonstandard employment carry long-term consequences in the form of lower wages and fewer benefits over time. This paper seeks to add to the literature by considering another long-term consequence for nonstandard workers: the inability of some nonstandard workers to accumulate assets. The particular asset this paper focuses on is home ownership. Logistic regression results using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 suggest that current and past employment in some nonstandard jobs, especially as a temporary worker, is associated with a lower probability of owning a home. This may have repercussions not only for households with temporary workers but for their community as well, since home ownership has been tied to positive spillovers such as increased social capital and community involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Wiens-Tuers, Barbara A. "There's No Place Like Home: The Relationship of Nonstandard Employment and Home Ownership over the 1990s." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63,4 (October 2004): 881-896.